Who's Driving? Human Cytomegalovirus, Interferon, and NF?B Signaling.
ABSTRACT: As essential components of the host's innate immune response, NF?B and interferon signaling are critical determinants of the outcome of infection. Over the past 25 years, numerous Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genes have been identified that antagonize or modulate the signaling of these pathways. Here we review the biology of the HCMV factors that alter NF?B and interferon signaling, including what is currently known about how these viral genes contribute to infection and persistence, as well as the major outstanding questions that remain.
Project description:Cellular receptor-mediated signaling pathways play critical roles during the initial immune response to Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. However, the involvement of type-I transmembrane glycoprotein CD147/EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) in the antiviral response to HCMV infection is still unknown. Here, we demonstrated the specific knockdown of CD147 significantly decreased HCMV-induced activation of NF-?B and Interferon-beta (IFN-?), which contribute to the cellular antiviral responses. Next, we confirmed that HCMV-encoded miR-US25-1-5p could target the 3' UTR (Untranslated Region) of CD147 mRNA, and thus facilitate HCMV lytic propagation at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI). The expression and secretion of Cyclophilin A (sCyPA), as a ligand for CD147 and a proinflammatory cytokine, were up-regulated in response to HCMV stimuli. Finally, we confirmed that CD147 mediated HCMV-triggered antiviral signaling via the sCyPA-CD147-ERK (extracellular regulated protein kinases)/NF-?B axis signaling pathway. These findings reveal an important HCMV mechanism for evading antiviral innate immunity through its encoded microRNA by targeting transmembrane glycoprotein CD147, and a potential cause of HCMV inflammatory disorders due to the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine CyPA.
Project description:The rapid activation of pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated type I interferon (IFN) signaling is crucial for the host response to infection. In turn, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) must evade this potent response to establish life-long infection. Here, we reveal that the HCMV tegument protein UL35 antagonizes the activation of type I IFN transcription downstream of the DNA and RNA sensors cGAS and RIG-I, respectively. We show that ectopic expression of UL35 diminishes the type I IFN response, while infection with a recombinant HCMV lacking UL35 induces an elevated type I IFN response compared to wildtype HCMV. With a series of luciferase reporter assays and the analysis of signaling kinetics upon HCMV infection, we observed that UL35 downmodulates PRR signaling at the level of the key signaling factor TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Finally, we demonstrate that UL35 and TBK1 co-immunoprecipitate when co-expressed in HEK293T cells. In addition, we show that a previously reported cellular binding partner of UL35, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), post-translationally GlcNAcylates UL35, but that this modification is not required for the antagonizing effect of UL35 on PRR signaling. In summary, we have identified UL35 as the first HCMV protein to antagonize the type I IFN response at the level of TBK1, thereby enriching our understanding of how this important herpesvirus escapes host immune responses.
Project description:Viruses must negotiate cellular antiviral responses in order to replicate. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent betaherpesvirus that encodes a number of viral gene products that modulate cellular antiviral signaling. The HCMV UL26 gene has previously been found to attenuate cytokine-activated NF-?B signaling, yet the role that UL26 plays in modulating the host cell's global transcriptional response to infection is not clear. Here, we find that infection with a UL26 deletion virus (?UL26) induces a proinflammatory transcriptional environment that includes substantial increases in the expression of cytokine signaling genes relative to wild-type HCMV. These increases include NF-?B-regulated genes as well as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as ISG15 and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2). The ?UL26 mutant-mediated induction of ISG15 expression was found to drive increases in global protein ISGylation during ?UL26 mutant infection. However, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and CRISPR-mediated targeting of ISG15 indicated that its induction does not restrict HCMV infection. In contrast, shRNA-mediated targeting of BST2 demonstrated that BST2 restricts HCMV cell-to-cell spread. In addition, the increased expression of both of these ISGs and the global enhancement in protein ISGylation were found to be dependent on the activity of the canonical inhibitor of NF-?B kinase beta (IKK?). Both CRISPR-based and pharmacologically mediated inhibition of IKK? blocked the induction of ISG15 and BST2. These results suggest significant cross-talk between the NF-?B and interferon signaling pathways and highlight the importance of IKK signaling and the HCMV UL26 protein in shaping the antiviral response to HCMV.IMPORTANCE Modulation of cellular antiviral signaling is a key determinant of viral pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a significant source of morbidity in neonates and the immunosuppressed that contains many genes that modulate antiviral signaling, yet how these genes contribute to shaping the host cell's transcriptional response to infection is largely unclear. Our results indicate that the HCMV UL26 protein is critical in preventing the establishment of a broad cellular proinflammatory transcriptional environment. Further, we find that the host gene IKK? is an essential determinant governing the host cell's antiviral transcriptional response. Given their importance to viral pathogenesis, continuing to elucidate the functional interactions between viruses and the cellular innate immune response could enable the development of therapeutic strategies to limit viral infection.
