Frailty and Exercise Training: How to Provide Best Care after Cardiac Surgery or Intervention for Elder Patients with Valvular Heart Disease.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this literature review was to evaluate existing evidence on exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) as a treatment option for elderly frail patients with valvular heart disease (VHD). Pubmed database was searched for articles between 1980 and January 2018. From 2623 articles screened, 61 on frailty and VHD and 12 on exercise-based training for patients with VHD were included in the analysis. We studied and described frailty assessment in this patient population. Studies reporting results of exercise training in patients after surgical/interventional VHD treatment were analyzed regarding contents and outcomes. The tools for frailty assessment included fried phenotype frailty index and its modifications, multidimensional geriatric assessment, clinical frailty scale, 5-meter walking test, serum albumin levels, and Katz index of activities of daily living. Frailty assessment in CR settings should be based on functional, objective tests and should have similar components as tools for risk assessment (mobility, muscle mass and strength, independence in daily living, cognitive functions, nutrition, and anxiety and depression evaluation). Participating in comprehensive exercise-based CR could improve short- and long-term outcomes (better quality of life, physical and functional capacity) in frail VHD patients. Such CR program should be led by cardiologist, and its content should include (1) exercise training (endurance and strength training to improve muscle mass, strength, balance, and coordination), (2) nutrition counseling, (3) occupational therapy (to improve independency and cognitive function), (4) psychological counseling to ensure psychosocial health, and (5) social worker counseling (to improve independency). Comprehensive CR could help to prevent, restore, and reduce the severity of frailty as well as to improve outcomes for frail VHD patients after surgery or intervention.
Project description:Aging poses a high risk of lean mass loss, which can be effectively improved through resistance exercise training (RET), or multicomponent exercise training (MET) as well as nutrition supplementation, such as protein supplementation (PS). This study investigated the effects of PS plus exercise training on frail older individuals. A comprehensive search of online databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported the efficacy of PS combined with RET or MET in frail older individuals. The included RCTs were analyzed through a meta-analysis and risk-of-bias assessment. We finally included 22 RCTs in the meta-analysis, with a mean (range/total) Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6.7 (4?9/10). PS plus exercise training significantly improved the frailty status (odds ratio = 2.77; p = 0.006), lean mass (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.52; p < 0.00001), leg strength (SMD = 0.37; p < 0.00001), and walking speed (SMD = 0.32; p = 0.002). Subgroup analyses revealed that PS plus MET exert significant effects on frailty indices, whereas PS plus RET further improves lean mass. Our findings suggest that PS plus RET as well as MET is effective in improving frailty status, lean mass, muscle strength, and physical mobility in frail older individuals.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Frailty is highly prevalent in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with adverse health outcomes including falls, poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL), hospitalisation and mortality. Low physical activity and muscle wasting are important contributors to physical frailty in adults with CKD. Exercise training may improve physical function and frailty status leading to associated improvements in health outcomes, including HRQOL. The EX-FRAIL CKD trial aims to inform the design of a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigates the effectiveness of a progressive, multicomponent home-based exercise programme in prefrail and frail older adults with CKD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The EX-FRAIL CKD trial is a two-arm parallel group pilot RCT. Participants categorised as prefrail or frail, following Frailty Phenotype (FP) assessment, will be randomised to receive exercise or usual care. Participants randomised to the intervention arm will receive a tailored 12-week exercise programme, which includes weekly telephone calls to advise on exercise progression. Primary feasibility outcome measures include rate of recruitment, intervention adherence, outcome measure completion and participant attrition. Semistructured interviews with a purposively selected group of participants will inform the feasibility of the randomisation procedures, outcome measures and intervention. Secondary outcome measures include physical function (walking speed and Short Physical Performance Battery), frailty status (FP), fall concern (Falls Efficacy Scale-International tool), activities of daily living (Barthel Index), symptom burden (Palliative care Outcome Scale-Symptoms RENAL) and HRQOL (Short Form-12v2). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval was granted by a National Health Service (NHS) Regional Ethics Committee and the NHS Health Research Authority. The study team aims to publish findings in a peer-reviewed journal and presents the results at relevant national and international conferences. A summary of findings will be provided to participants, a local kidney patient charity and the funding body. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN87708989.