Successful transplantation of guinea pig gut microbiota in mice and its effect on pneumonic plague sensitivity.
ABSTRACT: Microbiota-driven variations in the inflammatory response are predicted to regulate host responses to infection. Increasing evidence indicates that the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts have an intimate relationship with each other. Gut microbiota can influence lung immunity whereby gut-derived injurious factors can reach the lungs and systemic circulation via the intestinal lymphatics. The intestinal microbiota's ability to resist colonization can be extended to systemic infections or to pathogens infecting distant sites such as the lungs. Unlike the situation with large mammals, the microtus Yersinia pestis 201 strain exhibits strong virulence in mice, but nearly no virulence to large mammals (such as guinea pigs). Hence, to assess whether the intestinal microbiota from guinea pigs was able to affect the sensitivity of mice to challenge infection with the Y. pestis 201 strain, we fed mice with guinea pig diets for two months, after which they were administered 0.5 ml of guinea pig fecal suspension for 30 days by oral gavage. The stools from each mouse were collected on days 0, 15, and 30, DNA was extracted from them, and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to assess the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota. We found that the intestinal microbiota transplants from the guinea pigs were able to colonize the mouse intestines. The mice were then infected with Yersinia pestis 201 by lung invasion, but no statistical difference was found in the survival rates of the mice that were colonized with the guinea pig's gut microbiota and the control mice. This indicates that the intestinal microbiota transplantation from the guinea pigs did not affect the sensitivity of the mice to pneumonic plague.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. RESULTS: We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. CONCLUSIONS: The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans.
Project description:Different breeds of pigs vary greatly in their propensity for adiposity. Gut microbiota is known to play an important role in modulating host physiology including fat metabolism. However, the relative contribution of gut microbiota to lipogenic characteristics of pigs remains elusive. In this study, we transplanted fecal microbiota of adult Jinhua and Landrace pigs, two breeds of pigs with distinct lipogenic phenotypes, to antibiotic-treated mice. Our results indicated that, 4 weeks after fecal transplantation, the mice receiving Jinhua pigs' "obese" microbiota (JM) exhibited a different intestinal bacterial community structure from those receiving Landrace pigs' "lean" microbiota (LM). Notably, an elevated ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and a significant diminishment of Akkermansia were observed in JM mice relative to LM mice. Importantly, mouse recipients resembled their respective porcine donors in many of the lipogenic characteristics. Similar to Jinhua pig donors, JM mice had elevated lipid and triglyceride levels and the lipoprotein lipase activity in the liver. Enhanced expression of multiple key lipogenic genes and reduced angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) mRNA expression were also observed in JM mice, relative to those in LM mice. These results collectively suggested that gut microbiota of Jinhua pigs is more capable of enhancing lipogenesis than that of Landrace pigs. Transferability of the lipogenic phenotype across species further indicated that gut microbiota plays a major role in contributing to adiposity in pigs. Manipulation of intestinal microbiota will, therefore, have a profound impact on altering host metabolism and adipogenesis, with an important implication in the treatment of human overweight and obesity.
Project description:Chronic opioid analgesia has the debilitating side-effect of constipation in human patients. The major aims of this study were to: 1) characterize the opioid-specific antagonism of morphine-induced inhibition of electrically driven contraction of the small intestine of mice, rats, and guinea pigs; and 2) test if the oral delivery of small milk-derived opioid antagonist peptides could block morphine-induced inhibition of intestinal transit in mice.Mouse, rat, and guinea pig intact ileal sections were electrically stimulated to contract and inhibited with morphine in vitro. Morphine inhibition was then blocked by opioid subtype antagonists in the mouse and guinea pig. Using a polymeric dye, Poly R-478, the opioid antagonists casoxin 4 and lactoferroxin A were tested orally for blocking activity of morphine inhibition of gut transit in vivo by single or double gavage techniques.The guinea pig tissue was more sensitive to morphine inhibition compared with the mouse or the rat (IC(50) [half maximal inhibitory concentration] values as nmol/L ± SEM were 34 ± 3, 230 ± 13, and 310 ± 14 respectively) (P < 0.01). The inhibitory influence of opioid agonists (IC(50)) in electrically driven ileal mouse preparations were DADLE ([D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]-enkephalin) ? met-enkephalin ? dynorphin A ? DAMGO ([D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Glyol(5)]-enkephalin) > morphine > morphiceptin as nmol/L 13.9, 17.3, 19.5, 23.3, 230, and 403 respectively. The mouse demonstrated predominantly ?- and ?-opioid receptor activity with a smaller ?-opioid receptor component. Both mouse and guinea pig tissue were sensitive to casoxin 4 antagonism of morphine inhibition of contraction. In contrast to naloxone, relatively high oral doses of the ?-opioid receptor antagonists, casoxin 4 and lactoferroxin A, applied before and after morphine injection were unable to antagonize morphine inhibition of gut transit.Casoxin 4 reverses morphine-induced inhibition of contraction in mice and guinea pigs in vitro but fails to influence morphine inhibition of mouse small intestinal transit by the oral route.
