AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine promotes antibody diversity and affinity maturation, NAI titers, cross-clade H5N1 neutralization, but not H1N1 cross-subtype neutralization.
ABSTRACT: Immune responses to inactivated vaccines against avian influenza are poor due in part to lack of immune memory. Adjuvants significantly increased virus neutralizing titers. We performed comprehensive analyses of polyclonal antibody responses following FDA-approved adjuvanted H5N1-A/Indonesia vaccine, administered in presence or absence of AS03. Using Whole Genome Fragment Phage Display Libraries, we observed that AS03 induced antibody epitope diversity to viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase compared with unadjuvanted vaccine. Furthermore, AS03 promoted significant antibody affinity maturation to properly folded H5-HA1 (but not to HA2) domain, which correlated with neutralization titers against both vaccine and heterologous H5N1 strains. However, no increase in heterosubtypic cross-neutralization of Group1-H1N1 seasonal strains was observed. AS03-H5N1 vaccine also induced higher neuraminidase inhibition antibody titers. This study provides insight into the differential impacts of AS03 adjuvant on H5N1 vaccine-induced antibody responses that may help optimize vaccine platforms for future vaccines with improved protection against seasonal and pandemic influenza strains.
Project description:Conventional inactivated avian influenza vaccines have performed poorly in past vaccine trials, leading to the hypothesis that they are less immunogenic than seasonal influenza vaccines. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the immunogenicity of the H5N1 and H7N9 vaccines (avian influenza vaccines) to a seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in naïve ferrets, administered with or without the adjuvants MF59 or AS03. Vaccine immunogenicity was assessed by measuring neutralizing antibody titers against hemagglutinin and neuraminidase and by hemagglutinin -specific IgG levels. Two doses of unadjuvanted vaccines induced low or no HA-specific IgG responses and hemagglutination-inhibiting titers. Adjuvanted vaccines induced comparable IgG-titers, but poorer neutralizing antibody titers for the H5 vaccine. All adjuvanted vaccines elicited detectable anti- neuraminidase -antibodies with the exception of the H5N1 vaccine, likely due to the low amounts of neuraminidase in the vaccine. Overall, the H5N1 vaccine had poorer capacity to induce neutralizing antibodies, but not HA-specific IgG, compared to H7N9 or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is increasingly clear that influenza A infection induces cross-subtype neutralizing antibodies that may potentially confer protection against zoonotic infections. It is unclear whether this is mediated by antibodies to the neuraminidase (NA) or haemagglutinin (HA). We use pseudoviral particles (H5pp) coated with H5 haemagglutinin but not N1 neuraminidase to address this question. In this study, we investigate whether cross-neutralizing antibodies in persons unexposed to H5N1 is reactive to the H5 haemagglutinin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We measured H5-neutralization antibody titers pre- and post-vaccination using the H5N1 micro-neutralization test (MN) and H5pp tests in subjects given seasonal vaccines and in selected sera from European elderly volunteers in a H5N1 vaccine trial who had detectable pre-vaccination H5N1 MN antibody titers. We found detectable (titer > or = 20) H5N1 neutralizing antibodies in a minority of pre-seasonal vaccine sera and evidence of a serological response to H5N1 in others after seasonal influenza vaccination. There was excellent correlation in the antibody titers between the H5N1 MN and H5pp tests. Similar correlations were found between MN and H5pp in the pre-vaccine sera from the cohort of H5N1 vaccine trial recipients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Heterosubtype neutralizing antibody to H5N1 in healthy volunteers unexposed to H5N1 is mediated by cross-reaction to the H5 haemagglutinin.
Project description:In an open label clinical study (2007), MF59-adjuvanted hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine from H5N1-A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (clade 1) was administered to subjects previously vaccinated (primed) with clade 0 H5N3 (A/duck/Singapore/97) vaccine at least 6 years earlier (in 1999 or 2001). The primed individuals responded rapidly and generated high neutralizing antibody titers against the H5N1-Vietnam strain within 7 days of a single booster vaccination. Furthermore, significant cross-neutralization titers were measured against H5N1 clade 0, 1, and 2 viruses. In the current study, the impact of MF59 adjuvant during heterologous priming on the quality of humoral polyclonal immune response in different vaccine arms were further evaluated using real time kinetics assay by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Total anti-H5N1 HA1 polyclonal sera antibody binding from the heterologous prime-boost groups after a single MF59-H5N1 boost was significantly higher compared with sera from unprimed individuals that received two MF59-H5N1 vaccinations. The antigen-antibody complex dissociation rates (surrogate for antibody affinity) of the polyclonal sera against HA1 of H5N1-A/Vietnam/1194/2004 from the MF59-H5N3 primed groups were significantly higher compared to sera from unadjuvanted primed groups or unprimed individuals that received two MF59-H5N1 vaccines. Furthermore, strong inverse correlations were observed between the antibody dissociation off-rates of the immune sera against HA1 (but not HA2) and the virus neutralization titers against H5 vaccine strains and heterologous H5N1 strains. These findings supports the use of oil-in-water-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccines to elicit long term memory B cells with high affinity BCR capable of responding to potential variant pandemic viruses likely to emerge and adapt to human transmissions.
