Activity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in Caenorhabditis elegans.
ABSTRACT: AIM:Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) phenethyl ester (CAPE), the major constituent of propolis, is able to increase the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans after infection with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. RESULTS:CAPE increases the expression of several antimicrobial proteins involved in the immune response to C. albicans. Structural derivatives of CAPE were synthesized to identify structure-activity relationships and decrease metabolic liability, ultimately leading to a compound that has similar efficacy, but increased in vivo stability. The CED-10(Rac-1)/PAK1 pathway was essential for immunomodulation by CAPE and was a critical component involved in the immune response to fungal pathogens. CONCLUSION:Caenorhabditis elegans is an efficient heterologous host to evaluate immunomodulatory compounds and identify components of the pathway(s) involved in the mode of action of compounds.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Propolis, an ancient herbal medicine, has been reported the beneficial effect both in asthma patients and murine model of asthma, but the mechanism was not clearly understood. In this study, the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), the most extensively studied components in propolis, on the functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) was investigated. RESULTS: CAPE significantly inhibited IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, IL-10 protein expression in mature healthy human MoDCs stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and IL-12 p40, IL-10, IP-10 stimulated by crude mite extract. CAPE significantly inhibited IL-10 and IP-10 but not IL-12 expression in allergic patients' MoDCs stimulated by crude mite extract. In contrast, the upregulation of costimulatory molecules in mature MoDCs was not suppressed by CAPE. Further, the antigen presenting ability of DCs was not inhibited by CAPE. CAPE inhibited IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation but not mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family phosphorylation in human MoDCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that CAPE inhibited cytokine and chemokine production by MoDCs which might be related to the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. This study provided a new insight into the mechanism of CAPE in immune response and the rationale for propolis in the treatment of asthma and other allergic disorders.
Project description:Periodontal disease is associated with chronic oxidative stress and inflammation. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), which is a potent inducer of heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), is a central active component of propolis, and the application of propolis improves periodontal status in diabetic patients. Here, primary murine macrophages were exposed to CAPE. Target gene expression was assessed by whole-genome microarray, RT-PCR and Western blotting. The antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of CAPE were examined by exposure of the cells to hydrogen peroxide, saliva and periodontal pathogens. The involvement of HO1 was investigated with the HO1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) and knockout mice for Nrf2, which is a transcription factor for detoxifying enzymes. CAPE increased HO1 and other heat shock proteins in murine macrophages. A p38 MAPK inhibitor and Nrf2 knockout attenuated CAPE-induced HO1 expression in macrophages. CAPE exerted strong antioxidative activity. Additionally, CAPE reduced the inflammatory response to saliva and periodontal pathogens. Blocking HO1 decreased the antioxidative activity and attenuated the anti-inflammatory activity of CAPE. In conclusion, CAPE exerted its antioxidative effects through the Nrf2-mediated HO1 pathway and its anti-inflammatory effects through NF-κB inhibition. However, preclinical models evaluating the use of CAPE in periodontal inflammation are necessary in future studies.
Project description:Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a key bioactive ingredient of honeybee propolis and is claimed to have anticancer activity. Since mortalin, a hsp70 chaperone, is enriched in a cancerous cell surface, we recruited a unique cell internalizing anti-mortalin antibody (MotAb) to generate mortalin-targeting CAPE nanoparticles (CAPE-MotAb). Biophysical and biomolecular analyses revealed enhanced anticancer activity of CAPE-MotAb both in in vitro and in vivo assays. We demonstrate that CAPE-MotAb cause a stronger dose-dependent growth arrest/apoptosis of cancer cells through the downregulation of Cyclin D1-CDK4, phospho-Rb, PARP-1, and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. Concomitantly, a significant increase in the expression of p53, p21WAF1, and caspase cleavage was obtained only in CAPE-MotAb treated cells. We also demonstrate that CAPE-MotAb caused a remarkably enhanced downregulation of proteins critically involved in cell migration. In vivo tumor growth assays for subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice also revealed a significantly enhanced suppression of tumor growth in the treated group suggesting that these novel CAPE-MotAb nanoparticles may serve as a potent anticancer nanomedicine.
