Nearly complete genome sequence of one GII.17 Norovirus identified by direct sequencing from HuZhou, China.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Human norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. However, in vitro culture system is complicated for human norovirus. Sequence analysis became more useful for norovirus research, particularly when using complete genomic sequences. METHODS:Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) was performed for norovirus detection. Three modified paris of PCR primes were designed based on the alignment of the novel GII.17 norovirus complete sequence available in Genbank., which could amplify three overlapping fragments cover the whole genome. The PCR fragments were sequencing by Sanger sequence with Primer walking methods. Genogroup and genotype were assigned using the Norovirus Noronet typing tool and the strains were named according to the time of isolation. The phylogenetic analysis was conducted using MEGA software (ver. 6.06). RESULTS:One nearly complete genome sequence were obtained from sample collected from Huzhou, China. The partial genome sequence of the HuzhouNS2014603 strain is composed of 7556 nucleotides (nt).The strain was classified as GII.17 genotype both in ORF1 and ORF2, and was most closely related to the LC037415.1/Hu/GII.17/Kawasaki308 strain. Within the GII.17 cluster, the 2013/14 season strains were grouped separately from the GII.17 strains detected in 2014/15. HuzhouNS2014603 was clustered with the 2014/15 season strains. Compared with other strains selected, there are 98 variable residues across the VP1 domain. Among the 98 variable amino acids, 13 (13.3%) were observed in the shell domain and 22 (22.4%) in the P1domain; most of the substitutions and insertions were located in the P2 domain, account for 63 (64.3%). CONCLUSIONS:This is the first report of the nearly complete genome of the novel GII.17 by direct sequencing method in the Huzhou area. The results of this study could be helpful for the study of the genetic evolution of the virus, the development of rapid diagnostic reagents and the design of vaccine.
Project description:Norovirus (NoV) has been recognized as the leading cause of both outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in children and adults worldwide. Stool samples collected from outpatients with clinical symptoms of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups at the First People's Hospital in Huzhou, Huzhou, China between March 2014 and February 2015 were analyzed to gain insight into the epidemiology and genetic variation in NoV strains circulating in China.Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) was performed for Norovirus detection. RT-PCR were used for genomic amplification and sequencing. Genogroup and genotype were assigned using the NoV Noronet typing tool and the strains were named according to the time of isolation. The phylogenetic analysis was conducted using MEGA 5.Of the 809 specimens, 193 (23.9 %) were positive for NoV, with GII.4 and GII.17 the most commonly identified strains. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of five recombinant strains in Huzhou. Recombinants GII.P13/GII.17 and GII.P12/GII.4 were newly detected in China. The GII.P13/GII.17 recombinant was first identified in October 2014 and steadily replaced GII.Pe/GII.4 (GII.4 Sydney 2012) as the predominant circulating NoV genotype.This is the first report of the detection of GII.17 in the Huzhou area and of a NoV genotype being detected in greater numbers than GII.4. Furthermore, our results indicated that following the emergence of GII.17 in October 2014, it steadily replaced the previous circulating GII.4 Sydney2012 strain, which was the dominant circulating genotype for the past 2 years. As norovirus are the important cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis, continuous and comprehensive study of the norovirus strains involved in large and cost-effective acute gastroenteritis would help understanding the molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections and development of improved prevention and control measures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In late 2016, an uncommon recombinant NoV genotype called GII.P16-GII.2 caused a sharp increase in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in different countries of Asia and Europe, including China. However, we did not observe a drastic increase in sporadic norovirus cases in the winter of 2016 in Huzhou. Therefore, we investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of NoVs in the sporadic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases from January 2016 to December 2017 in Huzhou City, Zhejiang, China. METHODS:From January 2016 to December 2017, a total of 1001 specimens collected from patients with AGE were screened for NoV by real-time RT-PCR. Partial sequences of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and capsid gene of the positive samples were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Genotypes of NoV were confirmed by online NoV typing tool