Inflammation-associated miR-155 activates differentiation of muscular satellite cells.
ABSTRACT: Tissue renewal and muscle regeneration largely rely on the proliferation and differentiation of muscle stem cells called muscular satellite cells (MuSCs). MuSCs are normally quiescent, but they are activated in response to various stimuli, such as inflammation. Activated MuSCs proliferate, migrate, differentiate, and fuse to form multinucleate myofibers. Meanwhile, inappropriate cues for MuSC activation induce premature differentiation and bring about stem cell loss. Recent studies revealed that stem cell regulation is disrupted in various aged tissues. We found that the expression of microRNA (miR)-155, which is an inflammation-associated miR, is upregulated in MuSCs of aged muscles, and this upregulation activates the differentiation process through suppression of C/ebp?, which is an important molecule for maintaining MuSC self-renewal. We also found that Notch1 considerably repressed miR-155 expression, and loss of Notch1 induced miR-155 overexpression. Our findings suggest that miR-155 can act as an activator of muscular differentiation and might be responsible for accelerating aging-associated premature differentiation of MuSCs.
Project description:Control of stem cell fate to either enter terminal differentiation versus returning to quiescence (self-renewal) is crucial for tissue repair. Here, we showed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the master metabolic regulator of the cell, controls muscle stem cell (MuSC) self-renewal. AMPK?1-/- MuSCs displayed a high self-renewal rate, which impairs muscle regeneration. AMPK?1-/- MuSCs showed a Warburg-like switch of their metabolism to higher glycolysis. We identified lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a new functional target of AMPK?1. LDH, which is a non-limiting enzyme of glycolysis in differentiated cells, was tightly regulated in stem cells. In functional experiments, LDH overexpression phenocopied AMPK?1-/- phenotype, that is shifted MuSC metabolism toward glycolysis triggering their return to quiescence, while inhibition of LDH activity rescued AMPK?1-/- MuSC self-renewal. Finally, providing specific nutrients (galactose/glucose) to MuSCs directly controlled their fate through the AMPK?1/LDH pathway, emphasizing the importance of metabolism in stem cell fate.
Project description:Muscle undergoes progressive weakening and regenerative dysfunction with age due in part to the functional decline of skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs). MuSCs are heterogeneous but whether their gene expression changes with age and the implication of such changes are unclear. Here we show that in mice, Growth arrest-specific gene 1 (Gas1) is expressed in a small subset of young MuSCs with its expression progressively increasing in larger fractions of MuSCs later in life. Over-expression of Gas1 in young MuSCs and inactivation of Gas1 in aged MuSCs support that Gas1 reduces the quiescence and self-renewal capacity of MuSCs. Gas1 reduces Ret signaling, which is required for MuSC quiescence and self-renewal. Indeed, we show that the Ret ligand, Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF), can counteract Gas1 by stimulating Ret signaling and enhancing MuSC self-renewal and regeneration, thus improving muscle function. We propose that strategies aimed to target this pathway can be exploited to improve the regenerative decline of muscle stem cells.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a complex tissue containing tissue resident muscle stem cells (satellite cells) (MuSCs) important for postnatal muscle growth and regeneration. Quantitative analysis of the biological function of MuSCs and the molecular pathways responsible for a potential juxtavascular niche for MuSCs is currently lacking. We utilized fluorescent reporter mice and muscle tissue clearing to investigate the proximity of MuSCs to capillaries in 3 dimensions. We show that MuSCs express abundant VEGFA, which recruits endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro, whereas blocking VEGFA using both a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor and MuSC-specific VEGFA gene deletion reduces the proximity of MuSCs to capillaries. Importantly, this proximity to the blood vessels was associated with MuSC self-renewal in which the EC-derived Notch ligand Dll4 induces quiescence in MuSCs. We hypothesize that MuSCs recruit capillary ECs via VEGFA, and in return, ECs maintain MuSC quiescence though Dll4.
Project description:Adult skeletal muscles are maintained during homeostasis and regenerated upon injury by muscle stem cells (MuSCs). A heterogeneity in self-renewal, differentiation and regeneration properties has been reported for MuSCs based on their anatomical location. Although MuSCs derived from extraocular muscles (EOM) have a higher regenerative capacity than those derived from limb muscles, the molecular determinants that govern these differences remain undefined. Here we show that EOM and limb MuSCs have distinct DNA methylation signatures associated with enhancers of location-specific genes, and that the EOM transcriptome is reprogrammed following transplantation into a limb muscle environment. Notably, EOM MuSCs expressed host-site specific positional Hox codes after engraftment and self-renewal within the host muscle. However, about 10% of EOM-specific genes showed engraftment-resistant expression, pointing to cell-intrinsic molecular determinants of the higher engraftment potential of EOM MuSCs. Our results underscore the molecular diversity of distinct MuSC populations and molecularly define their plasticity in response to microenvironmental cues. These findings provide insights into strategies designed to improve the functional capacity of MuSCs in the context of regenerative medicine.
