Decline in AmpC ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in a Dutch teaching hospital (2013-2016).
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of rectal carriage of plasmid- and chromosome-encoded AmpC ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in patients in a Dutch teaching hospital between 2013 and 2016. METHODS:Between 2013 and 2016, hospital-wide yearly prevalence surveys were performed to determine the prevalence of AmpC ?-lactamase-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. rectal carriage. Rectal swabs were taken and cultured using an enrichment broth and selective agar plates. All E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates were screened for production of AmpC ?-lactamase using phenotypic confirmation tests and for the presence of plasmid-encoded AmpC (pAmpC) genes. E. coli isolates were screened for chromosome-encoded AmpC (cAmpC) promoter/attenuator alterations. RESULTS:Fifty (2.4%) of 2,126 evaluable patients were identified as rectal carrier of AmpC ?-lactamase-producing E. coli. No carriage of AmpC ?-lactamase producing Klebsiella spp. was found. Nineteen (0.9%) patients harboured isolates with pAmpC genes and 30 (1,4%) patients harboured isolates with cAmpC promoter/attenuator alterations associated with AmpC ?-lactamase overproduction. For one isolate, no pAmpC genes or cAmpC promotor/attenuator alterations could be identified. During the study period, a statistically significant decline in the prevalence of rectal carriage with E. coli with cAmpC promotor/attenuator alterations was found (p = 0.012). The prevalence of pAmpC remained stable over the years. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of rectal carriage of AmpC-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in patients in Dutch hospitals is low and a declining trend was observed for E. coli with cAmpC promotor/attenuator alterations.
Project description:We investigated the occurrence of AmpC beta-lactamases among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and determined the genotype of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases at a medical center. The AmpC beta-lactamase promoter and attenuator were amplified from chromosomal DNA of high AmpC-producing E. coli isolates and sequenced. Antibiotic screening and 3D extract tests showed the presence of AmpC beta-lactamase in 3.56% of K. pneumoniae and 1.88% of E. coli isolates. Ten isolates (six K. pneumoniae and four E. coli) were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) as indicated by the double disc diffusion method. DHA-1 plasmid-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase was present in 10 K. pneumoniae isolates and four E.coli isolates. E. coli chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase carried polymorphisms in the -42, -32, and -18 bases of the promoter and in the +26 and +27 bases of the attenuator, which may play a role in antibiotic resistance. The observed mutations may have clinical implications for the management of antibiotic-resistant infections.
Project description:To investigate the molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae collected during a cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in humans living in areas with high or low broiler density.ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were identified by combination disc-diffusion test. ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing. For E. coli, phylogenetic groups and MLST were determined. Plasmids were characterized by transformation and PCR-based replicon typing. Subtyping of plasmids was done by plasmid multilocus sequence typing.175 ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were cultured from 165/1,033 individuals. The isolates were Escherichia coli(n=65), Citrobacter freundii (n=52), Enterobacter cloacae (n=38), Morganella morganii (n=5), Enterobacter aerogenes (n=4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=3), Hafnia alvei (n=2), Shigella spp. (n=2), Citrobacter amalonaticus (n=1), Escherichia hermannii (n=1), Kluyvera cryocrescens (n=1), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The following ESBL genes were recovered in 55 isolates originating from 49 of 1,033 (4.7 %) persons: blaCTX-M-1 (n=17), blaCTX-M-15 (n=16), blaCTX-M-14 (n=9), blaCTX-M-2 (n=3), blaCTX-M-3 (n=2), blaCTX-M-24 (n=2), blaCTX-M-27 (n=1), blaCTX-M-32 (n=1), blaSHV-12 (n=2), blaSHV-65 (n=1) and blaTEM-52 (n=1). Plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) genes were discovered in 6 out of 1,033 (0.6 %) persons. One person carried two different E. coli isolates, one with blaCTX-M-1 and the other with blaCMY-2 and therefore the prevalence of persons carrying Enterobacteriaceae harboring ESBL and/or pAmpC genes was 5.2 %. In eight E. coli isolates the AmpC phenotype was caused by mutations in the AmpC promoter region. No carbapenemase genes were identified. A large variety of E. coli genotypes was found, ST131 and ST10 being most common.ESBL/pAmpC genes resembled those from patients in Dutch hospitals, indicating that healthy humans form a reservoir for transmission of these determinants to vulnerable people. The role of poultry in the transmission to humans in the community remains to be elucidated.
