Contextual work design and employee innovative work behavior: When does autonomy matter?
ABSTRACT: In environments experiencing fast technological change in which innovative performance is expected, work design research has found that the degree of autonomy positively predicts behavioral and attitudinal work outcomes. Because extant work design research has tended to examine the direct and mediating effects of autonomy on work outcomes such as job satisfaction, examinations of more situational elements and the degree to which the organizational context strengthens or weakens this relationship has been neglected. This study, therefore, takes a context-contingent perspective to investigate the degree to which psychological climate dimensions such as supervisor support, organizational structure and organizational innovation moderate the effects of autonomy (work scheduling autonomy, work methods autonomy, decision-making autonomy) on employee perceived innovative work behavior (IWB). Using a conjoint experiment based on 9,440 assessments nested within 1,180 employees, it was found that all autonomy dimensions had a significant direct effect on employee perceived IWB. Contrary to the Hypotheses, the multi-level analysis did not reveal any moderating effect of the climate dimensions on the relationship between autonomy and employee IWB. This study provides a context-contingent view for the features of work design and gives a more detailed analysis of autonomy, which has previously been seen primarily as a unidimensional construct.
Project description:With a growing number of studies showing the applicability of the self-determination theory for various work and organizational outcomes, the next logical step is to investigate if and how employee need satisfaction at work can be purposefully increased through an intervention. The purpose of the present study was to test whether we could train managers' display of autonomy, competence, and relatedness support toward employees and whether this resulted in improved employee need satisfaction, well-being, and job performance. Data were obtained from 37 managers (rated by N = 538 subordinates) assigned to either an experimental or control condition at three time points: before, during, and after the training. We also used focus group interviews to evaluate the experience of the training. The quantitative analyses showed no statistically significant improvement in managers' display of needs support or employee need satisfaction. However, the qualitative data pointed toward important factors related to the implementation of need supportive leadership training that should be considered.
Project description:Objective:The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between job characteristics (job autonomy, job feedback, skill variety, task identity, task significance) and work engagement of nurses in Malaysia. Methods:A survey using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from a sample of 856 staff nurses working in eight public hospitals in Malaysia. A shortened nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale(UWES-9) was used to measure work engagement. The UWES-9 comprises three dimensions, which was measured with three items each: vigor, dedication, and absorption. Job characteristics (job autonomy, job feedback, skill variety, task identity, task significance) were measured with the corresponding subscales of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Each subscale consisted of three items. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analysis. Results:Findings indicated that all the five demographic variables (age, marital status, education, organizational tenure, job tenure) were unrelated to work engagement. The results further revealed that job autonomy (??=?0.19, P?<?0.01), job feedback (??=?0.10, P?<?0.01), task identity (??=?0.13, P?<?0.01), and task significance (??=?0.08, P?<?0.05) were positively related to work engagement. Skill variety (??=?0.03, P?>?0.05), however, did not affect work engagement. Conclusion:Job autonomy, job feedback, task identity, and task significance are important factors in predicting work engagement. The findings of this study highlighted the need to incorporate these core dimensions in nursing management to foster work engagement.
Project description:We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 health care facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on conservation of resources theory and the work-home resources model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family, and employee control over work time, would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month postintervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month, and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month, follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors compared with employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes.
Project description:Guided by self-determination theory, we investigated the potential impact of work climate on employee motivation, and pro-environmental behavior (PEB) inside and outside of the workplace. We found that in workplaces with stronger pro-environmental climates and at least moderate levels of autonomy support, employees reported higher levels of autonomous motivation to engage in PEB. In turn, autonomously motivated employees engaged in more PEBs, both inside and outside the workplace. Controlled motivation played a more limited role in predicting employee PEBs. Overall, our findings suggest work climates that support pro-environmental actions and employee autonomy may not only foster PEBs within the workplace but also lay the foundation for PEBs in other non-workplace settings.
Project description:Employee psychological capital (PsyCap), perceptions of organizational virtue (OV), and work happiness have been shown to be associated within and over time. This study examines selective exposure and confirmation bias as potential processes underlying PsyCap, OV, and work happiness associations. As part of a quasi-experimental study design, school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, some staff (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results of descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses on the intervention group provide some support for selective exposure and confirmation bias as explanatory mechanisms. In focusing on the processes through which employee attitudes may influence work happiness this study advances theoretical understanding, specifically of selective exposure and confirmation bias in a field study context.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Advancing social purpose in organizations is usually studied from the macro perspective, i.e., how it benefits organizational business goals or society more broadly. In this paper, we focus on social purpose from the perspective of the employee and propose that advancing social purpose in an organization allows individuals to fulfil an important human need for the meaning of work (MW). This study's objective was to assess whether a volunteering Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program in a manufacturing company allows employees to fulfil their basic psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. The data was collected through in-depth interviews with 15 employees and an analysis of artifacts.<h4>Results</h4>In the analysis, three main themes describing different aspects of voluntary work at the company were identified. We found that across all groups of interviewed employees the voluntary activities served the needs of (1) relatedness, (2) competence, and (3) autonomy. We conclude that CSR programs have the most positive impact on MW when they allow employees to engage in prosocial actions and satisfy those needs.
