We need your help! If you've ever found our data helpful, please take our impact survey (15 min). Your replies will help keep the data flowing to the scientific community. Please Click here for Survey
Omics score: 0
Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant supplementation on the transcriptional level of genes involved in lipid and energy metabolism in swine.
ABSTRACT: Porcine fat traits depend mostly on the interaction between nutritional and genetic factors. However, the pathways and biological processes influenced by this interaction are still poorly known in pigs, although they can have a huge impact on meat quality traits. The present research provides new knowledge insight into the effect of four diets (D1 = standard diet; D2 = linseed supplementation; D3 = linseed, vitamin E and selenium supplementation; D4 = linseed and plant-derived polyphenols supplementation) on the expression of 24 candidate genes selected for their role in lipid and energy metabolism. The data indicated that 10 out of 24 genes were differentially expressed among diets, namely ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, CHREBP (MLXPL), ELOVL6, FASN, G6PD, PLIN2, RXRA and SCD. Results from the univariate analysis displayed an increased expression of ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, CHREBP, ELOVL6, FASN, PLIN2, RXRA and SCD in D4 compared to D2. Similarly, ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ELOVL6 and SCD were highly expressed in D4 compared to D3, while no differences were observed in D2-D3 comparison. Moreover, an increased expression of G6PD and ELOVL6 genes in D4 compared to D1 was observed. Results from the multivariate analysis confirmed that D2 was not different from D3 and that ACACA, SCD and FASN expression made D4 different from D2 and D3. Comparing D4 and D1, the expression levels of ELOVL6 and ACACA were the most influenced. This research provides evidence that the addition of both n-3 PUFA and polyphenols, derived from linseed, grape-skin and oregano supplementation in the diets, stimulates the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and in oxidative processes. Results evidenced a greater effect on gene expression of the diet added with both plant extracts and n-3 PUFA, resulting in an increased expression of genes coding for fatty acid synthesis, desaturation and elongation in pig Longissimus thoracis muscle.
Project description:Analysis of allele-specific expression may help to elucidate the genetic architecture of complex traits including fat deposition in pigs. Here, we used pyrosequencing to investigate the allele proportions of candidate genes (ACACA, ADIPOR1, FASN, LEP, ME1, SCD, and TNF) involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in two fat deposits (subcutaneous and visceral fat) and longissimus dorsi muscle of pigs representing Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Duroc, and Pietrain breeds. We detected differential allelic expression of ACACA, LEP, SCD, and TNF in all tissues analyzed. To search for putative cis-regulatory elements involved in allele-specific expression, we quantified the methylation level within CpG islands located in 5'-flanking regions of ACACA and SCD. Comparison between samples showing markedly disproportionate allelic expression and control groups with similar levels of both alleles did not reveal significant differences. We also assessed the association of rs321308225 (c.*195C>A) an SNP located in the 3'UTR of ACACA with its allelic expression in Polish Landrace pigs, but it was not significant. We conclude that allelic imbalance occurs frequently in regard to genes involved in regulation of lipid deposition in pigs, and further studies are necessary to identify cis-regulatory elements affecting ACACA, LEP, SCD, and TNF expression in porcine fat tissues and skeletal muscle.
Project description:Genetic basis of fat deposition in sheep tail have not been completely elucidated yet. Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling fat-tail size can improve breeding strategies to modulate fat deposition. RNA sequencing has made it possible to discover genetic variants that may underlie various phenotypic differences. Hence, to identify genetic variants that are important for describing different fat-tail phenotypes in sheep, RNA sequencing was used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling in two Iranian sheep breeds (Lori-Bakhtiari, fat-tailed; n?=?4, vs Zel, thin-tailed; n?=?4). Using a stringent pipeline, a total of 112,344 known SNPs were genotyped, of which 30,550 and 42,906 SNPs were shared by at least two Lori-Bakhtiari and Zel, respectively. Comparing these SNPs showed 2,774 (including 209 missense and 25 deleterious SNPs) and 10,470 (including 1,054 missense and 116 deleterious SNPs) breed-specific SNPs in Lori-Bakhtiari and Zel sheep, respectively. Potential breed-specific SNPs were detected by considering those located in QTL regions associated with fatness or reported as important candidates in previous similar studies. Of the breed-specific SNPs, 724 and 2,905 were located in the QTL regions. Functional enrichment analysis of the affected genes revealed several enriched gene ontologies and KEGG pathways related to fat metabolism. Based on the results, several affected genes were proposed to be strongly linked with fat deposition such as DGAT2, ACSL1, ACACA, ADIPOQ, ACLY, FASN, CPT2, SCD, ADCY6, PER3, CSF1R, SLC22A4, GFPT1, CDS2, BMP6, ACSS2, ELOVL6, HOXA10 and FABP4. Moreover, several SNPs were found in the candidate genes related to fatty acid oxidation introducing them as promising candidates responsible for lower fat content in tail of Zel. Our findings provided new insights into the genetic mechanisms of fat deposition in sheep, which can serve to designing appropriate breeding programs.