Project description:Yersinia pestis causes plague, a disease with high mortality in humans that can be transmitted by fleabite or aerosol. A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed plague vaccine is currently not available. Vaccine developers have focused on two subunits of Y. pestis: LcrV, a protein at the tip of type III secretion needles, and F1, the fraction 1 pilus antigen. F1-V, a hybrid generated via translational fusion of both antigens, is being developed for licensure as a plague vaccine. The rV10 vaccine is a non-toxigenic variant of LcrV lacking residues 271-300. Here we developed Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) protocols for rV10. Comparison of clinical grade rV10 with F1-V did not reveal significant differences in plague protection in mice, guinea pigs or cynomolgus macaques. We also developed cGMP protocols for rV10-2, a variant of rV10 with an altered affinity tag. Immunization with rV10-2 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide elicited antibodies against LcrV and conferred pneumonic plague protection in mice, rats, guinea pigs, cynomolgus macaques and African Green monkeys. The data support further development of rV10-2 for FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) authorization review and clinical testing.
Project description:Obesity causes changes in microbiota composition, and an altered gut microbiota can transfer obesity-associated phenotypes from donors to recipients. Obese Rongchang pigs (RP) exhibited distinct fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles in their muscle compared with lean Yorkshire pigs (YP). However, whether RP have a different gut microbiota than YP and whether there is a relationship between the microbiota and muscle properties are poorly understood. The present study was conducted to test whether the muscle properties can be transferred from pigs to germ-free (GF) mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing confirms the presence of distinct core microbiota between pig breeds, with alterations in taxonomic distribution and modulations in ? diversity. RP displayed a significant higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and apparent genera differences compared with YP. Transplanting the porcine microbiota into GF mice replicated the phenotypes of the donors. RP and their GF mouse recipients exhibited a higher body fat mass, a higher slow-contracting fiber proportion, a decreased fiber size and fast IIb fiber percentage, and enhanced lipogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition of colonized mice shared high similarity with their donor pigs. Taken together, the gut microbiota of obese pigs intrinsically influences skeletal muscle development and the lipid metabolic profiles.
Project description:Weaning of pigs can lead to low-feed intake resulting in a lag in growth performance, reduced gut health, and diarrheal diseases. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), the most abundant growth factor in milk, increased weaned pig BW gain and feed efficiency in our previous work. It is believed that intestinal microbiota plays an important role in gut health and pig growth, but limited data are available on the impact of feed additives, such as EGF, on the microbial communities of the intestines. The objective of the study was to investigate if the positive influence of EGF supplementation on weight gain and gut health was related to differences in intestinal microbiota. To examine the efficacy of EGF, a 21-d animal trial was performed using 72 pigs (two equal blocks of 36 pigs with three barrows and three gilts/pen). Pigs were assigned to one of two dietary treatments at weaning (20 ± 2 d of age; n = 6 pens/treatment) balancing across treatment for litter, gender, and initial BW. Recombinant yeast supernatant containing EGF at 120 ?g/kg BW/d and without EGF (control) was added to the feed for 21 d, followed by a common diet for 7 d. Pig performance was measured weekly and ileal digesta was collected at day 21 from six pigs/treatment for microbiome analysis. Pigs fed diets containing EGF fermentation supernatant had greater (P = 0.01) daily gain in week 3 and overall resulting in heavier (P = 0.029) BW at day 28, which was consistent to our previous finding. No difference in alpha-diversity (Chao1, Shanon, and Simpson indices) and beta-diversity (weighted and unweighted UniFrac distances) of ileal digesta microbiota between EGF supplemented and control pigs were observed. The relative abundances of bacterial taxa did not differ among treatment groups at the phylum level. The relative abundances of Corynebacterium (0.0 vs. 0.9%), Blautia (0.003 vs. 0.26%), and Coprococcus (0.0 vs. 0.05%) genera, and Rumminococcaceae family (0.001 vs. 0.08%) were decreased (P < 0.05) in EGF group compared to control and were negatively correlated (P < 0.05, r > 0.60) with growth performance. Pathways related to detoxification and carbohydrate metabolism were differentially represented in the luminal bacterial populations. The improved growth of pigs supplemented with EGF supernatant produced by Pichia pastoris may be related to changes in functional capacity of the gut microbial populations. However, the impact on mucosa-associated or large intestinal communities is still unknown.
