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The Biochemical Basis of Vitamin A Production from the Asymmetric Carotenoid ?-Cryptoxanthin.


ABSTRACT: Vitamin A serves essential functions in mammalian biology as a signaling molecule and chromophore. This lipid can be synthesized from more than 50 putative dietary provitamin A precursor molecules which contain at least one unsubstituted ?-ionone ring. We here scrutinized the enzymatic properties and substrate specificities of the two structurally related carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) which catalyze this synthesis. Recombinant BCO1 split substrates across the C15,C15' double bond adjacent to a canonical ?-ionone ring site to vitamin A aldehyde. Substitution of the ring with a hydroxyl group prevented this conversion. The removal of methyl groups from the polyene carbon backbone of the substrate did not impede enzyme activity. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis identified amino acid residues at the entrance of the substrate tunnel, which determined BCO1's specificity for the canonical ?-ionone ring site. In contrast, BCO2 split substrates across the C9,C10 double bond adjacent to assorted ionone ring sites. Kinetic analysis revealed a higher catalytic efficiency of BCO2 with substrates bearing 3-hydroxy-?-ionone rings. In the mouse intestine, the asymmetric carotenoid ?-cryptoxanthin with one canonical and one 3-hydroxy-?-ionone ring site was meticulously converted to vitamin A. The tailoring of this asymmetric substrate occurred by a stepwise processing of the carotenoid substrate by both CCDs and involved a ?-apo-10'-carotenal intermediate. Thus, opposite selectivity for ionone ring sites of the two mammalian CCDs complement each other in the metabolic challenge of vitamin A production from a chemically diverse set of precursor molecules.

SUBMITTER: Kelly ME 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6158786 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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