Inhibiting Receptor of Advanced Glycation End Products Attenuates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Preventing Excessive Autophagy.
ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in heart failure (HF) by mediating diverse pathologic processes, including the promotion of inflammation and autophagy. However, the role of RAGE in pressure overload-induced HF is not well understood. We found that stimulation of RAGE triggered the death of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), while cell death was alleviated by ATG5 knockdown. Using transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice as a model of pressure overload-induced HF, we demonstrated that RAGE knockout or RAGE blockade attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis as well as cardiac dysfunction at 8 weeks after TAC. Importantly, RAGE knockout reversed upregulation of autophagy related proteins (LC3BII/I and Beclin 1) and reduced cardiomyocyte death, indicating that excessive autophagy after TAC was inhibited. Moreover, RAGE knockout or blockade reduced the upregulation of pp65-NF?B and BNIP3, which mediate autophagy. Taken together, these results suggest that RAGE plays an important role in the progression of HF by regulating autophagy. Therefore, inhibition of the RAGE-autophagy axis could be a promising new strategy for treatment of heart failure.
Project description:Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has been shown to contribute to cardiac fibrosis and heart failure (HF). Recent studies have demonstrated that EndMT is regulated by autophagy, and we previously showed suppression of excessive autophagy and alleviation of cardiac fibrosis in HF mice with inactivated receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Thus, we investigated whether reduced cardiac fibrosis due to RAGE knockout occurred by inhibiting EndMT mediated by excessive autophagy. We found a decrease in endothelial cells (CD31<sup>+</sup>/VE-Cadherin<sup>+</sup>) and an increase in cells co-expressing CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, myofibroblast marker) at 8 weeks in heart tissue of mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC), which implied EndMT. Knockout RAGE decreased EndMT accompanied by decreased expression of autophagy-related proteins (LC3BII/I and Beclin 1), and alleviated cardiac fibrosis and improved cardiac function in TAC mice. Moreover, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ), inhibitors of autophagy, attenuated EndMT, and cardiac fibrosis in TAC mice. Importantly, EndMT induced by AGEs could be blocked by autophagy inhibitor in vivo and in vitro. These results suggested that AGEs/RAGE-autophagy-EndMT axis involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis and knockout RAGE ameliorated cardiac fibrosis through decreasing EndMT regulated by autophagy, which could be a promising therapeutic strategy for HF.
Project description:High-mobility group box1 (HMGB1) exerts effects on inflammation by binding to receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) or Toll-like receptor 4. Considering that inflammation is involved in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we herein attempted to investigate whether HMGB1 plays a role in myocardial hypertrophy in RAGE knockout mice as well as in the growth and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. The myocardial expression of RAGE was not significantly changed while TLR4 mRNA was upregulated in response to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 1 week. The myocardial expression of HMGB1 protein was markedly increased in TAC group when compared to the sham group. Heart weight to body weight ratio (HW/BW) and lung weight to body weight ratio (LW/BW) were evaluated in RAGE knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice 1 week after TAC. Significant larger HW/BW and LW/BW ratios were found in TAC groups than the corresponding sham groups, but no significant difference was found between KO and WT TAC mice. Similar results were also found when TAC duration was extended to 4 weeks. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with different concentrations of recombinant HMGB1, then cell viability was determined using MTT and CCK8 assays and cell apoptosis was determined by Hoechst staining and TUNEL assay. The results came out that HMGB1 exerted no influence on viability or apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Besides, the protein expression levels of Bax and Bcl2 in response to different concentrations of HMGB1 were similar. These findings indicate that HMGB1 neither exerts influence on cardiac remodeling by binding to RAGE nor induces apoptosis of cardiomyocytes under physiological condition.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) is characterized by abnormal mitochondrial calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup>) handling, energy failure and impaired mitophagy resulting in contractile dysfunction and myocyte death. We have previously shown that the 18-kDa mitochondrial translocator protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TSPO) can modulate mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake. Experiments were designed to test the role of the TSPO in a murine pressure-overload model of HF induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Conditional, cardiac-specific TSPO knockout (KO) mice were generated using the Cre-loxP system. TSPO-KO and wild-type (WT) mice underwent TAC for 8 weeks. TAC-induced HF significantly increased TSPO expression in WT mice, associated with a marked reduction in systolic function, mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake, complex I activity and energetics. In contrast, TSPO-KO mice undergoing TAC had preserved ejection fraction, and exhibited fewer clinical signs of HF and fibrosis. Mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake and energetics were restored in TSPO KO mice, associated with decreased ROS, improved complex I activity and preserved mitophagy. Thus, HF increases TSPO expression, while preventing this increase limits the progression of HF, preserves ATP production and decreases oxidative stress, thereby preventing metabolic failure. These findings suggest that pharmacological interventions directed at TSPO may provide novel therapeutics to prevent or treat HF.
