In vivo 13C MRS in the mouse brain at 14.1 Tesla and metabolic flux quantification under infusion of [1,6-13C2]glucose.
ABSTRACT: In vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) enables the investigation of cerebral metabolic compartmentation while, e.g. infusing 13C-labeled glucose. Metabolic flux analysis of 13C turnover previously yielded quantitative information of glutamate and glutamine metabolism in humans and rats, while the application to in vivo mouse brain remains exceedingly challenging. In the present study, 13C direct detection at 14.1 T provided highly resolved in vivo spectra of the mouse brain while infusing [1,6-13C2]glucose for up to 5 h. 13C incorporation to glutamate and glutamine C4, C3, and C2 and aspartate C3 were detected dynamically and fitted to a two-compartment model: flux estimation of neuron-glial metabolism included tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) flux in astrocytes (Vg = 0.16 ± 0.03 µmol/g/min) and neurons (VTCAn = 0.56 ± 0.03 µmol/g/min), pyruvate carboxylase activity (VPC = 0.041 ± 0.003 µmol/g/min) and neurotransmission rate (VNT = 0.084 ± 0.008 µmol/g/min), resulting in a cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) of 0.38 ± 0.02 µmol/g/min, in excellent agreement with that determined with concomitant 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET).We conclude that modeling of neuron-glial metabolism in vivo is accessible in the mouse brain from 13C direct detection with an unprecedented spatial resolution under [1,6-13C2]glucose infusion.
Project description:The 13C turnover of neurotransmitter amino acids (glutamate, GABA and aspartate) were determined from extracts of forebrain nerve terminals and brain homogenate, and fronto-parietal cortex from anesthetized rats undergoing timed infusions of [1,6-13C2]glucose or [2-13C]acetate. Nerve terminal 13C fractional labeling of glutamate and aspartate was lower than those in whole cortical tissue at all times measured (up to 120 min), suggesting either the presence of a constant dilution flux from an unlabeled substrate or an unlabeled (effectively non-communicating on the measurement timescale) glutamate pool in the nerve terminals. Half times of 13C labeling from [1,6-13C2]glucose, as estimated by least squares exponential fitting to the time course data, were longer for nerve terminals (GluC4, 21.8 min; GABAC2 21.0 min) compared to cortical tissue (GluC4, 12.4 min; GABAC2, 14.5 min), except for AspC3, which was similar (26.5 vs. 27.0 min). The slower turnover of glutamate in the nerve terminals (but not GABA) compared to the cortex may reflect selective effects of anesthesia on activity-dependent glucose use, which might be more pronounced in the terminals. The 13C labeling ratio for glutamate-C4 from [2-13C]acetate over that of 13C-glucose was twice as large in nerve terminals compared to cortex, suggesting that astroglial glutamine under the 13C glucose infusion was the likely source of much of the nerve terminal dilution. The net replenishment of most of the nerve terminal amino acid pools occurs directly via trafficking of astroglial glutamine.
Project description:This study was designed to determine whether perdeuterated glucose experiences a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) as glucose passes through glycolysis and is further oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Metabolism of deuterated glucose was investigated in two groups of perfused rat hearts. The control group was supplied with a 1:1 mixture of [U-13C6]glucose and [1,6-13C2]glucose, while the experimental group received [U-13C6,U-2H7]glucose and [1,6-13C2]glucose. Tissue extracts were analyzed by 1H, 2H and proton-decoupled 13C NMR spectroscopy. Extensive 2H-13C scalar coupling plus chemical shift isotope effects were observed in the proton-decoupled 13C NMR spectra of lactate, alanine and glutamate. A small but measureable (?8%) difference in the rate of conversion of [U-13C6]glucose vs. [1,6-13C2]glucose to lactate, likely reflecting rates of CC bond breakage in the aldolase reaction, but conversion of [U-13C6]glucose versus [U-13C6,U-2H7]glucose to lactate did not differ. This shows that the presence of deuterium in glucose does not alter glycolytic flux. However, there were two distinct effects of deuteration on metabolism of glucose to alanine and oxidation of glucose in the TCA. First, alanine undergoes extensive exchange of methyl deuterons with solvent protons in the alanine amino transferase reaction. Second, there is a substantial kinetic isotope effect in metabolism of [U-13C6,U-2H7]glucose to alanine and glutamate. In the presence of [U-13C6,U-2H7]glucose, alanine and lactate are not in rapid exchange with the same pool of pyruvate. These studies indicate that the appearance of hyperpolarized 13C-lactate from hyperpolarized [U-13C6,U-2H7]glucose is not substantially influenced by a deuterium kinetic isotope effect.