Project description:The incidence of resistance by Enterobacteriaceae to ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitors combination is increasing in Egypt. Three phenotypic techniques, comprising AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent methods using phenylboronic acid (PBA) and cloxacillin, were compared to PCR based method for detection of plasmid mediated AmpC ?-lactamase in common urinary tract isolates. A total of 143 isolates, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected from urinary tract infections cases in Egyptian hospitals. Plasmid encoded AmpC genes were detected by PCR in 88.46% of cefoxitin resistant isolates. The most prevalent AmpC gene family was CIT including CMY-2, CMY-4, and two CMY-2 variants. The second prevalent gene was DHA-1 which was detected in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The genes EBC, FOX, and MOX were also detected but in small percentage. Some isolates were identified as having more than one pAmpC gene. The overall sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC ?-lactamase showed that AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent method by cloxacillin were the most sensitive and the most specific disk tests. PCR remains the gold standard for detection of AmpC ?-lactamases. This study represents the first report of CMY-2 variants of CMY-42 and CMY-102 ?-lactamase-producing E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis isolates in Egypt.
Project description:In the community, close contacts between humans and dogs may promote the transfer of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase/plasmidic AmpC cephalosporinase (ESBL/pAmpC) genes. Large-scale prevalence studies on ESBL/pAmpC carriage in dogs are rare, and data on ESBL/pAmpC plasmids are even more limited. Here, a considerable rate of 18.5% ESBL/pAmpC carriers was found among 368 unrelated healthy dogs in Paris, France. This prevalence is much higher than the one found in healthy humans in the same city (6%) but close to that recently reported in dogs in China (24.5%). All isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, except one Salmonella enterica and one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. The sequence type 131 (ST131) clone was rare (2/73 isolates). Interestingly, two plasmids (blaCTX-M-1/IncI1/ST3 and blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2) were unexpectedly highly predominant, raising the question of their successful spread. Considering that CTX-M-1 was recently found to be equally as abundant as CTX-M-15 in healthy Parisian subjects, the question of dogs being a CTX-M-1 reservoir for humans is open. Such a high prevalence of the blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2 plasmid may result from the use of cephalexin in veterinary medicine, as previously demonstrated experimentally. In all, our study points out healthy urban dogs as a potential source of ESBL/pAmpC genes that can further disseminate to the human community.
Project description:In recent years, the world has seen a surge in Enterobacteriaceae resistant to broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) enzymes. Data on the epidemiology of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Sub-Saharan Africa are still limited.Two hundred seventy-five non-repetitive stool samples were collected from Mozambican university students of both sexes. Samples were cultured on MacConkey agar with and without ceftriaxone (1 mg/L) for selection of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant isolates, which were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion, characterization of resistance genes by PCR and ERIC-PCR analysis for strain clonality.Among the 275 students, 55 (20%) carried a total of 56 E. coli (n?=?35) and Klebsiella spp. (n?=?21) isolates resistant to ceftriaxone and phenotypically positive for ESBL- and/or pAmpC-production. Forty-three percent of the isolates (24/56) contained only ESBL genes, 11% (6/56) only pAmpC genes, and 36% (20/56) both ESBL and pAmpC genes. The remaining six isolates were negative for the CTX-M/pAmpC genes included in the test panel. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. combined demonstrated 70% resistance to tetracycline and co-trimoxazole, 63% to ceftazidime and 34% to ciprofloxacin. In total, 89% of ESBL/pAmpC-positive isolates were defined as multi-resistant by being resistant to three or more antibiotic classes. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting demonstrated low similarity among isolates. None of the participants reported recent hospitalization and just 12.5% had taken antibiotics 3 months prior to the study.This study demonstrated 20% colonization with multi-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp. among Mozambican students with a diversity of ESBL and pAmpC genes. Colonization was not related to prior hospitalization or antimicrobial consumption.