Project description:In recent years, pig producers have struggled with the problem of low intramuscular fat levels in pork, which impacts palatability and ultimately meat quality. Reduced levels of intramuscular fat are likely the result of breeding objectives aimed at increasing lean meat content. In this study, three mutations within candidate genes for fat content (SCD, ACACA, and FASN) were selected, based on RNA-seq results and the relationship between polymorphisms in genes related to lipid metabolism, fattening and slaughter characteristics, as well as pork quality, including IMF level, were evaluated to identify selection markers. Moreover, their impact on gene expression was also examined. The PCR-RFLP (polymerase cha- in reaction - restriction fragments length) method was used to establish genotypes and effect sizes of potential genetic markers were estimated using a GLM model. It was identified that a FASN missense variant was positively associated with the expression level of this gene, which suggested its linkage with a mutation having a regulatory function. The association study indicated that the FASN missense variant may play a role in the determination of feed conversion and meat colour. In turn, a mutation in the ACACA gene showed a relationship with IMF content in the Pu?awska breed where the differences reached as much as 20%. We suggest considering all three mutations in further studies based on different pig populations due to the crucial role of SCD, ACACA, and FASN genes in lipid metabolism.
Project description:This study examined the effect of linseed and algae on growth and carcass parameters, adipocyte cellularity, fatty acid profile and meat quality and gene expression in subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues (AT) in lambs. After weaning, 33 lambs were fed three diets up to 26.7 ± 0.3 kg: Control diet (barley and soybean); L diet (barley, soybean and 10% linseed) and L-A diet (barley, soybean, 5% linseed and 3.89% algae). Lambs fed L-A diet showed lower average daily gain and greater slaughter age compared to Control and L (P < 0.001). Carcass traits were not affected by L and L-A diets, but a trend towards greater adipocyte diameter was observed in L and L-A in the subcutaneous AT (P = 0.057). Adding either linseed or linseed and algae increased ?-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in both AT (P < 0.001); however, docosahexaenoic acid was increased by L-A (P < 0.001). The n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in L and L-A (P < 0.001). Algae had adverse effects on meat quality, with greater lipid oxidation and reduced ratings for odor and flavor. The expression of lipogenic genes was downregulated in the subcutaneous AT (P < 0.05): acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACACA) in L and L-A and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in L-A. Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) and fatty acid elongase 5 (ELOVL5) were unaffected. In the subcutaneous AT, supplementing either L or L-A increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and CAAT-enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA) (P < 0.05), although it had no effect on sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1 (SREBF1). In the intramuscular AT, expression of ACACA, SCD, FADS1 and FADS2 decreased in L and L-A (P < 0.001) and LPL in L (P < 0.01), but PPARG, CEBPA and SREBF1 were unaffected.
Project description:The X-chromosomal dystonia parkinsonism syndrome (XDP) is associated with sequence changes within the TAF1/DYT3 multiple transcript system. While most sequence changes are intronic, one, DSC3, is located within an exon (d4). Transcribed exon d4 occurs as part of multiple splice variants. These variants include exons d3 and d4 spliced to exons of TAF1, and an independent transcript composed of exons d2-d4. Location of DSC3 in an exon (d4) and utilization of this exon in multiple splice variants suggests an important role of DSC3 in the pathogenesis of XDP. To test this hypothesis we transfected neuroblastoma cells with four expression constructs, including exons d2-d4 (d2-d4/wild-type (wt) and d2-d4/DSC3) and d3-d4 (d3-d4/wt and d3-d4/DSC3). Expression profiling revealed a dramatic effect of DSC3 on overall gene expression. 362 genes differ between cells containing d2-d4/wt and d2-d4/DSC3. Annotation clustering revealed high enrichment of genes related to dopamine metabolism, vesicular transport, synapse function, Ca++ metabolism, and oxidative stress. 211 genes were differentially expressed in d3-d4/wt vs. d3-d4/DSC3. Annotation clustering highlighted genes in signal transduction and cell-cell interaction. The data shows an important role of physiologically occurring transcript d2-d4 in normal brain function. Interference with this role by DSC3 is a likely pathological mechanism in XDP. Disturbance of dopamine function and of Ca++ metabolism can explain abnormal movement; loss of protection against reactive oxygen species may account for the neurodegenerative changes in XDP. Although d3-d4 also affect genes potentially related to neurodegenerative processes their physiologic role as splice variants of TAF1 awaits further exploration. We transfected neuroblastoma cells with four expression constructs, including exons d2-d4 (d2-d4/wild-type (wt) and d2-d4/DSC3) and d3-d4 (d3-d4/wt and d3-d4/DSC3).