Project description:13C-Metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) is a widely used approach in metabolic engineering for quantifying intracellular metabolic fluxes. The precision of fluxes determined by 13C-MFA depends largely on the choice of isotopic tracers and the specific set of labeling measurements. A recent advance in the field is the use of parallel labeling experiments for improved flux precision and accuracy. However, as of today, no systemic methods exist for identifying optimal tracers for parallel labeling experiments. In this contribution, we have addressed this problem by introducing a new scoring system and evaluating thousands of different isotopic tracer schemes. Based on this extensive analysis we have identified optimal tracers for 13C-MFA. The best single tracers were doubly 13C-labeled glucose tracers, including [1,6-13C]glucose, [5,6-13C]glucose and [1,2-13C]glucose, which consistently produced the highest flux precision independent of the metabolic flux map (here, 100 random flux maps were evaluated). Moreover, we demonstrate that pure glucose tracers perform better overall than mixtures of glucose tracers. For parallel labeling experiments the optimal isotopic tracers were [1,6-13C]glucose and [1,2-13C]glucose. Combined analysis of [1,6-13C]glucose and [1,2-13C]glucose labeling data improved the flux precision score by nearly 20-fold compared to widely use tracer mixture 80% [1-13C]glucose +20% [U-13C]glucose.
Project description:Metabolic imaging has been widely used to measure the early responses of tumors to treatment. Here, we assess the abilities of PET measurement of [18F]FDG uptake and MRI measurement of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate metabolism to detect early changes in glycolysis following treatment-induced cell death in human colorectal (Colo205) and breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) xenografts in mice. A TRAIL agonist that binds to human but not mouse cells induced tumor-selective cell death. Tumor glycolysis was assessed by injecting [1,6-13C2]glucose and measuring 13C-labeled metabolites in tumor extracts. Injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate induced rapid reduction in lactate labeling. This decrease, which correlated with an increase in histologic markers of cell death and preceded decrease in tumor volume, reflected reduced flux from glucose to lactate and decreased lactate concentration. However, [18F]FDG uptake and phosphorylation were maintained following treatment, which has been attributed previously to increased [18F]FDG uptake by infiltrating immune cells. Quantification of [18F]FDG uptake in flow-sorted tumor and immune cells from disaggregated tumors identified CD11b+/CD45+ macrophages as the most [18F]FDG-avid cell type present, yet they represented <5% of the cells present in the tumors and could not explain the failure of [18F]FDG-PET to detect treatment response. MRI measurement of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate metabolism is therefore a more sensitive marker of the early decreases in glycolytic flux that occur following cell death than PET measurements of [18F]FDG uptake. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate superior sensitivity of MRI measurement of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate metabolism versus PET measurement of 18F-FDG uptake for detecting early changes in glycolysis following treatment-induced tumor cell death.