Project description:A Phase I trial conducted in 2009-2010 demonstrated that oral vaccination with a replication competent Ad4-H5 (A/Vietnam) vector with dosages ranging from 107-1011 viral particles was well tolerated. HA-specific T-cell responses were efficiently induced, but very limited hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) humoral responses were measured. However, a single boost of Ad4-H5-Vtn vaccinated individuals with a unadjuvanted licensed H5N1 (A/Vietnam) subunit vaccine resulted in superior HI titers compared with unprimed subjects. In the current study, the impact of Ad4-H5 priming on the quality of the polyclonal humoral immune response was evaluated using a real-time kinetics assay by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Total binding of serum polyclonal antibodies from the Ad4-H5-Vtn primed groups against both homologous H5N1-A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (clade 1) and heterologous A/Indonesia-5/2005 (clade 2.1) HA1 head domain was significantly higher compared with sera from individuals that received subunit H5N1 vaccination alone. SPR measurements also demonstrated that the antigen-antibody complex dissociation rates (a surrogate for antibody affinity) of serum antibodies against the HA1 of H5N1-A/Vietnam were significantly higher in the Ad4-H5 primed groups compared with those from the unprimed group. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between the antibody affinities for HA1 (but not HA2) and the virus neutralization titers against the homologous strain and a panel of heterologous clade 2 H5N1 strains. These findings support the concept of oral prime-boost vaccine approaches against pandemic influenza to elicit long-term memory B cells with high affinity capable of rapid response to variant pandemic viruses likely to emerge and adapt to human transmissions.
Project description:The national stockpile for influenza pandemic preparedness includes vaccines against an array of strains and adjuvants that could be utilized to induce immunologic priming as a pandemic wave emerges. We assessed the feasibility of a strategy that allows the flexibility of postmanufacture mixture of vaccine and adjuvant at the point of care.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial among healthy adults aged 18-49 years who received 2 doses of inactivated influenza A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1 clade 2.2.3) virus vaccine containing either 3.75, 7.5, or 15 µg of hemagglutinin (HA) with or without AS03 adjuvant, administered 21 days apart. Subjects were observed for local (injection site) and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events. Sera were tested for hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) antibody levels against the homologous strain and 4 heterologous avian strains.Vaccine containing ASO3 adjuvant was associated with significantly more local reactions compared with nonadjuvanted vaccine, but these were short-lived and resolved spontaneously. Although the immune response to nonadjuvanted vaccine was poor, 2 doses of AS03-adjuvanted vaccine containing as little as 3.75 µg of HA elicited robust immune responses resulting in seroprotective titers (?1:40) to the homologous strain in ?86% of subjects by HAI and in 95% of subjects by MN. Cross-clade antibody responses were also observed with AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, but not nonadjuvanted vaccine.AS03 adjuvant formulated with inactivated vaccine at the administration site significantly enhanced the immune responses to H5N1 vaccine and has the potential to markedly improve vaccine responses and accelerate delivery during an influenza pandemic.NCT01317758.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Vaccine development for influenza A/H5N1 is an important public health priority, but H5N1 vaccines are less immunogenic than seasonal influenza vaccines. Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) markedly enhances immune responses to H5N1 vaccine antigens, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood.<h4>Objective and methods</h4>We compared the safety (primary endpoint), immunogenicity (secondary), gene expression (tertiary) and cytokine responses (exploratory) between AS03-adjuvanted and unadjuvanted inactivated split-virus H5N1 influenza vaccines. In a double-blinded clinical trial, we randomized twenty adults aged 18-49 to receive two doses of either AS03-adjuvanted (n = 10) or unadjuvanted (n = 10) H5N1 vaccine 28 days apart. We used a systems biology approach to characterize and correlate changes in serum cytokines, antibody titers, and gene expression levels in six immune cell types at 1, 3, 7, and 28 days after the first vaccination.<h4>Results</h4>Both vaccines were well-tolerated. Nine of 10 subjects in the adjuvanted group and 0/10 in the unadjuvanted group exhibited seroprotection (hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer > 1:40) at day 56. Within 24 hours of AS03-adjuvanted vaccination, increased serum levels of IL-6 and IP-10 were noted. Interferon signaling and antigen processing and presentation-related gene responses were induced in dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils. Upregulation of MHC class II antigen presentation-related genes was seen in neutrophils. Three days after AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, upregulation of genes involved in cell cycle and division was detected in NK cells and correlated with serum levels of IP-10. Early upregulation of interferon signaling-related genes was also found to predict seroprotection 56 days after first vaccination.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Using this cell-based systems approach, novel mechanisms of action for AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccination were observed.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01573312.