Project description:HCMV is a common pathogen for human with relatively high prevalence, which could be life-threatened in immunodeficient patients and lead to significant birth defects in newborns. In this study, we firstly report that HCMV infection significantly enhances the expression of microRNA-221 (miR-221) in Neural Precursor Cells (NPCs). We found that miR-221 directly targets at the 3'-UTR of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and suppresses SOCS1 expression at the both mRNA and protein levels. MiR-221 overexpression restrained HCMV replication by promoting type I interferon (IFN) and interferon stimulating genes (ISGs) production, whereas reintroduction of SOCS1 abrogated the miR-221-induced effects on HCMV replication. Importantly, miR-221 positively regulated the phosphorylation and activation of NF-?B by suppressing SOCS1. What's more, miR-221 agomir alleviated MCMV-induced tissue injury by promoting type I IFN antiviral activities in vivo. Thus, miR-221 modulates the infection and replication of HCMV as an intrinsic antiviral factor, and could be developed as a treatment target for anti-HCMV treatment.
Project description:Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes an ubiquitin-like protein that covalently conjugates protein. Protein modification by ISG15 (ISGylation) is known to inhibit the replication of many viruses. However, studies on the viral targets and viral strategies to regulate ISGylation-mediated antiviral responses are limited. In this study, we show that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication is inhibited by ISGylation, but the virus has evolved multiple countermeasures. HCMV-induced ISG15 expression was mitigated by IE1, a viral inhibitor of interferon signaling, however, ISGylation was still strongly upregulated during virus infection. RNA interference of UBE1L (E1), UbcH8 (E2), Herc5 (E3), and UBP43 (ISG15 protease) revealed that ISGylation inhibits HCMV growth by downregulating viral gene expression and virion release in a manner that is more prominent at low multiplicity of infection. A viral regulator pUL26 was found to interact with ISG15, UBE1L, and Herc5, and be ISGylated. ISGylation of pUL26 regulated its stability and inhibited its activities to suppress NF-?B signaling and complement the growth of UL26-null mutant virus. Moreover, pUL26 reciprocally suppressed virus-induced ISGylation independent of its own ISGylation. Consistently, ISGylation was more pronounced in infections with the UL26-deleted mutant virus, whose growth was more sensitive to IFN? treatment than that of the wild-type virus. Therefore, pUL26 is a viral ISG15 target that also counteracts ISGylation. Our results demonstrate that ISGylation inhibits HCMV growth at multiple steps and that HCMV has evolved countermeasures to suppress ISG15 transcription and protein ISGylation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between virus and ISGylation in productive viral infection.
Project description:Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) senses viral DNA in the cytosol and then catalyzes synthesis of the second messenger cGAMP, which activates the ER-localized adaptor protein Mediator of IRF3 Activator (MITA) to initiate innate antiviral response. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins can antagonize host immune responses to promote latent infection. Here, we identified HCMV UL42 as a negative regulator of cGAS/MITA-dependent antiviral response. UL42-deficiency enhances HCMV-induced production of type I interferons (IFNs) and downstream antiviral genes. Consistently, wild-type HCMV replicates more efficiently than UL42-deficient HCMV. UL42 interacts with both cGAS and MITA. UL42 inhibits DNA binding, oligomerization and enzymatic activity of cGAS. UL42 also impairs translocation of MITA from the ER to perinuclear punctate structures, which is required for MITA activation, by facilitating p62/LC3B-mediated degradation of translocon-associated protein ? (TRAP?). These results suggest that UL42 can antagonize innate immune response to HCMV by targeting the core components of viral DNA-triggered signaling pathways.
Project description:Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an important innate immune sensor of bacterial pathogens. Its induction results in activation of the classic NF-?B pathway and alternative pathways including type I IFN and autophagy. Although the importance of NOD2 in recognizing RNA viruses has recently been identified, its role in sensing DNA viruses has not been studied. We report that infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in significant induction of NOD2 expression, beginning as early as 2 hours post infection and increasing steadily 24 hours post infection and afterwards. Infection with human herpesvirus 1 and 2 does not induce NOD2 expression. While the HCMV-encoded glycoprotein B is not required for NOD2 induction, a replication competent virion is necessary. Lentivirus-based NOD2 knockdown in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and U373 glioma cells leads to enhanced HCMV replication along with decreased levels of interferon beta (IFN-?) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL8. NOD2 induction in HCMV-infected cells activates downstream NF-?B and interferon pathways supported by reduced nuclear localization of NF-?B and pIRF3 in NOD2 knockdown HFFs. Stable overexpression of NOD2 in HFFs restricts HCMV replication in association with increased levels of IFN-? and IL8. Similarly, transient overexpression of NOD2 in U373 cells or its downstream kinase, RIPK2, results in decreased HCMV replication and enhanced cytokine responses. However, overexpression of a mutant NOD2, 3020insC, associated with severe Crohn's disease, results in enhanced HCMV replication and decreased levels of IFN-? in U373 cells. These results show for the first time that NOD2 plays a significant role in HCMV replication and may provide a model for studies of HCMV recognition by the host cell and HCMV colitis in Crohn's disease.