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the association of the frailty phenotype with subsequent healthcare costs and utilization. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study (Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF)). SETTING:Four U.S. sites. PARTICIPANTS:Community-dwelling women (mean age 80.2) participating in SOF Year 10 (Y10) examination linked with their Medicare claims data (N=2,150). MEASUREMENTS:At Y10, frailty phenotype defined using criteria similar to those used in the Cardiovascular Health Study frailty phenotype and categorized as robust, intermediate stage, or frail. Participant multimorbidity burden ascertained using claims data. Functional limitations assessed by asking about difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Total direct healthcare costs and utilization ascertained during 12 months after Y10. RESULTS:Mean total annualized cost±standard deviation (2014 dollars) was $3,781±6,920 for robust women, $6,632±12,452 for intermediate stage women, and $10,755?±?16,589 for frail women. After adjustment for age, site, multimorbidity burden, and cognition, frail women had greater mean total (cost ratio (CR)=1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.59-2.31) and outpatient (CR=1.55, 95% CI=1.36-1.78) costs than robust women and greater odds of hospitalization (odds ratio (OR)=2.05, 95% CI=1.47-2.87) and a skilled nursing facility stay (OR=3.85, 95% CI=1.88-7.88). There were smaller but significant effects of the intermediate stage category on these outcomes. Individual frailty components (shrinking, poor energy, slowness, low physical activity) were also each associated with higher total costs. Functional limitations partially mediated the association between the frailty phenotype and total costs (CR further adjusted for self-reported limitations=1.32, 95% CI=1.07-1.63 for frail vs robust; CR=1.35, 95% CI=1.18-1.55 for intermediate stage vs robust women). CONCLUSION:Intermediate stage and frail older community-dwelling women had higher subsequent total healthcare costs and utilization after accounting for multimorbidity and functional limitations. Frailty phenotype assessment may improve identification of older adults likely to require costly, extensive care.
Project description:Frailty status can be improved by intervention. Both exergaming and combined exercise have been proposed for improving physical performance in community-dwelling elderly. However, whether frailty status can be improved by exergaming is unclear. Moreover, whether Kinect-based exergaming training can exert a stronger effect on improving frailty status than combined exercise needs to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Kinect-based exergaming on improving frailty status and physical performance in the prefrail and frail elderly by comparing its effects with those of combined exercise. Fifty-two prefrail and frail elderly were recruited and randomized to the Kinect-based exergaming group (EXER group) or combined exercise group (CE group), emphasizing resistance, aerobic, and balance training for 36 sessions over 12 weeks. Our results showed that both groups improved the frailty status (EXER group: p = 0.016, effect size = 2.29; and CE group: p = 0.031, effect size = 2.67). Three out of 5 physical characteristics of the frailty phenotype, namely, weakness, slow walking speed, and low activity level, were significantly reversed by both exergaming and combined exercise. However, the exergaming training also significantly reversed exhaustion. Furthermore, compared with the CE group, the EXER group showed greater improvement in dynamic balance control, as indicated by the forward reaching test (p = 0.0013, effect size = 0.40) and single leg stance test (p = 0.049, effect size = 0.42). Thus, Kinect-based exergaming exerted effects that were at least as beneficial as those of combined exercise in improving frailty status and the frailty phenotype. We recommend the use of exergaming aided by Kinect in the prefrail and frail elderly.
Project description:Frailty is common in older age, and is associated with important adverse health outcomes including increased risk of disability and admission to hospital or long-term care. Exercise interventions for frail older people have the potential to reduce the risk of these adverse outcomes by increasing muscle strength and improving mobility.The Home-Based Older People's Exercise (HOPE) trial is a two arm, assessor blind pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the effectiveness of a 12 week exercise intervention (the HOPE programme) designed to improve the mobility and functional abilities of frail older people living at home, compared with usual care. The primary outcome is the timed-up-and-go test (TUGT), measured at baseline and 14 weeks post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes include the Barthel Index of activities of daily living (ADL), EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire (EQ-5D) quality of life measure and the geriatric depression scale (GDS), measured at baseline and 14 weeks post-randomisation. We will record baseline frailty using the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS), record falls and document muscle/joint pain. We will test the feasibility of collection of data to identify therapy resources required for delivery of the intervention.The HOPE trial will explore and evaluate a home-based exercise intervention for frail older people. Although previous RCTs have used operationalised, non-validated methods of measuring frailty, the HOPE trial is, to our knowledge, the first RCT of an exercise intervention for frail older people that includes a validated method of frailty assessment at baseline.ISRCTN: ISRCTN57066881.
