Insonation of Systemically Delivered Cisplatin-Loaded Microbubbles Significantly Attenuates Nephrotoxicity of Chemotherapy in Experimental Models of Head and Neck Cancer.
ABSTRACT: The use of cisplatin (CDDP), the most common chemotherapy drug for head and neck cancer, is limited by its undesirable side effects, especially nephrotoxicity. We investigated ultrasound microbubbles (USMB) as a tool to increase the local intra-tumoral CDDP level while decreasing systemic CDDP cytotoxicity. We allowed CDDP to interact with human serum albumin and then sonicated the resulting CDDP?albumin complex to generate CDDP-loaded MBs (CDDP-MBs). We then established a head-and-neck tumor-bearing mouse model by implanting FaDu-fLuc/GFP cells into severe combined immunodeficiency mice and used IVIS® bioluminescence imaging to determine the tumor xenograft formation and size. Twice weekly (until Day 33), we administered CDDP only, CDDP + MBs + US, CDDP-MBs, or CDDP-MBs + US intravenously by tail-vein injection. The US treatment was administered at the tumor site immediately after injection. The in vivo systemic distribution of CDDP indicated that the kidney was the most vulnerable organ, followed by the liver, and then the inner ear. However, CDDP uptake into the kidney and liver was significantly decreased in both the CDDP-MBs and CDDP-MBs + US groups, suggesting that MB binding significantly reduced the systemic toxicity of CDDP. The CDDP-MBs + US treatment reduced the tumor size as effectively as conventional CDDP-only chemotherapy. Therefore, the combination of CDDP-MBs with ultrasound is effective and significantly attenuates CDDP-associated nephrotoxicity, indicating a promising clinical potential for this approach.
Project description:Microbubbles-assisted ultrasound (USMB) has shown promise in improving local drug delivery. The formation of transient membrane pores and endocytosis are reported to be enhanced by USMB, and they contribute to cellular drug uptake. Exocytosis also seems to be linked to endocytosis upon USMB treatment. Based on this rationale, we investigated whether USMB triggers exocytosis resulting in the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs). USMB was performed on a monolayer of head-and-neck cancer cells (FaDu) with clinically approved microbubbles and commonly used ultrasound parameters. At 2, 4, and 24 h, cells and EV-containing conditioned media from USMB and control conditions (untreated cells, cells treated with microbubbles and ultrasound only) were harvested. EVs were measured using flow cytometric immuno-magnetic bead capture assay, immunogold electron microscopy, and western blotting. After USMB, levels of CD9 exposing-EVs significantly increased at 2 and 4 h, whereas levels of CD63 exposing-EVs increased at 2 h. At 24 h, EV levels were comparable to control levels. EVs released after USMB displayed a heterogeneous size distribution profile (30-1200 nm). Typical EV markers CD9, CD63, and alix were enriched in EVs released from USMB-treated FaDu cells. In conclusion, USMB treatment triggers exocytosis leading to the release of EVs from FaDu cells.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the associations of XPC c.2815A>C, XPD c.934G>A and c.2251A>C, XPF c.2505T>C and ERCC1 c.354C>T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of nucleotide excision repair pathway in outcome of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with cisplatin (CDDP) chemoradiation. Patients with XPC c.2815AC or CC and XPD c.934GA or AA genotypes had 0.20 and 0.38 less chances of presenting moderate/severe ototoxicity and nausea, respectively. Patients with XPD c.934AA and c.2251AC or CC genotypes had 8.64, 12.29 and 3.55 more chances of achieving complete response (CR), consistent ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, respectively. AA haplotype of XPD and ACT haplotype of XPD and ERCC1 SNPs were associated with 9.30 and 3.41 more chances of achieving CR and consistent nephrotoxicity, respectively. At 24 months of follow-up, patients with XPD c.934AA genotype presented lower progression-free survival and overall survival in Kaplan-Meier estimates, and differences between groups remained the same in univariate Cox analysis. Patients with XPD c.934AA genotype had 2.13 and 2.04 more risks of presenting tumor progression and death than others in multivariate Cox analysis. Our data present preliminary evidence that XPC c.2815A>C, XPD c.934G>A and c.2251A>C, and ERCC1 c.354C>T SNPs alter outcome of HNSCC patients treated with CDDP chemoradiation.
