In vivo therapeutic evaluation of polymeric nanomedicines: effect of different targeting peptides on therapeutic efficacy against breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: Targeted nanomedicines offer many advantages over macromolecular therapeutics that rely only on passive accumulation within the tumour environment. The aim of this work was to investigate the in vivo anticancer efficiency of polymeric nanomedicines that were conjugated with peptide aptamers that show high affinity for receptors on many cancer cells. In order to assess the ability for the nanomedicine to treat cancer and investigate how structure affected the behavior of the nanomedicine, three imaging modalities were utilized, including in vivo optical imaging, multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) and ex vivo confocal microscopy. An 8-mer (A8) or 13-mer (A13) peptide aptamer that have been shown to exhibit high affinity for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was covalently-bound to hyperbranched polymer (HBP) nanoparticles with the purpose of both cellular targeting, as well as the potential to impart some level of chemo-sensitization to the cells. Furthermore, doxorubicin was bound to the polymeric carrier as the anticancer drug, and Cyanine-5.5 (Cy5.5) was incorporated into the polymer as a monomeric fluorophore to aid in monitoring the behavior of the nanomedicine. Enhanced tumour regression was observed in nude mice bearing MDA-MB-468 xenografts when the nanocarriers were targeted using the peptide ligands, compared to control groups treated with free DOX or HBP without aptamer. The accumulated DOX level in solid tumours was 5.5 times higher in mice treated with the targeted therapeutic, than mice treated with free DOX, and 2.6 times higher than the untargeted nanomedicine that relied only on passive accumulation. The results suggest that aptamer-targeted therapeutics have great potential for improving accumulation of nanomedicines in tumours for therapy.
Project description:To enhance the accumulation and penetration of nanomedicines in tumor tissue, we developed and evaluated the biological properties of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2)-responsive N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer drugs and tumor-penetrating peptide conjugates (P-DOX-PLGLAG-iRGD). Two different spacers were used in the design: a lysosomally (cathepsin B) cleavable tetrapeptide GFLG spacer conjugated doxorubicin (DOX) to HPMA copolymer, and an MMP-2-degradable linker (PLGLAG) connected tumor-homing and -penetrating cyclic peptide iRGD to HPMA copolymer. The accumulation of DOX in P-DOX-PLGLAG-iRGD-treated monolayer (2D) and multilayer (3D) DU-145 prostate cancer cells was higher than that of control groups (P-DOX and P-DOX + iRGD). The cell cycle arrest analysis and cytotoxicity data demonstrated that P-DOX-PLGLAG-iRGD produced a higher G2/M arrest and possessed stronger cytotoxicity against DU-145 cells than P-DOX + iRGD or P-DOX, which was consistent with the drug uptake results. Similarly, P-DOX-PLGLAG-iRGD demonstrated the highest penetration ability in 3D multicellular DU-145 tumor cell spheroids. The results indicate that covalent conjugation of iRGD via MMP-2-sensitive bonds enhances accumulation and penetration of nanomedicines into tumor cell monolayers and spheroids.
Project description:The ability to predict the behaviour of polymeric nanomedicines can often be obfuscated by subtle modifications to the corona structure, such as incorporation of fluorophores or other entities. However, these interactions provide an intriguing insight into how selection of molecular components in multifunctional nanomedicines contributes to the overall biological fate of such materials. Here, we detail the internalisation behaviours of polymeric nanomedicines across a suite of cell types and extrapolate data for distinguishing the underlying mechanics of cyanine-5-driven interactions as they pertain to uptake and endosomal escape. By correlating the variance of rate kinetics with endosomal escape efficiency and endogenous lipid polarity, we identify that observed cell-type dependencies correspond with an underlying susceptibility to dye-mediated effects and nanomedicine accumulation within polar vesicles. Further, our results infer that the ability to translocate endosomal membranes may be improved in certain cell types, suggesting a potential role for diagnostic moieties in trafficking of drug-loaded nanocarriers.
Project description:Recently, the siderophores have opened new horizons in nanomedicine. The current study aimed to design a theranostic platform based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-pyoverdine (SPION/PVD) conjugates bound to MUC1 aptamer (MUC1<sub>Apt</sub>) and loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) as an anti-cancer agent. The SPION/PVD complex was covalently conjugated to MUC1<sub>Apt</sub> and loaded with DOX to prepare a targeted drug delivery system (SPION/PVD/MUC1<sub>Apt</sub>/DOX). The investigation of cellular cytotoxicity and uptake of formulations by MTT and flow cytometry in both MUC1 positive (C26) and MUC1 negative (CHO) cell lines revealed that MUC1<sub>Apt</sub> could improve both cellular uptake and toxicity in the C26 cell line. The evaluation of tumor-targeting activity by in vivo bio-distribution showed that the targeted formulation could enhance tumor inhibitory growth effect and survival rate in C26 tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, the potential of synthesized SPION/PVD/MUC1<sub>Apt</sub>/DOX complex as diagnostic agents was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which improved the contrast of tumor site in MRI. Our findings confirm that aptamer-targeted PVD chelated the SPION as a diagnostic agent and loaded with DOX as a chemotherapeutic drug, would be beneficial as a novel theranostic platform.