Project description:Several drugs have recently been reported to induce rapid antidepressant effects in clinical trials and rodent models. Although the cellular mechanisms involved remain unclear, reports suggest that increased glutamate transmission contributes to these effects. Here, we demonstrate that the antidepressant-like efficacy of three unique drugs, with reported rapid onset antidepressant properties, is coupled with a rapid transient rise in glutamate cycling in the medial prefronal cortex (mPFC) of awake rats as measured by ex vivo 1H-[13C]-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats were acutely pretreated by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of ketamine (1, 3, 10, 30 and 80?mg?kg-1), Ro 25-6981 (1, 3 and 10?mg?kg-1), scopolamine (5, 25 and 100??g?kg-1) or vehicle (controls). At fixed times after drug injection, animals received an intravenous infusion of [1,6-13C2]glucose for 8?min to enrich the amino-acid pools of the brain with 13C, followed by rapid euthanasia. The mPFC was dissected, extracted with ethanol and metabolite 13C enrichments were measured. We found a clear dose-dependent effect of ketamine and Ro 25-6981 on behavior and the percentage of 13C enrichment of glutamate, glutamine and GABA (?-aminobutyric acid). Further, we also found an effect of scopolamine on both cycling and behavior. These studies demonstrate that three pharmacologically distinct classes of drugs, clinically related through their reported rapid antidepressant actions, share the common ability to rapidly stimulate glutamate cycling at doses pertinent for their antidepressant-like efficacy. We conclude that increased cycling precedes the antidepressant action at behaviorally effective doses and suggest that the rapid change in cycling could be used to predict efficacy of novel agents or identify doses with antidepressant activity.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive loss of cognitive functions and memory. Excessive intake of aluminum chloride in drinking water is associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, which are the hallmark of AD. We have evaluated brain energy metabolism in aluminum chloride (AlCl3) mouse model of AD. In addition, effectiveness of Rasa Sindoor (RS), a formulation used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, for alleviation of symptoms of AD was evaluated. Mice were administered AlCl3 (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally once a day for 60 days. The memory of mice was measured using Morris Water Maze test. The 13C labeling of brain amino acids was measured ex vivo in tissue extracts using 1H-[13C]-NMR spectroscopy with timed infusion of [1,6-13C2]glucose. The 13C turnover of brain amino acids was analyzed using a three-compartment metabolic model to derive the neurotransmitter cycling and TCA cycle rates associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways. Exposure of AlCl3 led to reduction in memory of mice. The glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter cycling and glucose oxidation were found to be reduced in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum following chronic AlCl3 treatment. The perturbation in metabolic rates was highest in the cerebral cortex. However, reduction in metabolic fluxes was higher in hippocampus and striatum following one month post AlCl3 treatment. Most interestingly, oral administration of RS (2 g/kg) restored memory as well as the energetics of neurotransmission in mice exposed to AlCl3. These data suggest therapeutic potential of RS to manage cognitive functions and memory in preclinical AD.
Project description:Glucose and xylose are the two most abundant sugars derived from the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass. While aerobic glucose metabolism is relatively well understood in E. coli, until now there have been only a handful of studies focused on anaerobic glucose metabolism and no 13C-flux studies on xylose metabolism. In the absence of experimentally validated flux maps, constraint-based approaches such as MOMA and RELATCH cannot be used to guide new metabolic engineering designs. In this work, we have addressed this critical gap in current understanding by performing comprehensive characterizations of glucose and xylose metabolism under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using recent state-of-the-art techniques in 13C metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA). Specifically, we quantified precise metabolic fluxes for each condition by performing parallel labeling experiments and analyzing the data through integrated 13C-MFA using the optimal tracers [1,2-13C]glucose, [1,6-13C]glucose, [1,2-13C]xylose and [5-13C]xylose. We also quantified changes in biomass composition and confirmed turnover of macromolecules by applying [U-13C]glucose and [U-13C]xylose tracers. We demonstrated that under anaerobic growth conditions there is significant turnover of lipids and that a significant portion of CO2 originates from biomass turnover. Using knockout strains, we also demonstrated that ?-oxidation is critical for anaerobic growth on xylose. Quantitative analysis of co-factor balances (NADH/FADH2, NADPH, and ATP) for different growth conditions provided new insights regarding the interplay of energy and redox metabolism and the impact on E. coli cell physiology.