Project description:Gut microbiota plays fundamental roles in energy harvest, nutrient digestion, and intestinal health, especially in processing indigestible components of polysaccharides in diet. Unraveling the microbial taxa and functional capacity of gut microbiome associated with feed efficiency can provide important knowledge to improve pig feed efficiency in swine industry. In the current research, we studied the association of fecal microbiota with feed efficiency in 280 commercial Duroc pigs. All experimental pigs could be clustered into two enterotype-like groups. Different enterotypes showed the tendency of association with the feed efficiency (P = 0.07). We further identified 31 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showing the potential associations with porcine feed efficiency. These OTUs were mainly annotated to the bacteria related to the metabolisms of dietary polysaccharides. Although we did not identify the RFI-associated bacterial species at FDR < 0.05 level, metagenomic sequencing analysis did find the distinct function capacities of gut microbiome between the high and low RFI pigs (FDR < 0.05). The KEGG orthologies related to nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and transport system, and eight KEGG pathways including glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism were positively associated with porcine feed efficiency. We inferred that gut microbiota might improve porcine feed efficiency through promoting intestinal health by the SCFAs produced by fermenting dietary polysaccharides and improving the utilization of dietary protein. The present results provided important basic knowledge for improving porcine feed efficiency through modulating gut microbiome.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an animal welfare and public health concern due to its ability to parasite livestock and potentially contaminate pork products. To reduce Salmonella shedding and the risk of pork contamination, antibiotic therapy is used and can contribute to antimicrobial resistance. Here we hypothesized that immune system education by the microbiota can play a role in intestinal resilience to infection. We used amoxicillin (15mg/Kg) to modulate the intestinal microbiome of 10 piglets, paired with same age pigs that received a placebo (n = 10) from 0 to 14 days of age. Animals were euthanized at 4-weeks old. Each pig donated colon sections for ex vivo culture (n = 20 explants/pig). Explants were inoculated with S. Typhimurium, PBS or LPS (n = 6 explants/pig/group, plus technical controls). The gut bacteriome was characterized by sequencing of the 16S rRNA at 7, 21 days of age, and upon in vitro culture. Explants response to infection was profiled through high-throughput mRNA sequencing. In vivo antibiotic treatment led to ?-diversity differences between groups at all times (P<0.05), while ?-diversity did not differ between amoxicillin and placebo groups on day 21 and at euthanasia (P<0.03 on day 7). Explant microbiomes were not different from in vivo. In vitro challenge with S. Typhimurium led to lower necrosis scores in explants from amoxicillin-treated pigs, when compared to explants placebo-treated pigs (P<0.05). This was coupled with the activation of immune-related pathways in explants from amoxicillin-treated pigs (IL-2 production, NO production, BCR activation), when compared to placebo-treated pigs. In addition, several DNA repair and intestinal wound healing pathways were also only activated in explants from amoxicillin-treated pigs. Taken together, these findings suggest that immune education by the amoxicillin-disturbed microbiota may have contributed to mitigate intestinal lesions following pathogen exposure.
Project description:The gut microbiota has been evolving with its host along the time creating a symbiotic relationship. In this study, we assess the role of the host genome in the modulation of the microbiota composition in pigs. Gut microbiota compositions were estimated through sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from rectal contents of 285 pigs. A total of 1,261 operational taxonomic units were obtained and grouped in 18 phyla and 101 genera. Firmicutes (45.36%) and Bacteroidetes (37.47%) were the two major phyla obtained, whereas at genus level Prevotella (7.03%) and Treponema (6.29%) were the most abundant. Pigs were also genotyped with a high-throughput method for 45,508 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered the entire pig genome. Subsequently, genome-wide association studies were made among the genotypes of these pigs and their gut microbiota composition. A total of 52 single-nucleotide polymorphisms distributed in 17 regions along the pig genome were associated with the relative abundance of six genera; Akkermansia, CF231, Phascolarctobacterium, Prevotella, SMB53, and Streptococcus. Our results suggest 39 candidate genes that may be modulating the microbiota composition and manifest the association between host genome and gut microbiota in pigs.
Project description:The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host's health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P<0.001) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P<0.05) were higher in the LF pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the HF pigs (P<0.001). Higher numbers of proteins affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae were also present in the HF samples. Proteins for polysaccharide breakdown did almost exclusively originate from Prevotellaceae. Total and individual fecal SCFA concentrations were higher for pigs of the LF treatment (P<0.05), whereas fecal ammonia concentrations did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003447.