Curcumin Inhibits Acute Vascular Inflammation through the Activation of Heme Oxygenase-1.
ABSTRACT: Curcumin has several therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory effect. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been showed to have cytoprotective effects in some pathological conditions. However, the role of HO-1 in anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin is unknown. In this study, we investigate whether the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin in vascular may be involved in the activation of HO-1. New Zealand white rabbits were fed regular control diet or control diet added with 0.3% curcumin (wt/wt) for four weeks. Acute vascular inflammation of rabbits was induced by putting a collar on the left common carotid artery for 24 hours. HO-1 inhibitor and siRNA were used to investigate the role of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin in collared vascular. We also explored the mechanism of curcumin-induced activation of HO-1 in vitro. The serum bilirubin and vascular, liver, and spleen HO-1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in curcumin-treated rabbits. The vascular inflammation was significantly decreased in the curcumin-treated animals compared with the control. Treatment of the rabbits with an inhibitor of HO or HO-1 siRNA to knock down the carotid artery HO-1 abolished the ability of curcumin to inhibit vascular inflammation. Treatment of cultured human artery endothelial cells with curcumin induced the HO-1 expression through the activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and an antioxidant responsive element via the p38 MAPK signalling pathway. In conclusion, curcumin inhibits vascular inflammation in vivo and in vitro through the activation of HO-1.
Project description:Inflammation and platelet activation are critical phenomena in the setting of acute coronary syndromes. Platelets may contribute to increase ischemic injury by enhancing the inflammatory response of leukocytes and endothelial myocardial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of platelet activation prevents ischemic complications in patients with coronary diseases. Agents directed against the integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) receptor not only inhibit platelet aggregation but also have been demonstrated to limit the inflammatory response in acute coronary syndromes. The question then raised is if the inhibition of platelet activation by other mechanisms than the blockade of GP IIb/IIIa may also exert anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to analyze if clopidogrel may exert anti-inflammatory effects during the acute phase of myocardial infarction. A ligature was placed around the left anterior descending coronary artery of New Zealand White rabbits. After 15 min of ischemia, the myocardium was reperfused and the ischemic coronary artery was isolated 24 h after the ischemia. A group of ischemic rabbits was given a single oral dose of clopidogrel (20 mg kg(-1)) just after the arterial occlusion and the animal was recovered. Sham-operated animals served as control. P-selectin expression was significantly increased in infarcted rabbits with respect to control rabbits. Clopidogrel administration reduced P-selectin expression with respect to untreated infarcted rabbits. CD40 ligand and tissue factor expression was increased in the ischemic coronary artery and reduced after clopidogrel administration. Clopidogrel also protected endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression in the ischemic coronary artery, a protein that has been found downregulated under inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, inhibition of platelet activation by clopidogrel exerted anti-inflammatory effects on the ischemic coronary artery.
Project description:We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBFACh; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0.03), but not placebo (P=0.2). Curcumin treatment augmented the acute reduction in FBFACh induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; P=0.03), and reduced the acute increase in FBFACh to the antioxidant vitamin C (P=0.02), whereas placebo had no effect (both P>0.6). Similarly, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (conduit artery endothelial function) increased 36% in the curcumin group (5.7±0.4 vs. 4.4±0.4% at baseline, P=0.001), with no change in placebo (P=0.1). Neither curcumin nor placebo influenced large elastic artery stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity or carotid artery compliance) or circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation (all P>0.1). In healthy middle-aged and older adults, 12 weeks of curcumin supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function by increasing vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress, while also improving conduit artery endothelial function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Particulate matter (PM) can cause various negative acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory system, including the upper airways. Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects; therefore, we investigated the effects of curcumin on nasal fibroblasts exposed to urban PM (UPM). METHODS:Samples of inferior turbinate tissue were obtained from six patients. Flow cytometry was used to assess the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following the treatment of nasal fibroblasts with UPM and/or curcumin. We evaluated the effects of UPM and/or curcumin on the expression of phosphorylated ERK, Nrf2, HO-1, and SOD2 in fibroblasts by Western blotting. RESULTS:When UPM was applied to nasal fibroblasts, ROS production was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. UPM-exposed fibroblasts caused the activation of ERK to increase HO-1 expression and decrease SOD2 expression. Treatment with curcumin reduced the UPM-mediated increase in ROS; this decrease in ROS occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The UPM-induced activation of ERK was inhibited by curcumin. Nrf2 production was also promoted to increase the expression of HO-1 and SOD2 by curcumin. CONCLUSION:Curcumin reduced ROS production caused by UPM in human nasal fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that curcumin has anti-oxidative effects and may be useful in the treatment of nasal diseases caused by UPM, such as allergic and chronic rhinitis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Gene therapy that expresses apo A-I (apolipoprotein A-I) from vascular wall cells has promise for preventing and reversing atherosclerosis. Previously, we reported that transduction of carotid artery endothelial cells with a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing apo A-I reduced early (4 weeks) fatty streak development in fat-fed rabbits. Here, we tested whether the same HDAd could provide long-term protection against development of more c