Project description:Plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase-producing (pAmpC) Enterobacteriaceae are increasing worldwide, difficult to identify and often confounded with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The low prevalence precludes routine universal admission screening. Therefore, we evaluated potential risk factors for carriage of pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae that would allow targeted screening to improve yield and reduce cost.We performed a case control study at a tertiary care center from 1/2006 to 12/2010. Cases were adult patients in whom pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated; controls were chosen among carriers of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Both infected and colonized patients were included.Over five years, we identified 40 pAmpC producers in 39 patients among 16,247 screened consecutive isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. The pAmpC prevalence was low (0.25%), but more than 30% of pAmpC carriers received incorrect empirical antibiotic treatment. When compared with 39 ESBL controls, pAmpC carriage was associated with clinically confirmed infections in 74% (versus 51%) (p=0.035), mainly of the urinary tract, previous antibiotic exposure in 63% (versus 36%) (p=0.035) and carriage of a nasogastric tube in 23% (versus 0%) (p=0.002). In the multivariate regression analysis only clinically confirmed infections remained significantly associated with pAmpC carriage (OR 1.44 (95%CI 1.15-2.57)). No other clinical and blood test-associated risk factor allowed discrimination of pAmpC-carrying patients from ESBL controls. The type of acquisition - nosocomial versus community-acquired - was also non-informative for resistance type, as 46% of pAmpC- and 44% of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were community-acquired.This study could not identify a clinical profile that would allow targeted screening for pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae when compared to ESBL carriers. Because empiric antimicrobial therapy was inappropriate in more than 30%, rapid identification of pAmpC carriers is needed. New microbiological methods are therefore required to simplify rapid and reliable detection of pAmpC carriers.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:AmpC-?-lactamase production is an under-recognized antibiotic resistance mechanism that renders Gram-negative bacteria resistant to common ?-lactam antibiotics, similar to the well-known ESBLs. For infection control purposes, it is important to be able to discriminate between plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) production and chromosomal-mediated AmpC (cAmpC) hyperproduction in Gram-negative bacteria as pAmpC requires isolation precautions to minimize the risk of horizontal gene transmission. Detecting pAmpC in Escherichia coli is challenging, as both pAmpC production and cAmpC hyperproduction may lead to third-generation cephalosporin resistance. METHODS:We tested a collection of E. coli strains suspected to produce AmpC. Elaborate susceptibility testing for third-generation cephalosporins, WGS and machine learning were used to develop an algorithm to determine ampC genotypes in E. coli. WGS was applied to detect pampC genes, cAmpC hyperproducers and STs. RESULTS:In total, 172 E. coli strains (n=75 ST) were divided into a training set and two validation sets. Ninety strains were pampC positive, the predominant gene being blaCMY-2 (86.7%), followed by blaDHA-1 (7.8%), and 59 strains were cAmpC hyperproducers. The algorithm used a cefotaxime MIC value above 6?mg/L to identify pampC-positive E. coli and an MIC value of 0.5 mg/L to discriminate between cAmpC-hyperproducing and non-cAmpC-hyperproducing E. coli strains. Accuracy was 0.88 (95% CI=0.79-0.94) on the training set, 0.79 (95% CI=0.64-0.89) on validation set 1 and 0.85 (95% CI=0.71-0.94) on validation set 2. CONCLUSIONS:This approach resulted in a pragmatic algorithm for differentiating ampC genotypes in E. coli based on phenotypic susceptibility testing.
Project description:A sample of 752 resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Escherichia coli strains from 70 sites in 25 U.S. states and the District of Columbia was examined for transmissibility of resistance to ceftazidime and the nature of the plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase involved. Fifty-nine percent of the K. pneumoniae, 24% of the K. oxytoca, and 44% of the E. coli isolates transferred resistance to ceftazidime. Plasmids encoding AmpC-type beta-lactamase were found in 8.5% of the K. pneumoniae samples, 6.9% of the K. oxytoca samples, and 4% of the E. coli samples, at 20 of the 70 sites and in 10 of the 25 states. ACT-1 beta-lactamase was found at eight sites, four of which were near New York City, where the ACT-1 enzyme was first discovered; ACT-1 beta-lactamase was also found in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. FOX-5 beta-lactamase was also found at eight sites, mainly in southeastern states but also in New York. Two E. coli strains produced CMY-2, and one K. pneumoniae strain produced DHA-1 beta-lactamase. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid analysis suggested that AmpC-mediated resistance spread both by strain and plasmid dissemination. All AmpC beta-lactamase-containing isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, but so were 11% of strains containing transmissible SHV- and TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. A beta-lactamase inhibitor test was helpful in distinguishing the two types of resistance but was not definitive since 24% of clinical isolates producing AmpC beta-lactamase had a positive response to clavulanic acid. Coexistence of AmpC and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases was the main reason for these discrepancies. Plasmid-mediated AmpC-type enzymes are thus responsible for an appreciable fraction of resistance in clinical isolates of Klebsiella spp. and E. coli, are disseminated around the United States, and are not so easily distinguished from other enzymes that mediate resistance to oxyimino-beta-lactams.