Project description:To explore the function of PPAR γ in the goat mammary gland, we cloned the whole cDNA of the PPAR γ gene. Homology alignments revealed that the goat PPAR γ gene is conserved among goat, bovine, mouse, and human. Luciferase assays revealed that rosiglitazone enhanced the activity of the PPAR γ response element (PPRE) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). After rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment of GMECs, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of genes related to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion: LPL, FASN, ACACA, PLIN3, FABP3, PLIN2, PNPLA2, NR1H3, SREBF1, and SCD. The decreases in expression observed after knockdown of PPAR γ relative to the control group (Ad-NC) averaged 65%, 52%, 67%, 55%, 65%, 58%, 85%, 43%, 50%, and 24% for SCD, DGAT1, AGPAT6, SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, FABP3, SCAP, ATGL, and PLIN3, respectively. These results provide direct evidence that PPAR γ plays a crucial role in regulating the triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in goat mammary cells and underscore the functional importance of PPAR γ in mammary gland tissue during lactation.
Project description:Background: Supplementing farm animals diet with functional ingredients may improve the nutritional quality of meat products. Diet composition has been also demonstrated to influence the gene expression with effect on biological processes and pathways. However, the knowledge on the effect of nutrients at the molecular level is scant. In particular, studies on the effects of antioxidants and polyphenols dietary supplementation have been investigated mainly in rodents, and only scarcely in farm animals so far. RNA-seq with next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly the method of choice for studying changes in the transcriptome and it has been recently employed also in pig nutrigenomics studies to identify diet-induced changes in gene expression. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diets enriched with functional ingredients (linseed, vitamin E and plant extracts) on the transcriptome of pig Longissimus thoracis to elucidate the role of these compounds in influencing genes involved in muscle physiology and metabolism compared to a standard diet. Results: 893 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR adjusted P-value < 0.05) were detected by RNA-seq analysis in the three diet comparisons (D2-D1, D3-D1, D4-D1). The functional analysis of DEGs showed that the diet enriched with n-3 PUFA from linseed (D2) mostly downregulated genes, compared to the standard diet (D1) included in pathways and biological processes (BPs) involved in muscle development, contraction, and glycogen metabolism. The diet supplemented with linseed and vitamin E/Selenium (D3) compared to D1 mostly downregulated genes linked to oxidative phosphorylation. Only few genes were upregulated by the D3 and involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. Finally, the comparison D4-D1 showed that the diet supplemented with linseed and plant extracts (D4) upregulated the majority of genes compared to D1 that were included in a complex network of pathways and BPs all connected by hub genes. In particular, IGF2 was a hub gene connecting protein metabolism, ECM organization, immune system and lipid biosynthesis pathways. Conclusion: The supplementation of pig diet with n-3 PUFA from linseed, antioxidants and plant-derived polyphenols can influence the expression of a relevant number of genes in Longissimus thoracis muscle that are involved a variety of biochemical pathways linked to muscle function and metabolism.