Project description:Institutionalized older persons have a poor functional capacity. Including physical exercise in their routine activities decreases their frailty and improves their quality of life. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is a type of exercise that seems beneficial in frail older persons to improve their functional mobility, but the evidence is inconclusive. This trial will compare the results of exercise with WBV and exercise without WBV in improving body balance, muscle performance and fall prevention in institutionalized older persons.An open, multicentre and parallel randomized clinical trial with blinded assessment. 160 nursing home residents aged over 65 years and of both sexes will be identified to participate in the study. Participants will be centrally randomised and allocated to interventions (vibration or exercise group) by telephone. The vibration group will perform static/dynamic exercises (balance and resistance training) on a vibratory platform (Frequency: 30-35 Hz; Amplitude: 2-4 mm) over a six-week training period (3 sessions/week). The exercise group will perform the same exercise protocol but without a vibration stimuli platform. The primary outcome measure is the static/dynamic body balance. Secondary outcomes are muscle strength and, number of new falls. Follow-up measurements will be collected at 6 weeks and at 6 months after randomization. Efficacy will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis and 'per protocol'. The effects of the intervention will be evaluated using the "t" test, Mann-Witney test, or Chi-square test, depending on the type of outcome. The final analysis will be performed 6 weeks and 6 months after randomization.This study will help to clarify whether WBV training improves body balance, gait mobility and muscle strength in frail older persons living in nursing homes. As far as we know, this will be the first study to evaluate the efficacy of WBV for the prevention of falls.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01375790.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little is known regarding the impact of transitions in frailty on healthcare use and payment in older Mexican Americans. We address this gap in knowledge by investigating the effect of early transitions in physical frailty on the use of healthcare services and Medicare payments involving older Mexican Americans. METHODS:Longitudinal analyses were conducted using the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (Hispanic-EPESE) survey data from five Southwest states linked to the Medicare claims files from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Seven hundred and eighty-eight community-dwelling Mexican Americans 72?years and older in 2000/01 were studied. We used a modified Frailty Phenotype (unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported exhaustion and slow walking speed) to classify frailty status (non-frail, pre-frail or frail). Each participant was placed into one of 5 frailty transition groups: 1) remain non-frail, 2) remain pre-frail, 3) remain frail, 4) improve (pre-frail to non-frail, frail to non-frail, frail to pre-frail) and 5) worse (non-frail to pre-frail, non-frail to frail, pre-frail to frail). The outcomes for the one-year follow-up period (2000-2001) were: (a) healthcare use (hospitalization, emergency room [ER] admission and physician visit); and (b) Medicare payments (total payment and outpatient payment). RESULTS:Mean age was 78.8 (SD?=?5.1) years and 60.3% were female in 1998/99. Males who remained pre-frail (Odds Ratio [OR]?=?3.49, 1.13-10.8, remained frail OR?=?6.92, 1.61-29.7) and transitioned to worse frail status (OR?=?4.49, 1.74-11.6) had significantly higher hospitalization risk compared to individuals who remained non-frail. Males in the 'worsened' groups, and females in the 'improved' groups, had significantly higher Medicare payments than individuals who remained non-frail (Cost Ratio [CR]?=?2.00, 1.30-3.09; CR?=?1.53, 1.12-2.09, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS:Healthcare use and Medicare payments differed by frailty transition status. The differences varied by sex. Research is necessary to elucidate the relationship between frailty transitions and outcomes, sex difference and Medicare payment for older Mexican Americans living in the community.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Frail older adults are predisposed to multiple comorbidities and adverse events. Recent interventional studies have shown that frailty can be improved and managed. In this study, effective individualized home-based exercise and nutrition interventions were developed for reducing frailty in older adults. METHODS:This study was a four-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial conducted between October 2015 and June 2017 at Miaoli General Hospital in Taiwan. Overall, 319 pre-frail or frail older adults were randomly assigned into one of the four study groups (control, exercise, nutrition, and exercise plus nutrition [combination]) and followed up during a 3-month intervention period and 3-month self-maintenance period. Improvement in frailty scores was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included improvements in physical performance and mental health. The measurements were performed at baseline, 1?month, 3?months, and 6?months. RESULTS:At the 6-month measurement, the exercise (difference in frailty score change from baseline: -?0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -?0.41, -?0.05; p?