Thin Electric Heating Membrane Constructed with a Three-Dimensional Nanofibrillated Cellulose?Graphene?Graphene Oxide System.
ABSTRACT: Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and graphene oxide (GO) with reinforcing and film-forming properties were employed with graphene to develop a novel and thin electric heating membrane with heat dissipation controllability. A negative charge was found on the surface of GO and NFC in aqueous dispersions, which contributed to the homogeneous distribution of the graphene sheets. The membrane had a good laminated structure with three-dimensional interaction between GO and NFC, with embedded graphene sheets. Conductivity was characterized as a function of the amount of graphene, thus giving control over to the heating power by adjusting the ratio of graphene. Subsequent electric heating tests can remove irregularities on the GO and graphene sheet, improving the laminated structure further. The temperature on the surface of the membrane presented an exponential increasing regularity with time. Under the same power density and time, the stabilized temperature rise of membranes was higher when grammage was higher, which was characterized by the linear function of the power density. Low-grammage membranes (1 and 4 g·m-2) also exhibited regular and even stabilized temperature rises. The indicated structure and heating performance of the membrane, as well as the variation induced by Joule heating, would drive its applications.
Project description:Membranes with atomic level pores or constrictions are valuable for separation and catalysis. We report a graphene-based membrane with an interlayer spacing of 3.7 angstrom (Å). When graphene oxide nanoplates are functionalized and then reduced, the laminated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates or functionalized rGO membrane is little affected by an intercalated fluid, and the interlayer spacing of 3.7?Å increases only to 4.4?Å in wetted state, in contrast to the graphene oxide (GO) membrane whose interlayer spacing increases from 9?Å to 13?Å in wetted state. When applied to ion separation, this membrane reduced the permeation rate of small ions such as K(+) and Na(+) by three orders of magnitude compared to the GO membrane.
Project description:With the rapid development of wearable and portable electronic devices, it is increasingly important to develop conductive paper-like films (CPFs) with the characteristics of light, thin and self-supporting. In this paper, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was used as reinforcing phase of film-forming to combine with graphene oxide (GO). Then graphene-based CPFs were prepared by directly reducing the GO/NFC composite film without any additional adhesives, which effectively avoided the difficulties of dispersion and combination with other materials caused by direct using of high content graphene. Meanwhile, three representative reduction methods for direct reduction of GO/NFC composite films were also compared. The results show that 450?°C thermal reduction and hydroiodic acid reduction were more effective than ascorbic acid reduction. On this basis, hydroiodic acid reduction and thermal reduction were used to discuss the effect of NFC addition to the conductivity of the film. This occured when increasing the content of NFC from 10% to 50%, the electrical conductivity of the composite film by hydroiodic acid reduction decreased from 153.8?S/m to 22.2?S/m. While the conductivity of composite film increased first and then decreased after thermal reduction both at 450?°C and 550?°C. What's more, when NFC content was about 16.6% the electrical conductivity reached a high level which was 86.21?S/m and 168.9?S/m, respectively. This study provides a groundwork for the further development of graphene-based CPFs with low square resistance and high conductivity in large-scale preparation.
Project description:Hydrophilic graphene sheets were synthesized from a mixture of magnesium and gallic acid (GA) modified graphene oxide (GO) in a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, and hydrophilic graphene sheets displayed the higher C/O ratio (16.36), outstanding conductivity (~88900 S/m) and excellent water-solubility. GO sheets were connected together by GA, and GA was captured to darn GO structure defects through the formation of hydrogen bonds and ester bonds. In SHS process, the most oxygen ions of GO reacted with magnesium to prevent the escape of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to from the structure defects associated with vacancies, and GA could take place the high-temperature carbonization, during which a large-area graphene sheets formed with a part of the structure defects being repaired. When only GO was reduced by magnesium in SHS process, and the reduced GO (rGO) exhibited the smaller sheets, the lower C/O ratio (15.26), the weaker conductivity (4200?S/m) and the poor water-solubility because rGO inevitably left behind carbon vacancies and topological defects. Therefore, the larger sheet, less edge defects and free structure defects associated with vacancies play a key role for graphene sheets good dispersion in water.
Project description:Graphene oxide (GO) sheets have been used to construct various bulk forms of GO and graphene-based materials through solution-based processing techniques. Here, we report a highly cohesive dough state of GO with tens of weight percent loading in water without binder-like additives. The dough state can be diluted to obtain gels or dispersions, and dried to yield hard solids. It can be kneaded without leaving stains, readily reshaped, connected, and further processed to make bulk GO and graphene materials of arbitrary form factors and tunable microstructures. The doughs can be transformed to dense glassy solids of GO or graphene without long-range stacking order of the sheets, which exhibit isotropic and much enhanced mechanical properties due to hindered sliding between the sheets. GO dough is also found to be a good support material for electrocatalysts as it helps to form compliant interface to access the active particles.