Project description:Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II), CDDP) is a chemotherapeutic drug widely used against many solid tumors. A pharmacokinetics study found that CDDP can bind to human serum albumin (HSA), which is the most abundant plasma protein in serum. HSA has the advantage of being a nanocarrier and can accumulate in tumors by passive targeting and active targeting mediated by the secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). In this study, we investigated the possibility of using a CDDP-HSA complex (HSA-CDDP) as a SPARC-mediated therapeutic agent. To investigate the HSA-dependent therapeutic effect of HSA-CDDP, we used two types of U87MG glioma cells that express SPARC differently. HSA-CDDP was highly taken up in SPARC expressing cells and this uptake was enhanced with exogenous SPARC treatment in cells with low expression of SPARC. The cytotoxicity of HSA-CDDP was also higher in SPARC-expressing cells. In the tumor model, HSA-CDDP showed a similar tumor growth and survival rate to CDDP only in SPARC-expressing tumor models. The biosafety test indicated that HSA-CDDP was less nephrotoxic than CDDP, based on blood markers and histopathology examination. Our findings show that HSA-CDDP has the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent for SPARC-expressing tumors, enhancing the tumor targeting effect by HSA and reducing the nephrotoxicity of CDDP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CDDP) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents. However, its clinical use is limited due to the severe side effects, including nephrotoxicity and acute kidney injury (AKI) which develop due to renal accumulation and biotransformation of CDDP. The alleviation or prevention of CDDP-caused nephrotoxicity is currently accomplished by hydration, magnesium supplementation or mannitol-induced forced diuresis which is considered for high-dose CDDP-treated patients. However, mannitol treatment causes over-diuresis and consequent dehydration in CDDP-treated patients, indicating an urgent need for the clinical use of safe and efficacious renoprotective drug as an additive therapy for high dose CDDP-treated patients. MAIN BODY:In this review article we describe in detail signaling pathways involved in CDDP-induced apoptosis of renal tubular cells, oxidative stress and inflammatory response in injured kidneys in order to pave the way for the design of new therapeutic approaches that can minimize CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity. Most of these molecular pathways are, at the same time, crucially involved in cytotoxic activity of CDDP against tumor cells and potential alterations in their function might mitigate CDDP-induced anti-tumor effects. CONCLUSION:Despite the fact that many molecules were designated as potential therapeutic targets for renoprotection against CDDP, modulation of CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity still represents a balance on the knife edge between renoprotection and tumor toxicity.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs)-carrying biomolecules derived from parental cells have achieved substantial scientific interest for their potential use as drug nanocarriers. Ultrasound (US) in combination with microbubbles (MB) have been shown to trigger the release of EVs from cancer cells. In the current study, the use of microbubbles-assisted ultrasound (USMB) to generate EVs containing drug cargo was investigated. The model drug, CellTracker™ green fluorescent dye (CTG) or bovine serum albumin conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA FITC) was loaded into primary human endothelial cells in vitro using USMB. We found that USMB loaded CTG and BSA FITC into human endothelial cells (HUVECs) and triggered the release of EVs containing these compounds in the cell supernatant within 2 h after treatment. The amount of EV released seemed to be correlated with the increase of US acoustic pressure. Co-culturing these EVs resulted in uptake by the recipient tumour cells within 4 h. In conclusion, USMB was able to load the model drugs into endothelial cells and simultaneously trigger the release of EVs-carrying model drugs, highlighting the potential of EVs as drug nanocarriers for future drug delivery in cancer.
Project description:Ultrasound combined with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising antitumor therapy because of its capability to selectively disrupt tumor perfusion. However, the antitumor effects of repeated USMB treatments have yet to be clarified. In this study, we established a VX2 muscular tumor xenograft model in rabbits, and performed USMB treatments at five different peak negative acoustic pressure levels (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, or 5.0 MPa) to determine the appropriate acoustic pressure. To investigate whether repeated USMB treatments could improve the antitumor effects, a group of tumor-bearing rabbits was subjected to one USMB treatment per day for three consecutive days for comparison with the single-treatment group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonic imaging and histological analyses showed that at an acoustic pressure of 4.0 MPa, USMB treatment contributed to substantial cessation of tumor perfusion, resulting in severe damage to the tumor cells and microvessels without causing significant effects on the normal tissue. Further, the percentages of damaged area and apoptotic cells in the tumor were significantly higher, and the tumor growth inhibition effect was more obvious in the multiple-treatment group than in the single USMB treatment group. These findings indicate that with an appropriate acoustic pressure, the USMB treatment can selectively destroy tumor vessels in muscular tumor xenograft models. Moreover, the repeated treatments strategy can significantly improve the antitumor effect. Therefore, our results provide a foundation for the clinical application of USMB to treat solid tumors using a novel therapeutic strategy.
