Altered Gut Microbiota Composition in Subjects Infected With Clonorchis sinensis.
ABSTRACT: Clonorchiasis is an infectious disease caused by helminths of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis). The adult parasite mainly inhabits the bile duct and gall bladder, and results in various complications to the hepatobiliary system. The amount of bile secreted into the intestine is reduced in cases of C. sinensis infection, which may alter the pH of the gut and decrease the amount of surfactant protein D released from the gallbladder. However, the impact of parasitic infection on the human gut microbiome remains unclear. To this end, we examined the gut microbiota composition in 47 modified Kato-Katz thick smear-positive (egg-positive) volunteers and 42 healthy controls from five rural communities. Subjects were grouped into four sub-populations based on age and infection status. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed significant changes in alpha diversity between EP1 and EN1. The beta diversity showed alterations between C. sinensis-infected subjects and healthy controls. In C. sinensis infected patients, we found the significant reduction of certain taxa, such as Bacteroides and anti-inflammatory Bifidobacterium (P < 0.05). Bacteroides, a predominant gut bacteria in healthy populations, was negatively correlated with the number of C. sinensis eggs per gram (EPG, r = -0.37, P adjust < 0.01 in 20-60 years old group; r = -0.64, P adjust = 0.04 in the 60+ years old group). What's more, the reduction in the abundance of Bifidobacterium, a common probiotic, was decreased particularly in the 60 + years old group (r = -0.50, P = 0.04). The abundance of Dorea, a potentially pro-inflammatory microbe, was higher in infected subjects than in healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Variovorax was a unique bacteria that was only detected in infected subjects. These results clearly demonstrate the significant influence of C. sinensis infection on the human gut microbiota and provided new insights into the control, prevention, diagnosis, and clinical study of clonorchiasis through the human gut microbiota.
Project description:Tens of trillions of microorganisms constitute the gut microbiota of the human body. The microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining host immunity and metabolism. Analyses of the gut microbial composition in Korea are limited to a few studies consisting of small sample sizes. To investigate the gut microbial community in a large sample of healthy Koreans, we analyzed the 16S ribosomal RNA of 4 representative bacterial genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium.A total of 378 DNA samples extracted from 164 infants and 214 adults were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA of 4 representative bacterial genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium showed that the gut microbiota in infants had higher relative abundances of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus than that in adults, which was dominated by Bacteroides and Clostridium.To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study evaluating the distinct characteristics of the microbial community of Korean infants and adults. The differences between the 2 populations suggest that external factors such as age, diet, and the environment are important contributing factors to the change in gut microbial composition during development.
Project description:Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, and the pathogenesis is still quite challenging. Emerging evidence has shown that the brain-gut-microbiota axis served a pivotal role in neurological diseases; however, researches utilizing metagenomic sequencing to analyze the alteration in gut microbiota of MSA patients were quite rare. Here, we carried out metagenomic sequencing in feces of 15 MSA patients and 15 healthy controls, to characterize the alterations in gut microbial composition and function of MSA patients in mainland China. The results showed that gut microbial community of MSA patients was significantly different from healthy controls, characterized by increased genus Akkermansia and species Roseburia hominis, Akkermansia muciniphila, Alistipes onderdonkii, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Staphylococcus xylosus, while decreased genera Megamonas, Bifidobacterium, Blautia, and Aggregatibacter and species Bacteroides coprocola, Megamonas funiformis, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Clostridium nexile, Bacteroides plebeius, and Granulicatella adiacens. Further, functional analysis based on the KEGG database revealed aberrant functional pathways in fecal microbiome of MSA patients. In conclusion, our findings provided evidence for dysbiosis in gut microbiota of Chinese MSA cohorts and helped develop new testable hypotheses on pathophysiology of MSA.
Project description:Gut microbiota is a determining factor in human physiological functions and health. It is commonly accepted that diet has a major influence on the gut microbial community, however, the effects of diet is not fully understood. The typical Mongolian diet is characterized by high and frequent consumption of fermented dairy products and red meat, and low level of carbohydrates. In this study, the gut microbiota profile of 26 Mongolians whom consumed wheat, rice and oat as the sole carbohydrate staple food for a week each consecutively was determined. It was observed that changes in staple carbohydrate rapidly (within a week) altered gut microbial community structure and metabolic pathway of the subjects. Wheat and oat favored bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifodobacteriumbifidum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis); whereas rice suppressed bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and wheat suppresses Lactobaciilus, Ruminococcus and Bacteroides. The study exhibited two gut microbial clustering patterns with the preference of fucosyllactose utilization linking to fucosidase genes (glycoside hydrolase family classifications: GH95 and GH29) encoded by Bifidobacterium, and xylan and arabinoxylan utilization linking to xylanase and arabinoxylanase genes encoded by Bacteroides. There was also a correlation between Lactobacillus ruminis and sialidase, as well as Butyrivibrio crossotus and xylanase/xylosidase. Meanwhile, a strong concordance was found between the gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome and the intestinal virome. Present research will contribute to understanding the impacts of the dietary carbohydrate on human gut microbiome, which will ultimately help understand relationships between dietary factor, microbial populations, and the health of global humans.