and phylogenetic analysis. Complete VP1 sequences of GII.P16-GII.2 strains detected in this study were further obtained and subjected into sequence analysis. RESULTS:In total, 204 (20.4%) specimens were identified as NoV-positive. GII genogroup accounted for most of the NoV-infected cases (98.0%, 200/204). NoV infection was found in all age groups tested (<?5, 5-15, 16-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years), with the 5-15 year age group having the highest detection rate (17/49, 34.7%). Higher activity of NoV infection could be seen in winter-spring season. The predominant NoV genotypes have changed from GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney2012 and GII.P17-GII.17 in 2016 to GII.P16-GII.2, GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney2012 and GII.P17-GII.17 in 2017. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 2016-2017 GII.P16-GII.2 strains were most closely related to Japan 2010-2012 cluster in VP1 region and no common mutations were found in the amino acids of the HBGA-binding sites and the predicted epitopes. CONCLUSIONS:We report the emergence of GII.P16-GII.2 strains and characterize the molecular epidemiological patterns NoV infection between January 2016 and December 2017 in Huzhou. The predominant genotypes of NoV during our study period are diverse. VP1 amino acid sequences of 2016-2017 GII.P16-GII.2 strains remain static after one year of circulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in all age groups worldwide. The NoVs circulating in Huzhou over the past 7 years were predominantly GII.4 genotypes. In the winter of 2014-2015, a novel variant of NoV GII.17 emerged and became predominant. We report the epidemiological patterns and genetic characteristics of NoV after the appearance of GII.17 in Huzhou City, Zhejiang, China. METHODS:Between January and December 2015, 746 stool specimens collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis were screened for NoV. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) was performed for NoV detection. RT-PCR was used for genomic amplification and sequencing. Genogroups and genotypes were assigned using an online NoV typing tool ( http://www.rivm.nl/mpf/norovirus/typingtool ). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using MEGA (ver. 6.06). RESULTS:In total, 196 (26.3%) specimens were identified as NoV-positive. NoV infection was found in all age groups tested (≤5, 6-15, 16-40, 41-60, and ≥60 years), with the 16-40-year age group having the highest detection rate (117/196, 59.7%). Of the 196 NoV-positive specimens, 191 (97.5%) viruses belonged to GII, and 4 (2.0%) to GI; one sample showed GI and GII co-infection. Overall, 117 (59.7%) viruses were sequenced, and new GII.P17/GII.17 variants were the dominant genotype, accounting for 75.2%, followed by GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012 strains (11.11%). AGE patients infected with the GII.P17/GII.17 genotypes almost all had abdominal pain and watery stools. CONCLUSIONS:We report the epidemiological patterns and genetic characteristics of the emergence GII.17 over the GII.4 in Huzhou between January and December 2015. After the emergence of GII.17 in October 2014, it steadily replaced the previously circulating GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain, and continued to be dominant in 2015.
Project description:Since 2014, novel non-GII.4 norovirus (NoV) genotypes continue to be reported as the main cause of outbreaks worldwide. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological and genetic features of NoV outbreaks from July 2014 to June 2018 in Huzhou, China. A total of 450 stool samples collected from 51 AGE outbreaks were tested for NoVs by real-time RT PCR. Partial polymerase and capsid sequences of NoV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. NoVs were found to be responsible of 84.3% of AGE outbreaks in Huzhou over the past 5 years. Most NoV outbreaks were reported in the cool months (November-March) and occurred in primary schools and kindergartens. Changes in the diversity of genotypes and the distribution of predominant types were observed in recent years. At least eight genotypes were identified, and 91.9% of the genotyped outbreaks were caused by non-GII.4 strains. The top three circulating genotypes during the study period were GII.2[P16], GII.3[P12], and GII.17[P17]. The predominant NoV genotypes in outbreaks have changed from GII.4 variants to GII.17[P17] in 2014-2015, GII.3[P12] in 2015-2016, and then GII.2[P16] in 2016-2018. Non-GII.4 NoVs play an increasingly important role in outbreaks in Huzhou. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of novel NoV strains and help control NoV outbreaks in the next epidemic season.
Project description:Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4) was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558 bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF) composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100 bp), ORF2 (1,623 bp), and ORF3 (807 bp). Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines.