Project description:H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection has been reported in poultry and humans with expanding clade designations. Therefore, a vaccine that induces immunity against a broad spectrum of H5N1 viruses is preferable for pandemic preparedness. We established a second H5N1 vaccine candidate, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (Vac-3), in our virus library and examined the efficacy of inactivated whole particles of this strain against two clades of H5N1 HPAIV strains that caused severe morbidity in cynomolgus macaques. Virus propagation in vaccinated macaques infected with either of the H5N1 HPAIV strains was prevented compared with that in unvaccinated macaques. This vaccine also prevented propagation of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in macaques. In the vaccinated macaques, neutralization activity, which was mainly shown by anti-hemagglutinin antibody, against H5N1 HPAIVs in plasma was detected, but that against H1N1 virus was not detected. However, neuraminidase inhibition activity in plasma and T-lymphocyte responses in lymph nodes against H1N1 virus were detected. Therefore, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protective immunity in macaques consisted of humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination with Vac-3.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Adjuvantation of an H5N1 split-virion influenza vaccine with AS03(A) substantially reduces the antigen dose required to produce a putatively protective humoral response and promotes cross-clade neutralizing responses. We determined the effect of adjuvantation on antibody persistence and B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses.<h4>Methods</h4>Two vaccinations with a split-virion A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1, clade 1) vaccine containing 3.75-30 ?g hemagglutinin and formulated with or without adjuvant were administered to groups of 50 volunteers aged 18-60 years.<h4>Results</h4>Adjuvantation of the vaccine led to better persistence of neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and higher frequencies of antigen-specific memory B cells. Cross-reactive and polyfunctional H5N1-specific CD4 T cells were detected at baseline and were amplified by vaccination. Expansion of CD4 T cells was enhanced by adjuvantation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Formulation of the H5N1 vaccine with AS03(A) enhances antibody persistence and induces stronger T- and B-cell responses. The cross-clade T-cell immunity indicates that the adjuvanted vaccine primes individuals to respond to either infection and/or subsequent vaccination with strains drifted from the primary vaccine strain.
Project description:The development of vaccines against H5N1 influenza A viruses is a cornerstone of pandemic preparedness. Clinical trials of H5N1 vaccines have been undertaken in healthy subjects, but studies in risk groups have been lacking. In this study, the immunogenicity and safety of a nonadjuvanted cell culture-derived whole-virus H5N1 vaccine were assessed in chronically ill and immunocompromised adults. Subjects received two priming immunizations with a clade 1 A/Vietnam H5N1 influenza vaccine, and a subset also received a booster immunization with a clade 2.1 A/Indonesia H5N1 vaccine 12 to 24 months later. The antibody responses in the two populations were assessed by virus neutralization and single radial hemolysis assays. The T-cell responses in a subset of immunocompromised patients were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT). The priming and the booster vaccinations were safe and well tolerated in the two risk populations, and adverse reactions were predominantly mild and transient. The priming immunizations induced neutralizing antibody titers of ?1:20 against the A/Vietnam strain in 64.2% of the chronically ill and 41.5% of the immunocompromised subjects. After the booster vaccination, neutralizing antibody titers of ?1:20 against the A/Vietnam and A/Indonesia strains were achieved in 77.5% and 70.8%, respectively, of chronically ill subjects and in 71.6% and 67.5%, respectively, of immunocompromised subjects. The T-cell responses against the two H5N1 strains increased significantly over the baseline values. Substantial heterosubtypic T-cell responses were elicited against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus and seasonal A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and B subtypes. There was a significant correlation between T-cell responses and neutralizing antibody titers. These data indicate that nonadjuvanted whole-virus cell culture-derived H5N1 influenza vaccines are suitable for immunizing chronically ill and immunocompromised populations. (This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00711295.).
Project description:Protecting young children from pandemic influenza should also reduce transmission to susceptible adults, including pregnant women.An open study assessed immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a heterologous booster dose of A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005(H5N1)-AS03B (AS03B is an Adjuvant System containing ?-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion [5.93 mg tocopherol]) in infants and children aged 6 to <36 months that was given 6 months following 2-dose primary vaccination with A/Indonesia/05/2005(H5N1)-AS03B. Vaccines contained 1.9 µg of hemagglutinin antigen and AS03B. Hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) responses, microneutralization titers, and antineuraminidase antibody levels were assessed for 6 months following the booster vaccination.For each age stratum (defined on the basis of the subject's age at first vaccination as 6 to <12 months, 12 to <24 months, and 24 to <36 months) and overall (n=113), European influenza vaccine licensure criteria were fulfilled for responses to A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005(H5N1) 10 days following the booster vaccination. Local pain and fever increased with consecutive doses. Anamnestic immune responses were demonstrated for HI, neutralizing, and antineuraminidase antibodies against vaccine-homologous/heterologous strains. Antibody responses to vaccine-homologous/heterologous strains persisted in all children 6 months following the booster vaccination.Prevaccination of young children with a clade 2 strain influenza A(H5N1) AS03-adjuvanted vaccine followed by heterologous booster vaccination boosted immune responses to the homologous strain and a related clade, with persistence for at least 6 months. The results support a prime-boost vaccination approach in young children for pandemic influenza preparedness.NCT01323946.