=?0.012), nutrition (-?0.28; 95% CI: -?0.46, -?0.11; p?=?0.002), and combination (-?0.34; 95% CI: -?0.52, -?0.16; p?<? 0.001) groups exhibited significantly greater improvements in the frailty scores than the control group. Significant improvements were also observed in several physical performance parameters in the exercise, nutrition, and combination groups, as well as in the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey mental component summary score for the nutrition group. CONCLUSIONS:The designated home-based exercise and nutrition interventions can help pre-frail or frail older adults to improve their frailty score and physical performance. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT03477097); registration date: March 26, 2018.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Frail lung transplant candidates are more likely to be delisted or die without receiving a transplant. Further knowledge of what frailty represents in this population will assist in developing interventions to prevent frailty from developing. We set out to determine whether frail lung transplant candidates have reduced exercise capacity independent of disease severity and diagnosis. METHODS:Sixty-eight adult lung transplant candidates underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and a frailty assessment (Fried's Frailty Phenotype (FFP)). Primary outcomes were peak workload and peak aerobic capacity (V?O2). We used linear regression to adjust for age, gender, diagnosis, and lung allocation score (LAS). RESULTS:The mean ± SD age was 57 ± 11 years, 51% were women, 57% had interstitial lung disease, 32% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11% had cystic fibrosis, and the mean LAS was 40.2 (range 19.2-94.5). In adjusted models, peak workload decreased by 10 W (95% CI 4.7 to 14.6) and peak V?O2 decreased by 1.8 mL/kg/min (95% CI 0.6 to 2.9) per 1 unit increment in FFP score. After adjustment, exercise tolerance was 38 W lower (95% CI 18.4 to 58.1) and peak V?O2 was 8.5 mL/kg/min lower (95% CI 3.3 to 13.7) among frail participants compared to non-frail participants. Frailty accounted for 16% of the variance (R2) of watts and 19% of the variance of V?O2 in adjusted models. CONCLUSION:Frailty contributes to reduced exercise capacity among lung transplant candidates independent of disease severity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To evaluate the short- and mid-term effect of a specially tailored resistance and balance training provided in addition to usual cardiac rehabilitation (CR) care program in older patients after valve surgery/intervention.<h4>Methods</h4>Single-center (inpatient CR clinic in Lithuania) randomized controlled trial. Two hundred fifty-two patients were assessed for eligibility on the first day of admittance to CR early after (14.5?±?5.9?days) valve surgery/intervention between January 2018 and November 2019. Participants were coded centrally in accordance with randomization 1:1 using a computerized list. Control group (CG) patients were provided with usual care phase-II-CR inpatient multidisciplinary CR program, while intervention group (IG) patients received additional resistance and balance training (3 d/wk). Patients participated in a 3-month follow-up. Main outcome measures were functional capacity (6?min walk test (6MWT, meters), cardiopulmonary exercise testing), physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, score) and 5-m walk test (5MWT, meters/second)), strength (one repetition maximum test for leg press), physical frailty (SPPB, 5MWT).<h4>Results</h4>One hundred sixteen patients (76.1?±?6.7?years, 50% male) who fulfilled the study inclusion criteria were randomized to IG (n?=?60) or CG (n?=?56) and participated in CR (18.6?±?2.7?days). As a result, 6MWT (IG 247?±?94.1 vs. 348?±?100.1, CG 232?±?102.8 vs. 333?±?120.7), SPPB (IG 8.31?±?2.21 vs. 9.51?±?2.24, CG 7.95?±?2.01 vs. 9.08?±?2.35), 5MWT (IG 0.847?±?0.31 vs. 0.965?±?0.3, CG 0.765?±?0.24 vs 0.879?±?0.29) all other outcome variables and physical frailty level improved significantly (p?<?0.05) in both groups with no significant difference between groups. Improvements were sustained over the 3-month follow-up for 6MWT (IG 348?±?113 vs. CG 332?±?147.4), SPPB (IG 10.37?±?1.59 vs CG 9.44?±?2.34), 5MWT (IG 1.086?±?0. 307 vs CG 1.123?±?0.539) and other variables. Improvement in physical frailty level was significantly more pronounced in IG (p?<?0.05) after the 3-month follow-up.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Exercise-based CR improves functional and exercise capacity, physical performance, and muscular strength, and reduces physical frailty levels in patients after valve surgery/intervention in the short and medium terms. SPPB score and 5MWT were useful for physical frailty assessment, screening and evaluation of outcomes in a CR setting. Additional benefit from the resistance and balance training could not be confirmed.<h4>Trial registration</h4>NCT04234087 , retrospectively registered 21 January 2020.