Project description:Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20) has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85%) non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9); GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4); GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4); GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2); GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1); GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1); GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1); and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1). On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009) no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains circulating in the country.
Project description:Of 1,050 fecal specimens collected from January 2013 to August 2015 from children with acute gastroenteritis, 149 (14.2%) were found to be positive for norovirus. Norovirus GII was the most predominant genogroup (98.65%; 147 of 149). The genotypes detected in this study were GI (2; 1.3%), GII.Pe-GII.4 (109; 73.1%), GII.P17-GII.17 (16; 10.7%), GII.P12-GII.3 (8; 5.4%), GII.P12-GII.12 (8; 5.4%), GII.P4-GII.4 (5; 3.4%), and the recombinant GII.Pe-GII.17 (1; 0.7%). Of these, the novel GII.17 strain was the second most predominant, and the number of affected children appeared to continuously increase over time (2013 [2; 4.4%], 2014 [4; 9.3%], and 2015 [10; 16.4%]). Phylogenetic analysis of the full genome and ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3 nucleotide sequences showed that GII.17 was grouped in cluster III with other strains isolated from 2013 to 2015 and had a different evolutionary history from strains collected in 1978 to 2002 and 2005 to 2009 formed clusters I and II. However, the phylogenetic trees also showed that cluster III was divided into subclusters IIIa (CAU-55 and CAU-85) and IIIb (Kawasaki 2014) (CAU-193, CAU-265, CAU-267, CAU-283, and CAU-289). Comparative analysis of the VP1 capsid protein using 15 complete amino acid sequences from noroviruses isolated from 1978 to 2015 showed 99 amino acid changes. These results could be helpful for epidemiological studies to understand circulating norovirus genotypes in population.
Project description:The complete genome sequence of a novel recombinant GII.Pe_GII.17 norovirus strain, tentatively named GII.17 Hong Kong 2015, was determined. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase has 95.6% and 98.4% and viral protein 1 has 90.6% and 95.9% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, to the closest sequences in GenBank.
Project description:Human noroviruses are the most common cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. We report here the nearly complete genome sequence (7,551 nucleotides) of a human norovirus GII.P17-GII.17 strain detected in July 2015 in the stool sample from an adult with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human norovirus is regarded as the leading cause of nonbacterial acute diarrhea in developing and developed countries. Among all genotypes, GII.4 has been the predominant genotype, but in East Asia, it was replaced by the GII.17 in 2014/2015. However, after the prevalence of new GII.17 variant in South China, a sharply increase in the number of norovirus infections associated with sporadic acute diarrhea was detected. In this study, we would investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in the sporadic acute gastroenteritis cases in the post-GII.17 period in South China. METHODS:Norovirus was screened from 217 patients with sporadic acute gastroenteritis from August 2015 to October 2017 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, two regions including the partial RNA polymerase and the capsid gene of positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine norovirus genotypes. Complete VP1 sequences of GII.4 strains detected in this study were also amplified and subjected into evolutionary tracing analyses. RESULTS:A total of 43 (19.82%) norovirus samples were confirmed from 217 stool specimens, and it was found that GII.4 resurged as the new predominant variant, accounting for 76.74% (33/43) of positive samples. Only one local strain GZ2015-L550 was clustered with the contemporary GII.P16/GII.4-2012 recombinant variant, and other 32 local strains belonged to the clade with the GII.Pe/GII.4-2012 variant. Other genotypes including GII.17 (n?=?4), GII.3 (n?=?4), GII.8 (n?=?1) and GI. 6 (n?=?1) were also detected. Furthermore, all GII.4 strains were phylogenetic analyzed based on their capsid P2 subdomains. Combined with other reported 754 strains, the GII.4-2012 variant could be divided into two clades. Most GII.4 strains collected in 2016 and 2017 in this study (7/8) formed a new cluster A in Clade II with additional 103 contemporaneous strains. In addition, evolutionary tracing of the capsid P2 subdomain of this variant was also analyzed, and one specific amino acid substitutions (N373) was identified for Cluster A. CONCLUSION:In summary, this study confirmed a norovirus infection peak in the post-GII.17 period in South China, which was caused by the resurgence of the GII.4 variant.