STEAP4 expression in human islets is associated with differences in body mass index, sex, HbA1c, and inflammation.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:STEAP4 (six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 4) is a metalloreductase that has been shown previously to protect cells from inflammatory damage. Genetic variants in STEAP4 have been associated with numerous metabolic disorders related to obesity, including putative defects in the acute insulin response to glucose in type 2 diabetes. PURPOSE:We examined whether obesity and/or type 2 diabetes altered STEAP4 expression in human pancreatic islets. METHODS:Human islets were isolated from deceased donors at two medical centers and processed for quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Organ donors were selected by status as non-diabetic or having type 2 diabetes. Site 1 (Edmonton): N?=?13 type 2 diabetes donors (7M, 6F), N?=?20 non-diabetic donors (7M, 13F). Site 2 (Virginia): N?=?6 type 2 diabetes donors (6F), N?=?6 non-diabetic donors (3M, 3F). RESULTS:STEAP4 showed reduced islet expression with increasing body mass index among all donors (P?
Project description:Islet microvasculature provides key architectural and functional roles, yet the morphological features of islets from patients with type 1 diabetes are poorly defined. We examined islet and exocrine microvasculature networks by multiplex immunofluorescence imaging of pancreases from organ donors with and without type 1 diabetes (n=17 and n=16, respectively) and determined vessel diameter, density, and area. We also analyzed these variables in insulin-positive and insulin-negative islets of 7 type 1 diabetes donors. Control islet vessel diameter was significantly larger (7.6 ± 1.1 ?m) compared with vessels in diabetic islets (6.2 ± 0.8 ?m; p<0.001). Control islet vessel density (number/islet) was significantly lower (5.3 ± 0.6) versus diabetic islets (9.3 ± 0.2; p<0.001). Exocrine vessel variables were not significantly different between groups. Islets with residual beta-cells were comparable to control islets for both vessel diameter and density and were significantly different from insulin-negative islets within diabetic donors (p<0.05). Islet smooth muscle actin area had a significant positive correlation with age in both groups (p<0.05), which could negatively impact islet transplantation efficiency from older donors. These data underscore the critical relationship of islet beta-cells and islet vessel morphology in type 1 diabetes. These studies provide new knowledge of the islet microvasculature in diabetes and aging.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes is proposed to affect islets as well as insulin target organs. However, the nature of islet inflammation and its effects on islet function in type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Moreover, the immune cell profiles of human islets in healthy and type 2 diabetic conditions are undefined. We aimed to investigate the correlation between proinflammatory cytokine expression, islet leucocyte composition and insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic human islets. METHODS:Human islets from organ donors with or without type 2 diabetes were studied. First and second phases of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were determined by perifusion. The expression of inflammatory markers was obtained by quantitative PCR. Immune cells within human islets were analysed by FACS. RESULTS:Type 2 diabetic islets, especially those without first-phase insulin secretion, displayed higher CCL2 and TNFa expression than healthy islets. CD45(+) leucocytes were elevated in type 2 diabetic islets, to a greater extent in moderately functional type 2 diabetic islets compared with poorly functional ones, and corresponded with elevated ALOX12 but not with CCL2 or TNFa expression. T and B lymphocytes and CD11c(+) cells were detectable within both non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic islet leucocytes. Importantly, the proportion of B cells was significantly elevated within type 2 diabetic islets. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Elevated total islet leucocyte content and proinflammatory mediators correlated with islet dysfunction, suggesting that heterogeneous insulitis occurs during the development of islet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. In addition, the altered B cell content highlights a potential role for the adaptive immune response in islet dysfunction.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:According to the consensus criteria developed for type 1 diabetes, an individual can be diagnosed with insulitis when ≥ 15 CD45+ cells are found within the parenchyma or in the islet-exocrine interface in ≥ 3 islets. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of individuals with type 2 diabetes fulfilling these criteria with reference to non-diabetic and type 1 diabetic individuals. METHODS:Insulitis was determined by examining CD45+ cells in the pancreases of 50, 13 and 44 organ donors with type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes and no diabetes, respectively. CD3+ cells (T cells) infiltrating the islets were evaluated in insulitic donors. In insulitic donors with type 2 diabetes, the pancreases were characterised according to the presence of CD68 (macrophages), myeloperoxidase (MPO; neutrophils), CD3, CD20 (B cells) and HLA class I hyperstained islets. In all type 2 diabetic donors, potential correlations of insulitis with dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro or age, BMI, HbA1c or autoantibody positivity were examined. RESULTS:Overall, 28% of the type 2 diabetic donors fulfilled the consensus criteria for insulitis developed for type 1 diabetes. Of the type 1 diabetic donors, 31% fulfilled the criteria. None of the non-diabetic donors met the criteria. Only type 1 diabetic donors had ≥ 15 CD3+ cells in ≥ 3 islets. Type 2 diabetic donors with insulitis also had a substantial number of CD45+ cells in the exocrine parenchyma. Macrophages constituted the largest fraction of CD45+ cells, followed by neutrophils and T cells. Of type 2 diabetic pancreases with insulitis, 36% contained islets that hyperstained for HLA class I. Isolated islets from type 2 diabetic donors secreted less insulin than controls, although with preserved dynamics. Insulitis in the type 2 diabetic donors did not correlate with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, the presence of autoantibodies, BMI or HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:The current definition of insulitis cannot be used to distinguish pancreases retrieved from individuals with type 1 diabetes from those with type 2 diabetes. On the basis of our findings, we propose a revised definition of insulitis, with a positive diagnosis when ≥ 15 CD3+ cells, not CD45+ cells, are found in ≥ 3 islets.