Project description:Graphene oxide (GO) sheets have been used as a model system to study how the mechanical properties of two-dimensional building blocks scale to their bulk form, such as paper-like, lamellar-structured thin films. Here, we report that the modulus of multilayer GO films can be significantly enhanced if some of the sheets are drastically weakened by introducing in-plane porosity. Nanometer-sized pores are introduced in GO sheets by chemical etching. Membrane-deflection measurements at the single-layer level show that the sheets are drastically weakened as the in-plane porosity increases. However, the mechanical properties of the corresponding multilayer films are much less sensitive to porosity. Surprisingly, the co-assembly of pristine and etched GO sheets yields even stiffer films than those made from pristine sheets alone. This is attributed to the more compliant nature of the soft porous sheets, which act as a binder to improve interlayer packing and load transfer in the multilayer films.
Project description:The unique characteristic of fast water permeation in laminated graphene oxide (GO) sheets has facilitated the development of ultrathin and ultrafast nanofiltration membranes. Here we report the application of fast water permeation property of immersed GO deposition for enhancing the performance of a GO/water nanofluid charged two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT). By benchmarking its performance against a silver oxide/water nanofluid charged TPCT, the enhancement of evaporation strength is found to be essentially attributed to the fast water permeation property of GO deposition instead of the enhanced surface wettability of the deposited layer. The expansion of interlayer distance between the graphitic planes of GO deposited layer enables intercalation of bilayer water for fast water permeation. The capillary force attributed to the frictionless interaction between the atomically smooth, hydrophobic carbon structures and the well-ordered hydrogen bonds of water molecules is sufficiently strong to overcome the gravitational force. As a result, a thin water film is formed on the GO deposited layers, inducing filmwise evaporation which is more effective than its interfacial counterpart, appreciably enhanced the overall performance of TPCT. This study paves the way for a promising start of employing the fast water permeation property of GO in thermal applications.
Project description:Biographene was successfully produced in water from graphite flakes by a simple, rapid, and efficient methodology based on a bioexfoliation technology. The methodology consisted in the application of a lipase, with a unique mechanism of interaction with hydrophobic surfaces, combined with a previous mechanical sonication, to selectively generate lipase-graphene sheets conjugates in water at room temperature. The adsorption of the lipase on the graphene sheets permits to keep the sheets separated in comparison with other methods. It was possible to obtain more than 80% of graphene (in the form of multi-layer graphene) from low-cost graphite and with less damage compared to commercial graphene oxide (GO) or reduced GO. Experimental analysis demonstrated the formation of multi-layer graphene (MLG) mainly using lipase from Thermomyces Lanuginosus (TLL).
Project description:Graphene-based membranes demonstrating ultrafast water transport, precise molecular sieving of gas and solvated molecules shows great promise as novel separation platforms; however, scale-up of these membranes to large-areas remains an unresolved problem. Here we demonstrate that the discotic nematic phase of graphene oxide (GO) can be shear aligned to form highly ordered, continuous, thin films of multi-layered GO on a support membrane by an industrially adaptable method to produce large-area membranes (13 × 14 cm(2)) in <5 s. Pressure driven transport data demonstrate high retention (>90%) for charged and uncharged organic probe molecules with a hydrated radius above 5 Å as well as modest (30-40%) retention of monovalent and divalent salts. The highly ordered graphene sheets in the plane of the membrane make organized channels and enhance the permeability (71 ± 5 l m(-2) hr(-1) bar(-1) for 150 ± 15 nm thick membranes).
Project description:Graphene sheets doped with nitrogen were produced by the reduction-expansion (RES) method utilizing graphite oxide (GO) and urea as precursor materials. The simultaneous graphene generation and nitrogen insertion reactions are based on the fact that urea decomposes upon heating to release reducing gases. The volatile byproducts perform two primary functions: (i) promoting the reduction of the GO and (ii) providing the nitrogen to be inserted <i>in situ</i> as the graphene structure is created. Samples with diverse urea/GO mass ratios were treated at 800 °C in inert atmosphere to generate graphene with diverse microstructural characteristics and levels of nitrogen doping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the microstructural features of the products. The effects of doping on the samples structure and surface area were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET). The GO and urea decomposition-reduction process as well as nitrogen-doped graphene stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS) analysis of the evolved gases. Results show that the proposed method offers a high level of control over the amount of nitrogen inserted in the graphene and may be used alternatively to control its surface area. To demonstrate the practical relevance of these findings, as-produced samples were used as electrodes in supercapacitor and battery devices and compared with conventional, thermally exfoliated graphene.
Project description:Graphene oxide (GO) based membranes have been widely applied in molecular separation based on the size exclusion effect of the nanochannels formed by stacked GO sheets. However, it's still a challenge to prepare a freestanding GO-based membrane with high mechanical strength and structural stability which is prerequisite for separation application in aqueous solution. Here, a freestanding composite membrane based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and GO is designed and prepared. BC network provides a porous skeleton to spread GO sheets and uniformly incorporates into the GO layers, which endows the BC?+?GO composite membrane with well water-stability, excellent tensile strength, as well as improved toughness, guaranteeing its separation applicability in water environment. The resulting BC?+?GO membrane exhibits obviously discrepant permeation properties for different inorganic/organic ions with different size, and in particular, it can quickly separate ions in nano-scale from angstrom-scale. Therefore, this novel composite membrane is considered to be a promising candidate in the applications of water purification, food industry, biomedicine, and pharmaceutical and fuel separation.