Project description:Human intestinal microbiota are influenced by various factors viz. diet, environment, age, gender, geographical, and socioeconomic situation, etc. among which diet has the most profound impact. However, studies investigating this impact have mostly included subjects from diverse geographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and hence the precise effects of dietary factors on gut microbiota composition remain largely confounded. Herein, with an aim to evaluate the association between dietary habits, specifically yogurt consumption, and the gut microbiota in healthy young adults sharing similar age, lifestyle routine, geographical setting, etc., we conducted a cross-sectional study wherein 293 collegiate freshmen answered a questionnaire about their frequency of yogurt consumption over the last 2 months and provided stool specimens for microbiota analysis. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by highly sensitive reverse-transcription-quantitative-PCR assays targeting bacterial 16S rRNA molecules. Fecal organic acids were measured by HPLC. Overall, the gut microbiota were predominated (97.1 ± 8.6%) by Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster. Interestingly, after adjusting the data for yogurt consumption, females were found to have higher total bacterial (P = 0.013) and Bifidobacterium (P = 0.046) count and fecal pH (P = 0.007) and lower fecal concentration of total organic acids (P = 0.030), succinic acid (P = 0.007) and formic acid (P = 0.046) as compared to males. Altogether, yogurt consumption showed positive linear association with Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup in both male and female subjects; however, several gender-specific disparities were also detected in this yogurt-microbiota association. Yogurt consumption demonstrated a negative association with L. sakei subgroup, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus in males but shared a positive association with L. casei subgroup and succinic acid in female subjects. The study manifests the association between yogurt consumption and gut microbiota in a healthy homogeneous cohort and show how this association can differ by host gender. The findings should be helpful for prospective studies investigating the diet-microbiome interaction in human health and disease.
Project description:This paper reviews the epidemiological status and characteristics of clonorchiasis at global level and the etiological relationship between Clonorchis sinensis infection and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A conservative estimation was made that 15 million people were infected in the world in 2004, of which over 85% distributed in China. The epidemiology of clonorchiasis is characterized by rising trend in its prevalence, variability among sexes and age, as well as endemicity in different regions. More data indicate that C. sinensis infection is carcinogenic to human, and it is predicted that nearly 5 000 CCA cases attributed to C. sinensis infection may occur annually in the world decades later, with its overall odds ratio of 4.47. Clonorchiasis is becoming one major public health problem in east Asia, and it is worthwhile to carry out further epidemiological studies.
Project description:The role of the intestinal microbiota as a regulator of autoimmune diabetes in animal models is well-established, but data on human type 1 diabetes are tentative and based on studies including only a few study subjects. To exclude secondary effects of diabetes and HLA risk genotype on gut microbiota, we compared the intestinal microbiota composition in children with at least two diabetes-associated autoantibodies (n = 18) with autoantibody-negative children matched for age, sex, early feeding history, and HLA risk genotype using pyrosequencing. Principal component analysis indicated that a low abundance of lactate-producing and butyrate-producing species was associated with β-cell autoimmunity. In addition, a dearth of the two most dominant Bifidobacterium species, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, and an increased abundance of the Bacteroides genus were observed in the children with β-cell autoimmunity. We did not find increased fecal calprotectin or IgA as marker of inflammation in children with β-cell autoimmunity. Functional studies related to the observed alterations in the gut microbiome are warranted because the low abundance of bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing species could adversely affect the intestinal epithelial barrier function and inflammation, whereas the apparent importance of the Bacteroides genus in development of type 1 diabetes is insufficiently understood.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is widely distributed in Southeast Asia including China. Clonorchiasis is included in control programs of neglected tropical diseases by World Health Organization (WHO) because it is one of the major health problems in most endemic areas. Diagnosis of clonorchiasis plays a key role in the control programs. However, so far, there is no satisfactory method for clonorchiasis because of low sensitivity, poor practicality and high false positivity of available diagnostic tools. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed an immunomagnetic bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on IgY (egg yolk immunoglobulin) against cysteine proteinase of C. sinensis for detection of circulating antigen in serum samples of patients infected with C. sinensis. The polyclonal IgY, coated with magnetic beads, was used as a capture antibody and a monoclonal IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase as a detection antibody in the IgY-based immunomagnetic bead ELISA system (IgY-IMB-ELISA). The results showed that the sensitivity of IgY-IMB-ELISA was 93.3% (14 of 15) in cases of heavy infection (5000 to 9999 eggs per gram feces, i.e, EPG 5000-9999), 86.7% (13 of 15) in cases of moderate infection (EPG 1000-4999) and 75.0% (9 of 12) in cases of light infection (EPG <1000) of clonorchiasis. Together 36 of total 42 (85.7%) serum samples of human clonorchiasis gave a positive reaction. There was a significant correlation between ELISA optical density and egg counts (EPG) with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 in total 42 patients. There were no positive results in patients with trichinosis (n = 10) or cysticercosis (n = 10). Cross-reactivity was 6.7% (2 of 30) with schistosomiasis japonica and 10.0% (3 of 30) with paragonimiasis, respectively. No positive reaction was found in 20 healthy persons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that IgY-IMB-ELISA appears to be a sensitive and specific assay for detection of circulating antigen in human clonorchiasis.