Project description:Chemotherapy is the mainstream treatment of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). However, chemotherapy can cause severe adverse effects in patients because it is not ALCL-specific. In this study, a multifunctional aptamer-nanomedicine (Apt-NMed) achieving targeted chemotherapy and gene therapy of ALCL is developed. Apt-NMed is formulated by self-assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides containing CD30-specific aptamer and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-specific siRNA followed by self-loading of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX). Apt-NMed exhibits a well-defined nanostructure (diameter 59 mm) and stability in human serum. Under aptamer guidance, Apt-NMed specifically binds and internalizes targeted ALCL cells. Intracellular delivery of Apt-NMed triggers rapid DOX release for targeted ALCL chemotherapy and intracellular delivery of the ALK-specific siRNA induced ALK oncogene silencing, resulting in combined therapeutic effects. Animal model studies reveal that upon systemic administration, Apt-NMed specifically targets and selectively accumulates in ALCL tumor site, but does not react with off-target tumors in the same xenograft mouse. Importantly, Apt-NMed not only induces significantly higher inhibition in ALCL tumor growth, but also causes fewer or no side effects in treated mice compared to free DOX. Moreover, Apt-NMed treatment markedly improves the survival rate of treated mice, opening a new avenue for precision treatment of ALCL.
Project description:The drug resistance in cancer treatment with DOX is mainly related to the overexpression of drug efflux proteins, residing in the plasma and nuclear membranes. Delivering DOX into the mitochondria, lacking drug efflux proteins, is an interesting method to overcome DOX resistance. To solve the problem of positively charged triphenylphosphonium (TPP) for mitochondrial targeting <i>in vivo</i>, a charge reversal strategy was developed. <b>Methods:</b> An acidity triggered cleavable polyanion PEI-DMMA (PD) was coated on the surface of positively charged lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle (DOX-PLGA/CPT) to form DOX-PLGA/CPT/PD <i>via</i> electrostatic interaction. The mitochondrial localization and anticancer efficacy of DOX-PLGA/CPT/PD was evaluated both <i>in vitro</i> and in <i>vivo</i>. <b>Results:</b> The surface negative charge of DOX-PLGA/CPT/PD prevents from rapid clearance in the blood and improved the accumulation in tumor tissue through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The hydrolysis of amide bonds in PD in weakly acidic tumor tissue leads to the conversion of DOX-PLGA/CPT/PD to DOX-PLGA/CPT. The positive charge of DOX-PLGA/CPT enhances the interaction with tumor cells, promotes the uptake and improves DOX contents in tumor cells. Once endocytosed by tumor cells, the exposed TPP in nanomedicine results in effective mitochondrial localization of DOX-PLGA/CPT. Afterward, DOX can release from the nanomedicine in the mitochondria, target mtDNA, induce tumor cells apoptosis and overcome DOX resistance of MCF-7/ADR breast cancer. <b>Conclusion:</b> Tumor acidity triggered charge reversal of TPP-containing nanomedicine and activation of mitochondrial targeting is a simple and effective strategy for the delivery of DOX into the mitochondria of cancer cells and overcoming DOX resistance of MCF-7/ADR tumor both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>, providing new insight in the design of nanomedicines for cancer chemotherapy.
Project description:We developed a DNA aptamer, Ap52, against the shared tumor-specific MAGE-A3<sub>111-125</sub> peptide antigen that was used to target multiple types of cancer cells. Here we report the <i>in vivo</i> study of mice implanted with pancreatic tumor cells AsPC-1, which demonstrates accumulation of phosphorothioate-modified Ap52 (ThioAp52) at the xenograft tumor following either intravenous or <i>in situ</i> injection. When complexed with antitumor drug doxorubicin (Dox), ThioAp52 achieves targeted delivery to four types of cancer cells, including breast, oral, pancreatic, and skin. Image analysis shows that ThioAp52-Dox complex selectively enters cancer cells, while free Dox is taken up by all cell lines. The cytotoxicity of ThioAp52-Dox for cancer cells is enhanced as compared to that for the corresponding normal/noncancerous cells. These results indicate that this aptamer against shared tumor-specific antigen can be a potential delivery vehicle for therapeutics to treat multiple cancers.