Project description:Honeybee propolis and its bioactive component, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), are known for a variety of therapeutic potentials. By recruiting a cell-based reporter assay for screening of hypoxia-modulating natural drugs, we identified CAPE as a pro-hypoxia factor. In silico studies were used to probe the capacity of CAPE to interact with potential hypoxia-responsive proteins. CAPE could not dock into hypoxia inducing factor (HIF-1), the master regulator of hypoxia response pathway. On the other hand, it was predicted to bind to factor inhibiting HIF (FIH-1). The active site residue (Asp201) of FIH-1α was involved in hydrogen bond formation with CAPE and its analogue, caffeic acid methyl ester (CAME), especially in the presence of Fe and 2-oxoglutaric acid (OGA). We provide experimental evidence that the low doses of CAPE, that did not cause cytotoxicity or anti-migratory effect, activated HIF-1α and inhibited stress-induced protein aggregation, a common cause of age-related pathologies. Furthermore, by structural homology search, we explored and found candidate compounds that possess stronger FIH-1 binding capacity. These compounds could be promising candidates for modulating therapeutic potential of CAPE, and its recruitment in treatment of protein aggregation-based disorders.
Project description:Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) is a key component in New Zealand propolis, known for a variety of health promoting and therapeutic potentials. We investigated the molecular mechanism of anticancer and anti-metastasis activities of CAPE. cDNA array performed on the control and CAPE-treated breast cancer cells revealed activation of DNA damage signaling involving upregulation of GADD45? and p53 tumor suppressor proteins. Molecular docking analysis revealed that CAPE is capable of disrupting mortalin-p53 complexes. We provide experimental evidence and demonstrate that CAPE induced disruption of mortalin-p53 complexes led to nuclear translocation and activation of p53 resulting in growth arrest in cancer cells. Furthermore, CAPE-treated cells exhibited downregulation of mortalin and several other key regulators of cell migration accountable for its anti-metastasis activity. Of note, we found that whereas CAPE was unstable in the culture medium (as it gets degraded into caffeic acid by secreted esterases), its complex with gamma cyclodextrin (?CD) showed high efficacy in anti-tumor and anti-metastasis assays in vitro and in vivo (when administered through either intraperitoneal or oral route). The data proposes that CAPE-?CD complex is a potent anti-cancer and anti-metastasis reagent.
Project description:Purpose: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is the main polyphenol extracted from honeybee propolis, which inhibits the growth of several kinds of tumor. This study aimed to assess the inhibitory effect of CAPE in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), evaluate the synergistic action of CAPE in radiotherapy sensitivity of NPC cell lines and further elucidate the possible molecular mechanism involved. Materials and methods: CCK-8 assay was used to analyze cell proliferation ability. Colony formation assay was used to evaluate the clonogenic ability and radio-sensitiveness of NPC cells by CAPE treatment. Wound-healing and transwell assay were used to assess the motility of cells. The expression of key molecules of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was determined by western blot analysis and changes in radiation sensitivity were measured by colony-formation assay. cDNA microarray analysis was used to determine differentially expressed genes with and without CAPE treatment, with Gene Ontology enrichment of gene function and KEGG pathways determined. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Results: CAPE suppressed the viability of NPC cell lines time- and dose-dependently. It induced apoptosis in NPC cells along with decreased expression of Bcl-XL and increased cleavage of PARP and expression of Bax. G1 phase arrest was induced by CAPE with ower expression of CDK4, CDK6, Rb and p-Rb. The migratory and invasive ability of NPC cells was decreased by the EMT pathway. The irradiation sensitivity of NPC cells was enhanced with CAPE treatment. CAPE specifically inhibited nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway by suppressing p65 subunit translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. CAPE treatment was synergistic with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Conclusion: CAPE may inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of NPC cells but enhance radiosensitivity in NPC therapy by inhibiting the NF-?B pathway. CAPE could be a potential therapeutic compound for NPC therapy.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by progressive demyelination and disabling outcomes. CD4+ T cells are the most critical driving factor of relapsing MS, but little improvement has been noted upon deletion of the whole T cell population. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main active compounds of propolis, exhibits potent antitumour, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties by suppressing nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) transactivation. To investigate the therapeutic potential of CAPE in MS, we studied the effects of CAPE on cytokine levels, T cells, and NF-?B activities and in an experimental MS animal model. The results showed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with relapsing MS is characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines that preferentially skew towards T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines. In vitro studies demonstrated that CAPE not only inhibited T cell proliferation and activation but also effectively modulated T cell subsets. Under both Th0- and Th1-polarizing conditions, the proportion of CD4+IFN-? + cells was downregulated, while CD4+Foxp3+ cells were increased. Moreover, nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 was inhibited by CAPE. In a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, prophylactic treatment with CAPE significantly decreased the disease incidence and severity. Compared to the vehicle group, mice pretreated with CAPE showed diminished inflammatory cell infiltration, microglia/macrophage activation, and demyelination injury. Additionally, CAPE pretreatment reduced the level of Th1 cells in both spleen and the CNS and increased regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the CNS. In conclusion, our results highlight the potential merit of CAPE in suppressing T cell activity mainly through targeting the pathogenic Th1 lineage, which may be beneficial for MS treatment.