Project description:High-dose radiotherapy (>8-10 Gy) causes rapid endothelial cell death via acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase)-induced ceramide production, resulting in biologically significant enhancement of tumor responses. To further augment or solicit similar effects at low radiation doses, we used genetic and chemical approaches to evaluate mechano-acoustic activation of the ASMase-ceramide pathway by ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles (USMB).Experiments were carried out in wild-type and acid sphingomyelinase (asmase) knockout mice implanted with fibrosarcoma xenografts. A cohort of wild-type mice received the ASMase-ceramide pathway inhibitor sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Mice were treated with varying radiation doses, with or without a priori USMB exposure at different microbubble concentrations. Treatment response was assessed with quantitative 3D Doppler ultrasound and immunohistochemistry at baseline, and at three, 24, and 72 hours after treatment, with three to five mice per treatment group at each time point. All statistical tests were two-sided.Results confirmed an interaction between USMB and ionizing radiation at 24 hours (P < .001), with a decrease in tumor perfusion of up to 46.5% by three hours following radiation and USMB. This peaked at 24 hours, persisting for up to 72 hours, and was accompanied by extensive tumor cell death. In contrast, statistically nonsignificant and minimal tumor responses were noted in S1P-treated and asmase knockout mice for all treatments.This work is the first to confirm the involvement of the ASMase-ceramide pathway in mechanotransductive vascular targeting using USMB. Results also confirm that an acute vascular effect is driving this form of enhanced radiation response, and that it can be elicited at low radiation doses (<8-10 Gy) by a priori USMB exposure.
Project description:For the purpose of analyzing mechanisms related to the cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (head and neck SCC), we employed a nasal squamous cell carcinoma (nasal SCC) cell line RPMI2650 and its CDDP resistant substrain RPMI2650CR previously described. The identification of the resistance-related microRNA (miR) clusters was conducted between RPMI2650CR and RPMI2650 using microRNA microarray. microRNA expression of parental and CDDP resistant was measured with or without CDDP treatment in duplicate.
Project description:The side effects of cisplatin (CDDP), notably nephrotoxicity, greatly limited its use in clinical chemotherapy. HuangQi Injections (HI), a commonly used preparation of the well-known Chinese herbal medicine Astragali radix, appeared to be promising treatment for nephrotoxicity without compromising the anti-tumor activity of CDDP. In this study, the urinary metabolomics approach using liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) was developed to assess the toxicity-attenuation effects and corresponding mechanisms of HI on CDDP-exposed rats. As a result, successive administration of HI significantly recovered the decline of body weight and downregulated the abnormal increase of serum creatinine and urea. HI partly restored the CDDP-induced alteration of metabolic profiling back into normal condition. Totally 43 toxicity-attenuation potential biomarkers were screened and tentatively identified, which were involved in important metabolic pathways such as amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle, fatty acid metabolism, vitamin B6 metabolism and purine metabolism. The results clearly revealed that HI could alleviate CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity and improve the disturbed metabolic balance induced by repeated CDDP exposure. The present study provided reliable evidence for the protective effect of HI on CDDP-induced toxicity with the multi-target pharmacological characteristics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to compare Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), Brock and Chang hearing loss grading in patients with head and neck cancer receiving cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP). Endpoints were baseline distribution of hearing loss, interobserver consistency, and sensitivity to hearing loss after CDDP treatment. METHODS:Four hundred sixty single ear audiograms in 110 patients with head and neck cancer were graded. Hearing loss at baseline, interobserver agreement rates, and changes in hearing loss after CDDP were evaluated. RESULTS:The Chang and Brock tools' baseline hearing loss distribution was concentrated at grade 0 (57% and 41%, respectively), whereas 47%, per the CTCAE, had grade 3 baseline hearing loss. Interobserver agreement was highest for the Brock scale (?90%) followed by the Chang (?89%) and CTCAE (?75%) scales. Detection of change after CDDP was highest for Chang (48%) followed by Brock (45%) and the CTCAE (32%). CONCLUSION:The Brock and Chang tools may be superior to the CTCAE in patients with head and neck cancer receiving CDDP using baseline hearing loss distribution, interobserver agreement, and detection of hearing loss grade change as performance indicators.