Project description:Muscle-specific adult stem cells (MuSCs) are required for skeletal muscle regeneration. To ensure efficient skeletal muscle regeneration after injury, MuSCs must undergo state transitions as they are activated from quiescence, give rise to a population of proliferating myoblasts, and continue either to terminal differentiation, to repair or replace damaged myofibers, or self-renewal to repopulate the quiescent population. Changes in MuSC/myoblast state are accompanied by dramatic shifts in their transcriptional profile. Previous reports in other adult stem cell systems have identified alterations in the most abundant internal mRNA modification, N6-methyladenosine (m6A), conferred by its active writer, METTL3, to regulate cell state transitions through alterations in the transcriptional profile of these cells. Our objective was to determine if m6A-modification deposition via METTL3 is a regulator of MuSC/myoblast state transitions in vitro and in vivo. Using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry we identified that global m6A levels increase during the early stages of skeletal muscle regeneration, in vivo, and decline when C2C12 myoblasts transition from proliferation to differentiation, in vitro. Using m6A-specific RNA-sequencing (MeRIP-seq), a distinct profile of m6A-modification was identified, distinguishing proliferating from differentiating C2C12 myoblasts. RNAi studies show that reducing levels of METTL3, the active m6A methyltransferase, reduced global m6A levels and forced C2C12 myoblasts to prematurely differentiate. Reducing levels of METTL3 in primary mouse MuSCs prior to transplantation enhanced their engraftment capacity upon primary transplantation, however their capacity for serial transplantation was lost. In conclusion, METTL3 regulates m6A levels in MuSCs/myoblasts and controls the transition of MuSCs/myoblasts to different cell states. Furthermore, the first transcriptome wide map of m6A-modifications in proliferating and differentiating C2C12 myoblasts is provided and reveals a number of genes that may regulate MuSC/myoblast state transitions which had not been previously identified.
Project description:The use of adult skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs) for cell therapy has been attempted for decades, but still encounters considerable difficulties. MuSCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are promising candidates for stem cell therapy to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we report that four transcription factors, HEYL, KLF4, MYOD, and PAX3, selected by comprehensive screening of different MuSC populations, enhance the derivation of PAX3-positive myogenic progenitors from fibroblasts and hiPSCs, using medium that promotes the formation of presomitic mesoderm. These induced PAX3-positive cells contribute efficiently to the repair of DMD-damaged myofibers and also reconstitute the MuSC population. These studies demonstrate how a combination of core transcription factors can fine-tune the derivation of MuSCs capable of contributing to the repair of adult skeletal muscle.
Project description:A promising therapeutic strategy for diverse genetic disorders involves transplantation of autologous stem cells that have been genetically corrected ex vivo. A major challenge in such approaches is a loss of stem cell potency during culture. Here we describe an artificial niche for maintaining muscle stem cells (MuSCs) in vitro in a potent, quiescent state. Using a machine learning method, we identified a molecular signature of quiescence and used it to screen for factors that could maintain mouse MuSC quiescence, thus defining a quiescence medium (QM). We also engineered muscle fibers that mimic the native myofiber of the MuSC niche. Mouse MuSCs maintained in QM on engineered fibers showed enhanced potential for engraftment, tissue regeneration and self-renewal after transplantation in mice. An artificial niche adapted to human cells similarly extended the quiescence of human MuSCs in vitro and enhanced their potency in vivo. Our approach for maintaining quiescence may be applicable to stem cells isolated from other tissues.
Project description:Adult skeletal muscle maintenance and regeneration depend on efficient muscle stem cell (MuSC) functions. The mechanisms coordinating cell cycle with activation, renewal, and differentiation of MuSCs remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how adult MuSCs are regulated by CDKN1c (p57kip2), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, using mouse molecular genetics. In the absence of CDKN1c, skeletal muscle repair is severely impaired after injury. We show that CDKN1c is not expressed in quiescent MuSCs, while being induced in activated and proliferating myoblasts and maintained in differentiating myogenic cells. In agreement, isolated Cdkn1c-deficient primary myoblasts display differentiation defects and increased proliferation. We further show that the subcellular localization of CDKN1c is dynamic; while CDKN1c is initially localized to the cytoplasm of activated/proliferating myoblasts, progressive nuclear translocation leads to growth arrest during differentiation. We propose that CDKN1c activity is restricted to differentiating myoblasts by regulated cyto-nuclear relocalization, coordinating the balance between proliferation and growth arrest.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a regenerative tissue which can repair damaged myofibers through the activation of tissue-resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Many muscle diseases with impaired regeneration cause excessive adipose tissue accumulation in muscle, alter the myogenic fate of MuSCs, and deregulate the cross-talk between MuSCs and fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs), a bi-potent cell population which supports myogenesis and controls intra-muscular fibrosis and adipocyte formation. In order to better characterize the interaction between adipogenesis and myogenesis, we studied muscle regeneration and MuSC function in whole body Pparg null mice generated by epiblast-specific Cre/lox deletion (Pparg?/?). We demonstrate that deletion of PPAR? completely abolishes ectopic muscle adipogenesis during regeneration and impairs MuSC expansion and myogenesis after injury. Ex vivo assays revealed that perturbed myogenesis in Pparg?/? mice does not primarily result from intrinsic defects of MuSCs or from perturbed myogenic support from FAPs. The immune transition from a pro- to anti-inflammatory MuSC niche during regeneration is perturbed in Pparg?/? mice and suggests that PPAR? signaling in macrophages can interact with ectopic adipogenesis and influence muscle regeneration. Altogether, our study demonstrates that a PPAR?-dependent adipogenic response regulates muscle fat infiltration during regeneration and that PPAR? is required for MuSC function and efficient muscle repair.
Project description:Most human cancers originate from high-turnover tissues, while low-proliferating tissues, like skeletal muscle, exhibit a lower incidence of tumor development. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which induces increased skeletal muscle regeneration, tumor incidence is increased. Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs), a rare and aggressive type of soft tissue sarcoma, can develop in this context, but the impact of DMD severity on RMS development and its cell of origin are poorly understood. Here, we show that RMS latency is affected by DMD severity and that muscle stem cells (MuSCs) can give rise to RMS in dystrophic mice. We report that even before tumor formation, MuSCs exhibit increased self-renewal and an expression signature associated with RMSs. These cells can form tumorspheres in vitro and give rise to RMSs in vivo. Finally, we show that the inflammatory genes Ccl11 and Rgs5 are involved in RMS growth. Together, our results show that DMD severity drives MuSC-mediated RMS development.