Project description:Clonorchiasis is caused by infection with food-borne liver fluke, namely Clonorchis sinensis, which is also considered to be a neglected tropical disease. It is estimated that over 10 million people are infected with C. sinensis in China and, subsequently, several thousand new cholangiocarcinoma cases occur annually. On May 18, 2014, China Central Television broadcasted an episode on the habit of raw-fish eating and its potential to cause clonorchiasis in a programme called Health on the tip of the tongue. Here, I briefly introduce the content of the episode and discuss its significance for clonorchiasis control in China.
Project description:The gut microbiota remains relatively stable during adulthood; however, certain intrinsic and environmental factors can lead to microbiota dysbiosis. Its restoration towards a healthy condition using best-suited prebiotics requires previous development of in vitro models for evaluating their functionality. Herein, we carried out fecal cultures with microbiota from healthy normal-weight and morbid obese adults. Cultures were supplemented with different inulin-type fructans (1-kestose, Actilight, P95, Synergy1 and Inulin) and a galactooligosaccharide. Their impact on the gut microbiota was assessed by monitoring gas production and evaluating changes in the microbiota composition (qPCR and 16S rRNA gene profiling) and metabolic activity (gas chromatography). Additionally, the effect on the bifidobacterial species was assessed (ITS-sequencing). Moreover, the functionality of the microbiota before and after prebiotic-modulation was determined in an in vitro model of interaction with an intestinal cell line. In general, 1-kestose was the compound showing the largest effects. The modulation with prebiotics led to significant increases in the Bacteroides group and Faecalibacterium in obese subjects, whereas in normal-weight individuals, substantial rises in Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium were appreciated. Notably, the results obtained showed differences in the responses among the tested compounds but also among the studied human populations, indicating the need for developing population-specific products.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clonorchiasis, one of the most important food-borne trematodiases, affects more than 12 million people in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Spatially explicit risk estimates of Clonorchis sinensis infection are needed in order to target control interventions. METHODOLOGY:Georeferenced survey data pertaining to infection prevalence of C. sinensis in P.R. China from 2000 onwards were obtained via a systematic review in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Internet, and Wanfang Data from January 1, 2000 until January 10, 2016, with no restriction of language or study design. Additional disease data were provided by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention in Shanghai. Environmental and socioeconomic proxies were extracted from remote-sensing and other data sources. Bayesian variable selection was carried out to identify the most important predictors of C. sinensis risk. Geostatistical models were applied to quantify the association between infection risk and the predictors of the disease, and to predict the risk of infection across P.R. China at high spatial resolution (over a grid with grid cell size of 5×5 km). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We obtained clonorchiasis survey data at 633 unique locations in P.R. China. We observed that the risk of C. sinensis infection increased over time, particularly from 2005 onwards. We estimate that around 14.8 million (95% Bayesian credible interval 13.8-15.8 million) people in P.R. China were infected with C. sinensis in 2010. Highly endemic areas (? 20%) were concentrated in southern and northeastern parts of the country. The provinces with the highest risk of infection and the largest number of infected people were Guangdong, Guangxi, and Heilongjiang. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our results provide spatially relevant information for guiding clonorchiasis control interventions in P.R. China. The trend toward higher risk of C. sinensis infection in the recent past urges the Chinese government to pay more attention to the public health importance of clonorchiasis and to target interventions to high-risk areas.