Project description:1. Oral administration of triacylglycerol (triolein) to starved/chow-refed lactating rats suppressed the lipogenic switch-on in the mammary gland in vivo. 2. A time-course study revealed that triolein, administered at 30 min after the onset of refeeding, had no influence on lipogenic rate in the mammary gland between 30 and 60 min, but markedly decreased it between 60 and 90 min. Glucose uptake by the mammary gland (arteriovenous difference) increased by 30 min of refeeding, as did lactate production. Between 30 and 90 min glucose uptake remained high in the control animals, but glucose uptake and net C3-unit uptake were decreased in the triolein-loaded animals by 90 min. 3. Triolein increased [glucose 6-phosphate] in the gland and simultaneously decreased [fructose 1,6-bisphosphate], indicative of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. This cross-over occurred at 60 min, i.e. immediately before the inhibition of lipogenesis, and by 90 min had reached 'starved' values. 4. Triolein had no effect on plasma [insulin] nor on whole-blood [glucose], [lactate] or [3-hydroxybutyrate]; a small increase in [acetoacetate] was observed. 5. Infusion of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, Triton WR1339, abolished the suppression of mammary-gland lipogenesis by triolein and the increase in the [glucose 6-phosphate]/[fructose 1,6-bisphosphate] ratio, suggesting a direct influence of dietary lipid on mammary-gland glucose utilization and phosphofructokinase activity.
Project description:Under static conditions, mammalian red blood cells (RBCs) require a continuous supply of energy, typically via glucose, to maintain their biconcave disc shape. Mechanical distortion, in a complementary way, should lead to increased energy demand that is manifest in accelerated glycolysis. The experimental challenge in observing this phenomenon was met by reversibly and reproducibly distorting the cells and noninvasively measuring glycolytic flux. This was done with a gel-distorting device that was coupled with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We measured [3-13C]l-lactate production from [1,6-13C]d-glucose in the RBCs suspended in gelatin gels, and up to 90% rate enhancements were recorded. Thus, for the first time, we present experiments that demonstrate the linkage of mechanical distortion to metabolic changes in whole mammalian cells. In seeking a mechanism for the linkage between shape and energy supply, we measured transmembrane cation flux with Cs+ (as a K+ congener) using 133Cs NMR spectroscopy, and the cation flux was increased up to fivefold. The postulated mechanism for these notable (in terms of whole-body energy consumption) responses is stimulation of Ca-adenosine triphosphatase by increased transmembrane flux of Ca2+ via the channel protein Piezo1 and increased glycolysis because its flux is adenosine triphosphate demand-regulated.
Project description:Dysregulation in NAD+/NADH levels is associated with increased cell division and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species in rapidly proliferating cancer cells. Conversion of the ketone body acetoacetate (AcAc) to ?-hydroxybutyrate (?-HB) by the mitochondrial enzyme ?-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) depends upon NADH availability. The ?-HB-to-AcAc ratio is therefore expected to reflect mitochondrial redox. Previous studies reported the potential of hyperpolarized 13C-AcAc to monitor mitochondrial redox in cells, perfused organs and in vivo. However, the ability of hyperpolarized 13C-AcAc to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and its potential to monitor brain metabolism remained unknown. Our goal was to assess the value of hyperpolarized [1,3-13C2]AcAc in healthy and tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Following hyperpolarized [1,3-13C2]AcAc injection, production of [1,3-13C2]?-HB was detected in normal and tumor-bearing mice. Significantly higher levels of [1-13C]AcAc and lower [1-13C]?-HB-to-[1-13C]AcAc ratios were observed in tumor-bearing mice. These results were consistent with decreased BDH activity in tumors and associated with increased total cellular NAD+/NADH. Our study confirmed that AcAc crosses the BBB and can be used for monitoring metabolism in the brain. It highlights the potential of AcAc for future clinical translation and its potential utility for monitoring metabolic changes associated with glioma, and other neurological disorders.