Project description:CAPE is an active constituent of propolis which is widely used in traditional medicine. This hydroxycinnamic acid derivate is a known activator of the redox-active Nrf2 signalling pathway in mammalian cells. We used C. elegans to investigate the effects of this compound on accumulation of reactive oxygen species and the modulation of the pivotal redox-active pathways SKN-1 and DAF-16 (homologues of Nrf2 and FoxO, respectively) in this model organism; these results were compared to the effects in Hct116 human colon carcinoma cells. CAPE exerts a strong antioxidative effect in C. elegans: The increase of reactive oxygen species induced by thermal stress was diminished by about 50%. CAPE caused a nuclear translocation of DAF-16, but not SKN-1. CAPE increased stress resistance of the nematode against thermal stress and finally a prolongation of the median and maximum lifespan by 9 and 17%, respectively. This increase in stress resistance and lifespan was dependent on DAF-16 as shown in experiments using a DAF-16 loss of function mutant strain. Life prolongation was retained under SKN-1 RNAi conditions showing that the effect is SKN-1 independent. The results of CAPE obtained in C. elegans differed from the results obtained in Hct116 colon carcinoma cells: CAPE also caused strong antioxidative effects in the mammalian cells, but no activation of the FoxO4 signalling pathway was detectable. Instead, an activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway was shown by luciferase assay and western blots.CAPE activates the insulin-like DAF-16, but not the SKN-1 signalling pathway in C. elegans and therefore enhances the stress resistance and lifespan of this organism. Since modulation of the DAF-16 pathway was found to be a pivotal effect of CAPE in C. elegans, this has to be taken into account for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of the traditional use of propolis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Androgen receptor (AR) plays important role in the development, progression, and metastasis of prostate cancer (PCa). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is the main component of honey bee propolis. We determined if CAPE affects the signaling and stability of AR in PCa cells. METHODS:Effects of CAPE on AR transcriptional activity and localization were determined by reporter gene assay and immunofluorescent microscopy. Western blotting, fluorescent polarization, computer simulation, and animal experiment were performed to investigate the molecular mechanism how CAPE reduces the stability of AR. RESULTS:CAPE treatment dose-dependently suppressed the transcriptional activity of AR as well as the protein levels of AR and its target gene PSA. Cyclohexamide treatment revealed that androgen stabilized AR protein, but AR stability was diminished by CAPE. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that androgen promoted the nucleus translocation of AR in PCa cells, while treatment with CAPE reduced protein level of AR in both nucleus and cytoplasm. CAPE treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of Ser81 and Ser213 on AR, which regulates the stability of AR. CDK1 and AKT are the kinases phosphorylating Ser81 and Ser213 on AR, respectively. CAPE treatment significantly reduced the protein level and activity of CDK1 and AKT in PCa cells. Overexpression of CDK1 or AKT rescued the AR protein level under CAPE treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggested that CAPE treatment reduced AR stability and AR transcriptional activity in PCa cells, implying the possibility of using CAPE as a treatment for advanced PCa.
Project description:Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, has been attracting the attention of different medical and pharmaceutical disciplines in recent years because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antiviral, antifungal, and antineoplastic properties. One of the most studied organs for the effects of CAPE is the kidney, particularly in the capacity of this ester to decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by several drugs and the oxidative injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In this review, we summarized and critically evaluated the current knowledge regarding the protective effect of CAPE in nephrotoxicity induced by several special medicines such as cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclosporine, gentamycin, methotrexate, and other causes leading to oxidative renal injury, namely, I/R models and senility.