Project description:Research on high-performance work systems (HPWS) has suggested that a potential disconnection may exist between organizational-level HPWS and employee experienced HPWS. However, few studies have identified factors that are implied within such a relationship. Using a sample of 397 employees, 84 line managers, and 21 HR executives in China, we examined whether line managers' goal congruence can reduce the difference between organizational-level HPWS and employee experienced HPWS. Furthermore, this study also theorized and tested organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) as a mediator in the associations between employee experienced HPWS and job performance and job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses, we found that line managers' goal congruence strengthened the relationship between organizational-level HPWS and employee experienced HPWS, such that the relationship was significant and positive when line managers' goal congruence was high, but a non-significant relationship when line managers' goal congruence was low. Moreover, employee experienced HPWS indirectly affected job performance and job satisfaction through the mechanism of OBSE beyond social exchange perspective.
Project description:Objective:Nurse shortage is a critical problem for global healthcare services. It impacts the quality of clinical care. Work engagement is the core competence of hospitals, which indicates employee's positive attitude toward organization and work. This study aimed to explore the relationships among calling, organizational commitment, and work engagement. Methods:A cross-sectional study was designed, and 320 nurses from tertiary hospitals in China completed the questionnaires that included demographic information, calling scale, employee engagement scale, and organizational commitment scale. Pearson correlation was performed to test the correlations among calling, organizational commitment, and work engagement. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of organizational commitment. The bootstrap method was employed to confirm the mediating effect. Results:Nurses' work engagement score was at the medium degree, whereas calling and organizational commitment were in the medium to high level. The results revealed that calling, organizational commitment, work engagement, and each dimension were positively correlated with one another (r = 0.145-0.922, P < 0.01). The organizational commitment plays a partially mediating effect between calling and work engagement (β = 0.603 to 0.333, P < 0.01). Conclusions:The mediation effect of organizational commitment was verified, which provided a comprehensive understanding of how calling impacted work engagement. Moreover, administrators should not only promote interventions to increase work engagement but also pay attention to calling and organizational commitment so as to improve their work engagement. Taken together, increased level of work engagement is required in the current nursing field.
Project description:Organizational effectiveness is contingent upon employees' contributions; however, the role of employee voice behavior as a critical component of employees' contribution to the organization has not been sufficiently acknowledged. Based on proactive behavior theory, we present a model to investigate employee voice behavior as an underlying mechanism in the relationship between supervisor delegation and perceived workplace inclusion. Using the SEM (structural equation modeling) method, we test our model's hypotheses with data from 271 employee-supervisor questionnaires administered in state-owned enterprises in the telecommunications industry. The results show that supervisor delegation is positively related to employees' promotive and prohibitive voice behavior. Promotive voice significantly influences perceived workplace inclusion, but prohibitive voice behavior was not found to have any impact on perceived workplace inclusion. Moreover, both dimensions of voice behavior, i.e., promotive and prohibitive voice behavior, significantly mediate the relationship between supervisor delegation and perceived workplace inclusion.
Project description:This study broadly assesses the association of organizational downsizing to deleterious work conditions and employee outcomes, and the extent to which work conditions mediate the association of downsizing to employee outcomes, thereby serving as targets for workplace intervention to reduce the harmful effects of downsizing on surviving workers. The cross-sectional data came from a national probability sample of 2,297 U.S. workers. A parallel multiple-mediator model with multiple outcomes was estimated, adjusting for occupational, geographic, and temporal covariates. Exposure to downsizing was the predictor, a set of 12 work conditions served as simultaneous mediators, and a set of 16 employee consequences served as simultaneous outcomes. Downsizing had an adverse association with 9 of the 12 work conditions and all 16 employee outcomes. Moreover, the associations of downsizing to the employee outcomes were indirect, collectively mediated by the 9 work conditions. This study provides the broadest evaluation of the deleterious effects of downsizing on U.S. workers surviving a downsizing, identifies affected work conditions that can serve as targets for workplace interventions, and provides insight into why organizational downsizing often fails to deliver anticipated financial and performance benefits to organizations. In terms of serving as targets for workplace intervention, some work conditions meditated the associations of downsizing to a broad set of employee outcomes, whereas other work conditions were specific to certain outcomes. The broad mediators should be targets of any intervention aimed at reducing the adverse effects of downsizing, with additional workplace targets depending on the class of outcome to be addressed by the intervention.