Project description:One of the most important determinants of meat quality is the intramuscular fat (IMF) content. The development of high-throughput techniques as RNA-seq allows identifying gene pathways and networks with a differential expression (DE) between groups of animals divergent for a particular trait. The Iberian pig is characterized by having an excellent meat quality and a high content of intramuscular fat. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the longissimus dorsi transcriptome of purebred Iberian pigs divergent for their IMF breeding value to identify differential expressed genes and regulatory factors affecting gene expression. RNA-seq allowed identifying ?10,000 of the 25,878 annotated genes in the analyzed samples. In addition to this, 42.46% of the identified transcripts corresponded to newly predicted isoforms. Differential expression analyses revealed a total of 221 DE annotated genes and 116 DE new isoforms. Functional analyses identified an enrichment of overexpressed genes involved in lipid metabolism (FASN, SCD, ELOVL6, DGAT2, PLIN1, CIDEC, and ADIPOQ) in animals with a higher content of IMF and an enrichment of overexpressed genes related with myogenesis and adipogenesis (EGR1, EGR2, EGR3, JUNB, FOSB, and SEMA4D) in the animals with a lower content of IMF. In addition to this, potential regulatory elements of these DE genes were identified. Co-expression networks analyses revealed six long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (ALDBSSCG0000002079, ALDBSSCG0000002093, ALDBSSCG0000003455, ALDBSSCG0000004244, ALDBSSCG0000005525, and ALDBSSCG0000006849) co-expressed with SEMA4D and FOSB genes and one (ALDBSSCG0000004790) with SCD, ELOVL6, DGAT2, PLIN1, and CIDEC. Analyses of the regulatory impact factors (RIFs) revealed 301 transcriptionally regulatory factors involved in expression differences, with five of them involved in adipogenesis (ARID5B, CREB1, VDR, ATF6, and SP1) and other three taking part of myogenesis and development of skeletal muscle (ATF3, KLF11, and MYF6). The results obtained provide relevant insights about the genetic mechanisms underlying IMF content in purebred Iberian pigs and a set of candidate genes and regulatory factors for further identification of polymorphisms susceptible of being incorporated in a selection program.
Project description:Tibetan pigs from the Tibetan Plateau are characterized with a significant phenotypic difference relative to lowland pigs. In this study, a significant difference of the fatness and fatty acid composition traits was observed between the Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs. To uncover the involved mechanism, the expression profile of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and genes was compared between them. After serial filtered steps, 1,964 lncRNAs were obtained through our computational pipeline. In total, 63 and 715 lncRNAs and genes were identified to be differentially expressed. Evidence from cis- and trans-targeting analysis of lncRNAs demonstrated that some lncRNAs, such as MSTRG.14097 and MSTRG.8034, played important roles in the fatness and fatty acid composition traits. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that many candidate genes were responsible for the two traits. Of these, FASN, ACACA, SCD, ME3, PDHB, ACSS1, ACSS2, and ACLY were identified, which functioned in regulating the level of hexadecanoic acid, hexadecenoic acid, octadecenoic acid, and monounsaturated fatty acid. And LPGAT1, PDK4, ACAA1, and ADIPOQ were associated with the content of stearic acid, octadecadienoic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid. Candidate genes, which were responsible for fatness trait, consisted of FGF2, PLAG1, ADIPOQ, IRX3, MIF, IL-34, ADAM8, HMOX1, Vav1, and TLR8. In addition, association analysis also revealed that 34 and 57 genes significantly correlated to the fatness and fatty acid composition trait, respectively. Working out the mechanism caused by these lncRNAs and candidate genes is proven to be complicated but is invaluable to our understanding of fatness and fatty acid composition traits.
Project description:Clinical use of olanzapine frequently causes severe hyperglycemia as an adverse effect. In this study, we elucidated mechanisms by which olanzapine reduced insulin secretion using the hamster pancreatic ?-cell line HIT-T15. Reverse transcriptional-PCR analysis revealed expression of dopamine (D2, D3 and D4), serotonin (5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT6), and histamine (H1 and H2) receptors in HIT-T15 cells. Olanzapine decreased insulin secretion from HIT-T15 cells at clinically relevant concentrations (64-160?nM). A dopamine D2 agonist, D3 antagonist, and D4 antagonist suppressed insulin secretion, whereas a D2 antagonist and D3 agonist increased it. A serotonin 5-HT2B agonist slightly increased insulin secretion, while a 5-HT2C antagonist slightly decreased it. Other agonists and antagonists for serotonin receptors did not affect insulin secretion. A histamine H1 agonist increased insulin secretion, whereas an H1 antagonist and H2 agonist suppressed it. Our results suggest that dopamine (D2, D3 and D4), serotonin (5-HT2B and 5-HT2C), and histamine (H1 and H2) receptors, which are expressed on pancreatic ?-cells, directly modulate insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells. Thus, olanzapine may induce hyperglycemia in clinical settings by suppressing insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells through inhibition of dopamine D3, serotonin 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C, and histamine H1 receptors.