Project description:Berberine has been verified to protect cardiac function in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the mechanism(s) involved in berberine-mediated cardioprotective effects has not been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanism(s) involved in the beneficial effects of berberine on transverse aortic contraction (TAC)-induced chronic HF. Mice were randomly divided into four groups. Berberine was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks via oral gavage. Our findings showed that TAC-induced pressure overload (PO) prompted cardiac dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial injury, accompanied with suppressed mitophagy, the effects of which were attenuated by berberine. Furthermore, mitophagy regulators PINK1 and mito-Parkin were downregulated in TAC-induced HF, while berberine upregulated PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Notably, knockdown of PINK1 by small interfering RNA significantly suppressed Parkin-mediated mitochondrial ubiquitination and nullified the beneficial actions on HF exerted by berberine. Taken together, our results indicated that berberine plays a critical role in attenuating cardiac hypertrophy and preserving cardiac function from PO induced HF. The potential underlying mechanism is the activation of mitochondrial autophagy via PINK1/Parkin/Ubiquitination pathway.
Project description:Prognosis of severe heart failure remains poor. Urgent new therapies are required. Some heart failure patients do not respond to established multidisciplinary treatment and are classified as "non-responders". The outcome is especially poor for non-responders, and underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Mitofusin-1 (Mfn1), a mitochondrial fusion protein, is significantly reduced in non-responding patients. This study aimed to elucidate the role of Mfn1 in the failing heart. Twenty-two idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) patients who underwent endomyocardial biopsy of intraventricular septum were included. Of the 22 patients, 8 were non-responders (left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) of < 10% improvement at late phase follow-up). Electron microscopy (EM), quantitative PCR, and immunofluorescence studies were performed to explore the biological processes and molecules involved in failure to respond. Studies in cardiac specific Mfn1 knockout mice (c-Mfn1 KO), and in vitro studies with neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were also conducted. A significant reduction in mitochondrial size in cardiomyocytes, and Mfn1, was observed in non-responders. A LV pressure overload with thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) c-Mfn1 KO mouse model was generated. Systolic function was reduced in c-Mfn1 KO mice, while mitochondria alteration in TAC c-Mfn1 KO mice increased. In vitro studies in NRVMs indicated negative regulation of Mfn1 by the β-AR/cAMP/PKA/miR-140-5p pathway resulting in significant reduction in mitochondrial respiration of NRVMs. The level of miR140-5p was increased in cardiac tissues of non-responders. Mfn1 is a biomarker of heart failure in non-responders. Therapies targeting mitochondrial dynamics and homeostasis are next generation therapy for non-responding heart failure patients.
Project description:Although cardiac and splenic mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), i.e., monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are key contributors to cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction, their role in pressure-overload remodeling is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that these immune cells are required for the progression of remodeling in pressure-overload heart failure (HF), and that MP depletion would ameliorate remodeling.C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation, and assessed for alterations in MPs. As compared with sham, TAC mice exhibited expansion of circulating LyC6hi monocytes and pro-inflammatory CD206- cardiac macrophages early (1 w) after pressure-overload, prior to significant hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction, with subsequent resolution during chronic HF. In contrast, classical DCs were expanded in the heart in a biphasic manner, with peaks both early, analogous to macrophages, and late (8 w), during established HF. There was no significant expansion of circulating DCs, or Ly6C+ monocytes and DCs in the spleen. Periodic systemic MP depletion from 2 to 16 w after TAC in macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (MaFIA) transgenic mice did not alter cardiac remodeling progression, nor did splenectomy in mice with established HF after TAC. Lastly, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from TAC HF mice into naïve recipients did not induce immediate or long-term cardiac dysfunction in recipient mice.Mononuclear phagocytes populations expand in a phasic manner in the heart during pressure-overload. However, they are dispensable for the progression of remodeling and failure once significant hypertrophy is evident and blood monocytosis has normalized.