Project description:Identifying a molecular target is essential for tumor-targeted nanomedicine. Current cancer nanomedicines commonly suffer from poor tumor specificity, "off-target" toxicity, and limited clinical efficacy. Here, we report a method to screen and identify new molecular targets for tumor-targeted nanomedicine based on a quantitative analysis. In our proof-of-principle study, we used comparative flow cytometric screening to identify ICAM-1 as a potential target for metastatic melanoma (MM). We further evaluated ICAM-1 as a MM targeting moiety by characterizing its (1) tumor specificity, (2) expression level, (3) cellular internalization, (4) therapeutic function, and (5) potential clinical impact. Quantitation of ICAM-1 protein expression on cells and validation by immunohistochemistry on human tissue specimens justified the synthesis of antibody-functionalized drug delivery vehicles, which were benchmarked against appropriate controls. We engineered ICAM-1 antibody conjugated, doxorubicin encapsulating immunoliposomes (ICAM-Dox-LPs) to selectively recognize and deliver doxorubicin to MM cells and simultaneously neutralize ICAM-1 signaling via an antibody blockade, demonstrating significant and simultaneous inhibitory effects on MM cell proliferation and migration. This paper describes a novel, quantitative metric system that identifies and evaluates new cancer targets for tumor-targeting nanomedicine.
Project description:Nanomedicine has advanced to clinical trials for adult cancer therapy. However, the field is still in its infancy for treatment of childhood malignancies such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Nanotherapy offers multiple advantages over conventional therapy. It facilitates targeted delivery and enables controlled release of drugs to reduce treatment-related side effects. Here, we demonstrate that doxorubicin (DOX) encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) modified with targeting ligands against CD19 (CD19-DOX-NPs) can be delivered in a CD19-specific manner to leukemic cells. The CD19-DOX-NPs were internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis and imparted cytotoxicity in a CD19-dependent manner in CD19-positive ALL cells. Leukemic mice treated with CD19-DOX-NPs survived significantly longer and manifested a higher degree of agility, indicating reduced apparent systemic toxicity during treatment compared to mice treated with free DOX. We suggest that targeted delivery of drugs used in childhood cancer treatment should improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce treatment-related side effects in children.
Project description:Doxorubicin (DOX) is a common anti-tumor drug that binds to DNA or RNA via non-covalent intercalation between G-C sequences. As a therapeutic agent, DOX has been used to form aptamer-drug conjugates for targeted cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. To improve the therapeutic potential of aptamer-DOX conjugates, we synthesized trifurcated Newkome-type monomer (TNM) structures with three DOX molecules bound through pH-sensitive hydrazone bonds to formulate TNM-DOX. The aptamer-TNM-DOX conjugate (Apt-TNM-DOX) was produced through a simple self-loading process. Chemical validation revealed that Apt-TNM-DOX stably carried high drug payloads of 15 DOX molecules per aptamer sequence. Functional characterization showed that DOX payload release from Apt-TNM-DOX was pH-dependent and occurred at pH 5.0, which reflects the microenvironment of tumor cell lysosomes. Further, Apt-TNM-DOX specifically targeted lymphoma cells without affecting off-target control cells. Aptamer-mediated cell binding resulted in the uptake of Apt-TNM-DOX into targeted cells and the release of DOX payload within cell lysosomes to inhibit growth of targeted lymphoma cells. The Apt-TNM-DOX provides a simple, non-toxic approach to develop aptamer-based targeted therapeutics and may reduce the non-specific side effects associated with traditional chemotherapy.
Project description:Many therapeutic agents have failed in their clinical development, due to the toxic effects associated with non-transformed tissues. In this context, nanotechnology has been exploited to overcome such limitations, and also improve navigation across biological barriers. Amongst the many materials used in nanomedicine, with promising properties as therapeutic carriers, the following one stands out: biodegradable and biocompatible polymers. Polymeric nanoparticles are ideal candidates for drug delivery, given the versatility of raw materials and their feasibility in large-scale production. Furthermore, polymeric nanoparticles show great potential for easy surface modifications to optimize pharmacokinetics, including the half-life in circulation and targeted tissue delivery. Herein, we provide an overview of the current applications of polymeric nanoparticles as platforms in the development of novel nanomedicines for cancer treatment. In particular, we will focus on the raw materials that are widely used for polymeric nanoparticle generation, current methods for formulation, mechanism of action, and clinical investigations.