Project description:Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamase (pAmpC) genes confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporin's. The spread of these genes is mostly facilitated by plasmid-mediated horizontal transfer. National surveillance activities to detect ESBL/pAmpC-producers in commensal bacteria from livestock are in place in the Netherlands since several years. This study aimed at reporting gene and plasmid diversity of commensal ESBL/pAmpC-producing <i>Escherichia coli</i> isolated from healthy animals during surveillance activities between 2007 and 2017. A collection of 2304 extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) <i>E. coli</i> isolated from feces of broilers, dairy cattle, slaughter pigs, turkeys, ducks, and veal calves was investigated and ESBL/pAmpC genes were determined. Gene location of a selection of 473 <i>E. coli</i> isolates was determined and typing of plasmids linked to the ESBL/pAmpC genes was performed. Twenty-two different ESBL/pAmpC genes were identified with <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-1</sub> being the most prevalent gene in livestock (43.7%), followed by <i>bla</i> <sub>CMY -2</sub> and <i>bla</i> <sub>SHV -12</sub>, independent of the animal source. Prevalence of typically human associated <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-15</sub> was highest in cattle. Less than 10% <i>E. coli</i> isolates owed their ESC-R phenotype to promoter mutations of the chromosomal <i>ampC</i> gene. Majority (92%) of ESBL/pAmpC genes analyzed were plasmid located, with IncI1? being the most represented plasmid family in isolates from all animals, followed by IncF (veal calves, dairy cattle and slaughter pigs), IncK (broilers and laying hens), IncX1 in broilers, and emerging IncX3 in broilers and dairy cattle. Prevalence and molecular diversity of ESC-R <i>E. coli</i> isolated from livestock over an 11-year period revealed a composite scenario of gene-plasmid combinations.
Project description:Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study on ESBL/pAmpC/CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and VRE was carried out in hospitalized patients in the Northern Netherlands (n = 445, 2012-2013) and Germany (n = 242, 2012). Healthy individuals from the Dutch community (n = 400, 2010-2012) were also screened. In addition, a genome-wide gene-by-gene approach was applied to study the epidemiology of ESBL-Escherichia coli and VRE. Results: A total of 34 isolates from 27 patients (6.1%) admitted to Dutch hospitals were ESBL/pAmpC positive and 29 ESBL-E. coli, three pAmpC-E. coli, one ESBL-Enterobacter cloacae, and one pAmpC-Proteus mirabilis were found. In the German hospital, 18 isolates (16 E. coli and 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae) from 17 patients (7.7%) were ESBL positive. In isolates from the hospitalized patients CTX-M-15 was the most frequently detected ESBL-gene. In the Dutch community, 11 individuals (2.75%) were ESBL/pAmpC positive: 10 ESBL-E. coli (CTX-M-1 being the most prevalent gene) and one pAmpC E. coli. Six Dutch (1.3%) and four German (3.9%) hospitalized patients were colonized with VRE. Genetic relatedness by core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) was found between two ESBL-E. coli isolates from Dutch and German cross-border hospitals and between VRE isolates from different hospitals within the same region. Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-Enterobacteriaceae was similar in hospitalized patients across the Dutch-German border region, whereas VRE prevalence was slightly higher on the German side. The overall prevalence of the studied pathogens was lower in the community than in hospitals in the Northern Netherlands. Cross-border transmission of ESBL-E. coli and VRE seems unlikely based on cgMLST analysis, however continuous monitoring is necessary to control their spread and stay informed about their epidemiology.