Project description:Mitochondrial autophagy is an important mediator of mitochondrial quality control in cardiomyocytes. The occurrence of mitochondrial autophagy and its significance during cardiac hypertrophy are not well understood.Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and observed at multiple time points up to 30 days. Cardiac hypertrophy developed after 5 days, the ejection fraction was reduced after 14 days, and heart failure was observed 30 days after TAC. General autophagy was upregulated between 1 and 12 hours after TAC but was downregulated below physiological levels 5 days after TAC. Mitochondrial autophagy, evaluated by electron microscopy, mitochondrial content, and Keima with mitochondrial localization signal, was transiently activated at ?3 to 7 days post-TAC, coinciding with mitochondrial translocation of Drp1. However, it was downregulated thereafter, followed by mitochondrial dysfunction. Haploinsufficiency of Drp1 abolished mitochondrial autophagy and exacerbated the development of both mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure after TAC. Injection of Tat-Beclin 1, a potent inducer of autophagy, but not control peptide, on day 7 after TAC, partially rescued mitochondrial autophagy and attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure induced by overload. Haploinsufficiency of either drp1 or beclin 1 prevented the rescue by Tat-Beclin 1, suggesting that its effect is mediated in part through autophagy, including mitochondrial autophagy.Mitochondrial autophagy is transiently activated and then downregulated in the mouse heart in response to pressure overload. Downregulation of mitochondrial autophagy plays an important role in mediating the development of mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure, whereas restoration of mitochondrial autophagy attenuates dysfunction in the heart during pressure overload.
Project description:Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a major contributor to the development of heart failure (HF). Alterations in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways participate in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in LVH and HF. cAMP signals are received and integrated by a family of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) anchor proteins (AKAPs), tethering PKA to discrete cellular locations. AKAPs encoded by the Akap1 gene (mitoAKAPs) promote PKA mitochondrial targeting, regulating mitochondrial structure and function, reactive oxygen species production, and cell survival. To determine the role of mitoAKAPs in LVH development, in the present investigation, mice with global genetic deletion of Akap1 (Akap1-/-), Akap1 heterozygous (Akap1+/-), and their wild-type (wt) littermates underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or SHAM procedure for 1 week. In wt mice, pressure overload induced the downregulation of AKAP121, the major cardiac mitoAKAP. Compared to wt, Akap1-/- mice did not display basal alterations in cardiac structure or function and cardiomyocyte size or fibrosis. However, loss of Akap1 exacerbated LVH and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and accelerated the progression toward HF in TAC mice, and these changes were not observed upon prevention of AKAP121 degradation in seven in absentia homolog 2 (Siah2) knockout mice (Siah2-/-). Loss of Akap1 was also associated to a significant increase in cardiac apoptosis as well as lack of activation of Akt signaling after pressure overload. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in vivo genetic deletion of Akap1 enhances LVH development and accelerates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction, pointing at Akap1 as a novel repressor of pathological LVH. These results confirm and extend the important role of mitoAKAPs in cardiac response to stress.
Project description:Activation of the induced receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) leads to initiation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinase signaling pathways, resulting in propagation and perpetuation of inflammation. RAGE-knockout animals are less susceptible to acute inflammation and carcinogen-induced tumor development. We have reported that most forms of tumor cell death result in release of the RAGE ligand, high-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1). We now report a novel role for RAGE in the tumor cell response to stress. Targeted knockdown of RAGE in the tumor cell, leads to increased apoptosis, diminished autophagy and decreased tumor cell survival . In contrast, overexpression of RAGE is associated with enhanced autophagy, diminished apoptosis and greater tumor cell viability. RAGE limits apoptosis through a p53-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, RAGE-sustained autophagy is associated with decreased phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and increased Beclin-1/VPS34 autophagosome formation. These findings show that the inflammatory receptor, RAGE, has a heretofore unrecognized role in the tumor cell response to stress. Furthermore, these studies establish a direct link between inflammatory mediators in the tumor microenvironment and resistance to programmed cell death. Our data suggest that targeted inhibition of RAGE or its ligands may serve as novel targets to enhance current cancer therapies.
Project description:This study was designed to evaluate the effects of DS37001789, a novel and highly potent urotensin II (U-II) receptor (GPR14) antagonist, against mortality, hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction in pressure-overload hypertrophy by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice. In addition, we analyzed the phenotype of GPR14 knockout (KO) mice after TAC induction to confirm the contribution of the U-II/GPR14 system. The oral administration of 0.2% DS37001789 to TAC mice for 12 weeks significantly ameliorated the mortality rate and 0.2% DS37001789 for 4 weeks significantly improved cardiac function by pressure-volume analysis. GPR14 expression was significantly upregulated in the left ventricle in the TAC mice treated with 0.2% DS37001789. Moreover, we confirmed that the significant amelioration of mortality was accomplished by the inhibition of cardiac enlargement and the improvement of cardiac function in GPR14 KO mice after TAC surgery. These results suggest that the U-II/GPR14 system contributes to the progression of heart failure and its blockade ameliorates the mortality via improved cardiac function. The U-II/GPR14 system may thus be an attractive target for treating heart failure with pathological cardiac hypertrophy and DS37001789 may be a novel therapeutic agent for heart failure in patients with pressure-overload conditions such as hypertension and aortic valve stenosis.