Project description:Close to 50 genetic loci have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but they explain only 15% of the heritability. In an attempt to identify additional T2D genes, we analyzed global gene expression in human islets from 63 donors. Islets from cadaver donors (54 non-diabetic and 9 diabetic) were provided by the Nordic Islet Transplantation Programme (www.nordicislets.org), Uppsala University. The microarrays were performed using GeneChipM-BM-. Human Gene 1.0 ST whole transcript according to Affymetrix standard protocol.
Project description:Impaired insulin secretion from pancreatic islets is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Altered chromatin structure may contribute to the disease. We therefore studied the impact of T2D on open chromatin in human pancreatic islets. We used assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) to profile open chromatin in islets from T2D and non-diabetic donors. We identified 57,105 and 53,284 ATAC-seq peaks representing open chromatin regions in islets of non-diabetic and diabetic donors, respectively. The majority of ATAC-seq peaks mapped near transcription start sites. Additionally, peaks were enriched in enhancer regions and in regions where islet-specific transcription factors (TFs), e.g. FOXA2, MAFB, NKX2.2, NKX6.1 and PDX1, bind. Islet ATAC-seq peaks overlap with 13 SNPs associated with T2D (e.g. rs7903146, rs2237897, rs757209, rs11708067 and rs878521 near TCF7L2, KCNQ1, HNF1B, ADCY5 and GCK, respectively) and with additional 67 SNPs in LD with known T2D SNPs (e.g. SNPs annotated to GIPR, KCNJ11, GLIS3, IGF2BP2, FTO and PPARG). There was enrichment of open chromatin regions near highly expressed genes in human islets. Moreover, 1,078 open chromatin peaks, annotated to 898 genes, differed in prevalence between diabetic and non-diabetic islet donors. Some of these peaks are annotated to candidate genes for T2D and islet dysfunction (e.g. HHEX, HMGA2, GLIS3, MTNR1B and PARK2) and some overlap with SNPs associated with T2D (e.g. rs3821943 near WFS1 and rs508419 near ANK1). Enhancer regions and motifs specific to key TFs including BACH2, FOXO1, FOXA2, NEUROD1, MAFA and PDX1 were enriched in differential islet ATAC-seq peaks of T2D versus non-diabetic donors. Our study provides new understanding into how T2D alters the chromatin landscape, and thereby accessibility for TFs and gene expression, in human pancreatic islets.
Project description:Although there is evidence indicating transcriptional and functional heterogeneity in human beta cells, it is unclear whether this heterogeneity extends to the expression level of the enzymes that process proinsulin to insulin in beta cells. To address this question, the expression levels of prohormone convertases (PC) 1/3, proprotein convertase 2 (PC2), and carboxypeptidase E (CPE) were determined in immune-stained sections of human pancreas. In non-diabetic donors, the level of proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) expression varied among beta cells of each islet but the average per islet was similar for all islets of each donor. Although the average PC1/3 expression of all islets examined per sample was unique for each pancreas, donors had similar levels of proinsulin/insulin expression. PC2 expression in beta cells showed less pronounced inter- and intraislet variation while CPE levels were fairly constant. The relationship between PC1/3 and PC2 expression levels was variable among different donors. Type 2 diabetes had an uneven effect on the expression levels of all three enzymes as they decrease only in some islets in a section. These findings suggest the presence of intraislet, but not interislet, variation in the expression of the proinsulin processing enzymes in non-diabetic subjects and a heterogeneous effect of type 2 diabetes on enzyme expression in islets.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Our study shows that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted within human islets and may play an unexpectedly important paracrine role in islet physiology and pathophysiology. It is known that ? cells within rodent and human pancreatic islets are capable of secreting GLP-1, but little is known about the functional role that islet-derived GLP-1 plays in human islets. METHODS:We used flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, perifusions, and calcium imaging techniques to analyse GLP-1 expression and function in islets isolated from cadaveric human donors with or without type 2 diabetes. We also used immunohistochemistry to analyse GLP-1 expression within islets from pancreatic biopsies obtained from living donors. RESULTS:We have demonstrated that human islets secrete ?50-fold more GLP-1 than murine islets and that ?40% of the total human ? cells contain GLP-1. Our results also confirm that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is expressed in ? cells. Sitagliptin increased GLP-1 secretion from cultured human islets but did not enhance glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in islets from non-diabetic (ND) or type 2 diabetic (T2D) donors, suggesting that ? cell GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) may already be maximally activated. Therefore, we tested the effects of exendin-9, a GLP-1R antagonist. Exendin-9 was shown to reduce GSIS by 39% and 61% in ND islets and T2D islets, respectively. We also observed significantly more GLP-1+ ? cells in T2D islets compared with ND islets obtained from cadaveric donors. Furthermore, GLP-1+ ? cells were also identified in pancreatic islet sections obtained from living donors undergoing surgery. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, we demonstrated that human islets secrete robust amounts of GLP-1 from an ? cell subpopulation and that GLP-1R signalling may support GSIS to a greater extent in T2D islets.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Several studies have suggested an association between Coxsackie enterovirus seroconversion and onset of disease. However, a direct link between beta cell viral infection and islet inflammation has not been established. We analyzed pancreatic tissue from six type 1 diabetic and 26 control organ donors. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopy, whole-genome ex vivo nucleotide sequencing, cell culture, and immunological studies demonstrated Coxsackie B4 enterovirus in specimens from three of the six diabetic patients. Infection was specific of beta cells, which showed nondestructive islet inflammation mediated mainly by natural killer cells. Islets from enterovirus-positive samples displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. In addition, virus extracted from positive islets was able to infect beta cells from human islets of nondiabetic donors, causing viral inclusions and signs of pyknosis. None of the control organ donors showed signs of viral infection. These studies provide direct evidence that enterovirus can infect beta cells in patients with type 1 diabetes and that infection is associated with inflammation and functional impairment.
Project description:Insulin secretion in pancreatic islets is dependent upon mitochondrial function and production of ATP. The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (protein PGC-1alpha; gene PPARGC1A) is a master regulator of mitochondrial genes and its expression is decreased and related to impaired oxidative phosphorylation in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether it plays a similar role in human pancreatic islets is not known. We therefore investigated if PPARGC1A expression is altered in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes and whether this expression is influenced by genetic (PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphism) and epigenetic (DNA methylation) factors. We also tested if experimental downregulation of PPARGC1A expression in human islets influenced insulin secretion.The PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphism was genotyped in human pancreatic islets from 48 non-diabetic and 12 type 2 diabetic multi-organ donors and related to PPARGC1A mRNA expression. DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter was analysed in pancreatic islets from ten type 2 diabetic and nine control donors. Isolated human islets were transfected with PPARGC1A silencing RNA (siRNA).PPARGC1A mRNA expression was reduced by 90% (p<0.005) and correlated with the reduction in insulin secretion in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes. After downregulation of PPARGC1A expression in human islets by siRNA, insulin secretion was reduced by 41% (p <or= 0. 01). We were able to ascribe reduced PPARGC1A expression in islets to both genetic and epigenetic factors, i.e. a common PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphism was associated with reduced PPARGC1A mRNA expression (p<0.00005) and reduced insulin secretion (p<0.05). In support of an epigenetic influence, the PPARGC1A gene promoter showed a twofold increase in DNA methylation in diabetic islets compared with non-diabetic islets (p<0.04).We have shown for the first time that PPARGC1A might be important in human islet insulin secretion and that expression of PPARGC1A in human islets can be regulated by both genetic and epigenetic factors.
Project description:The scarcity of donors and need for immunosuppression limit pancreatic islet transplantation to a few patients with labile type 1 diabetes. Transplantation of encapsulated stem cell-derived islets (SC islets) might extend the applicability of islet transplantation to a larger cohort of patients. Transplantation of conformal-coated islets into a confined well-vascularized site allows long-term diabetes reversal in fully MHC-mismatched diabetic mice without immunosuppression. Here, we demonstrated that human SC islets reaggregated from cryopreserved cells display glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Importantly, we showed that conformally coated SC islets displayed comparable in vitro function with unencapsulated SC islets, with conformal coating permitting physiological insulin secretion. Transplantation of SC islets into the gonadal fat pad of diabetic NOD-scid mice revealed that both unencapsulated and conformal-coated SC islets could reverse diabetes and maintain human-level euglycemia for more than 80 days. Overall, these results provide support for further evaluation of safety and efficacy of conformal-coated SC islets in larger species.