Project description:We have established that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection modulates the biology of target primary blood monocytes, allowing HCMV to use monocytes as 'vehicles' for its systemic spread. HCMV infection of monocytes results in rapid induction of PI(3)K and NF-kB activity. Integrins, which are upstream of the PI(3)K and NF-kB pathways, were shown to be involved in HCMV binding to and entry into fibroblasts, suggesting that receptor-ligand-mediated signaling following viral binding to integrins on monocytes could trigger the functional changes seen in infected monocytes. We now show that integrin engagement and the activation of the integrin/Src-signaling pathway is essential for the induction of HCMV-infected monocyte motility. To investigate how integrin engagement by HCMV triggers monocyte motility, we examined the infected monocyte transcriptome and found that the integrin/Src-signaling pathway regulates the expression of paxillin, which is an important signal transducer in the regulation of actin rearrangement during cell adhesion and movement. Functionally, we observed that paxillin is activated via the integrin/Src-signaling pathway and is required for monocyte motility. Because motility is intimately connected to cellular cytoskeletal organization, a process that is also important in viral entry, we investigated the role paxillin regulation plays in the process of viral entry of monocytes. New results confirmed that HCMV`s ability to enter target monocytes is significantly inhibited in cells deficient in paxillin expression or that had their integrin/Src/paxillin signaling pathway blocked. From our data, HCMV-cell interactions emerge as an essential trigger for the cellular changes that allow for HCMV entry and hematogenous dissemination. Monocytes were mock-infected, HCMV-infected, or pretreated with PP2 inhibitor prior to HCMV infection. There were three samples analyzed per individual replicate. Three replicates are included. comparative studies with a use of the specific Src kinase activity inhibitor
Project description:One of the most important innate host defense mechanisms against viral infection is the induction of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). Immediately upon entry, viruses activate interferon-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), as well as nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), which transactivate a subset of ISGs, proinflammatory genes, as well as IFN genes. Most large DNA viruses exhibit countermeasures against induction of this response. However, whereas human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) inhibits IFN-dependent induction of ISGs, IFN-independent induction of ISGs is observed both in the presence and, even moreso, in the absence of viral gene expression. Rhesus CMV (RhCMV) is an emerging animal model for HCMV sharing important similarities in primary structure, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. To determine whether RhCMV would similarly induce ISGs, we performed DNA microarray and quantitative PCR analysis of ISG expression in rhesus fibroblasts infected with RhCMV or HCMV. In contrast to HCMV, however, RhCMV did not induce expression of ISGs or proinflammatory genes at any time after infection. Moreover, dimerization and nuclear accumulation of IRF3, readily observed in HCMV-infected cells, was absent from RhCMV-infected cells, whereas neither virus seemed to activate NFkappaB. RhCMV also blocked IRF3 activation by live or UV-inactivated HCMV, suggesting that RhCMV inhibits viral IRF3 activation and the resultant ISG induction with extraordinary efficiency. Since infection during inhibition of protein expression by cycloheximide or inactivation of viral gene expression by UV treatment did not trigger IRF3 activation or ISG expression by RhCMV, we conclude that RhCMV virions contain a novel inhibitor of IFN-independent viral induction of ISG expression by IRF3.
Project description:We documented that the NF-kappaB signaling pathway was rapidly induced following human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of human fibroblasts and that this induced NF-kappaB activity promoted efficient transactivation of the major immediate-early promoter (MIEP). Previously, we showed that the major HCMV envelope glycoproteins, gB and gH, initiated this NF-kappaB signaling event. However, we also hypothesized that there were additional mechanisms utilized by the virus to rapidly upregulate NF-kappaB. In this light, we specifically hypothesized that the HCMV virion contained IkappaBalpha kinase activity, allowing for direct phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha following virion entry into infected cells. In vitro kinase assays performed on purified HCMV virion extract identified bona fide IkappaBalpha kinase activity in the virion. The enzyme responsible for this kinase activity was identified as casein kinase II (CKII), a cellular serine-threonine protein kinase. CKII activity was necessary for efficient transactivation of the MIEP and IE gene expression. CKII is generally considered to be a constitutively active kinase. We suggest that this molecular characteristic of CKII represents the biologic rationale for the viral capture and utilization of this kinase early after infection. The packaging of CKII into the HCMV virion identifies that diverse molecular mechanisms are utilized by HCMV for rapid NF-kappaB activation. We propose that HCMV possesses multiple pathways to increase NF-kappaB activity to ensure that the correct temporal regulation of NF-kappaB occurs following infection and that sufficient threshold levels of NF-kappaB are reached in the diverse array of cells, including monocytes and endothelial cells, infected in vivo.