Antiphospholipid Antibodies to Domain I of Beta-2-Glycoprotein I Show Different Subclass Predominance in Comparison to Antibodies to Whole Beta-2-glycoprotein I.
ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), the serological hallmark of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies raised against circulating blood proteins. Of these proteins, the phospholipid-binding b2-glycoprotein I (?2GPI) is considered to be the main autoantigen in APS. Indeed, IgG antibodies targeting b2GPI (ab2GPI) directly cause both thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in several mouse models. While antibodies raised against all five domains of b2GPI have been reported, a subgroup of IgG ab2GPI raised against the first domain (DI) of b2GPI (aDI), strongly correlate with thrombotic APS, and drive thrombosis and pregnancy loss in vivo. Few studies have focused on determining the type of IgG subclass(es) for aPL. The subclass of an antibody is important as this dictates the potential activity of an antibody; for example, IgG1 and IgG3 can fix complement better and are able to cross the placenta compared to IgG2 and IgG4. It is unknown what subclass IgG aDI are, and whether they are the same as ab2GPI. To determine IgG subclass distribution for ab2GPI and aDI, we purified total IgG from the serum of 19 APS patients with known ab2GPI and aDI activity. Using subclass-specific conjugated antibodies, we modified our established in-house ab2GPI and aDI ELISAs to individually measure IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4. We found that while IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 ab2GPI levels were similar, a marked difference was seen in IgG subclass aDI levels. Specifically, significantly higher levels of IgG3 aDI were detected compared to IgG1, IgG2, or IgG4 (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Correlation analysis of subclass-specific ab2GPI vs. aDI demonstrated that IgG3 showed the weakest correlation (r = 0.45, p = 0.0023) compared to IgG1 (r = 0.61, p = 0.0001) and IgG2 (r = 0.81, p = 0.0001). Importantly, total subclass levels in IgG purified from APS and healthy serum (n = 10 HC n = 12 APS) did not differ, suggesting that the increased IgG3 aDI signal seen in APS-derived IgG is antigen-specific. To conclude, our data suggests that aDI show a different IgG subclass distribution to ab2GPI. Our results highlight the importance of aDI testing for patient stratification and may point toward differential underlying aPL-driven pathogenic processes that may be subclass restricted.
Project description:Transplacental antibody transfer from mother to fetus provides protection from infection in the first weeks of life, and the four different subclasses of IgG (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) have diverse roles in protection against infection. In this study, we evaluated concentrations and transplacental transfer ratios of the IgG subclasses in a healthy UK-based cohort of mother-cord pairs, and investigated associations with maternal, obstetric, and fetal factors. In agreement with previous studies, we found a strong association between maternal and cord IgG for all subclasses. We report a transfer efficiency hierarchy of IgG1>IgG3>IgG4=IgG2 in our study population, and our review of the literature demonstrates that there is no consensus in the hierarchy of subclass transfer, despite the commonly made statement that the order is IgG1>IgG4>IgG3>IgG2. We report additional data regarding negative associations between elevated maternal IgG concentrations and maternal/cord transfer ratios, finding an effect on IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 subclasses. Levels of IgG subclasses were the same between venous and arterial blood samples from the umbilical cord, but there was a significantly higher level of total IgG in arterial blood. We found no correlation between placental FcRn protein levels and IgG transfer in our cohort, suggesting that IgG is the main determinant of observed differences in transplacental transfer ratios at term. Neonatal IgG1 and IgG4 levels were increased with later gestation at delivery, independent of any increase in transplacental transfer, indicating that the benefit of later gestation is through accumulation of these subclasses in the fetus. Neonatal IgG2 levels and transfer ratios were reduced in rhesus-negative pregnancies, suggesting that administered anti-D antibodies may compete for transplacental transfer of this subclass. Maternal influenza vaccination resulted in elevated maternal and neonatal levels of IgG4, whereas maternal Tdap vaccination had no impact on neonatal levels of the subclasses, nor transfer. However, within Tdap vaccinated pregnancies, later gestation at Tdap vaccination was associated with higher transplacental transfer. Our study provides information regarding levels and transfer of IgG subclasses in healthy term pregnancies and demonstrates the importance of recording detailed clinical information in studies of antibody transfer, including parity, ethnicity, and timing of maternal vaccine delivery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cryoglobulins (CG) are immunoglobulins which precipitate at low temperature. The analysis of IgG subclass composition of CG is poorly reported. The aim of this study was to determine the subclasses of IgG-containing type I and mixed type II and III CG in relation to clinical manifestations. METHODS:Out of a previous series of 1675 patients, inclusion criteria were a cryoprecipitate >?1?mL and a total IgG?>?300?mg/L. IgG subclasses were quantified by immunoturbidimetry, rheumatoid factor (RF), and C4 by immunonephelometry. Clinical parameters were collected from hospital charts. RESULTS:CG samples from 86 patients were included, 10 type I CG and 76 mixed CG. Type I CG subclasses were IgG1 (6/10) and IgG2/IgG3 (4/10), never IgG4. IgG subclass in type II vs. III CG were 73.3?±?15.2% vs. 52.5?±?20.7% for IgG1 (p?<?0.0001), 15.4?±?8.2% vs. 25.9?±?14% for IgG2 (p?<?0.0001), 8.4?±?12.4 vs. 21.2?±?14% for IgG3 (p?<?0.0001), and 3?±?5.2% vs. 0.5?±?1.2 for IgG4 (p?<?0.0001). In mixed CG, the higher proportion of IgG4 was associated with RF positive CG (p?=?0.01) and low C4 (p?=?0.01). In type I CG, IgG1 were associated with severe vasculitis manifestations, IgG2/IgG3 with cutaneous or renal manifestations. In mixed CG, IgG2 was the only subclass associated with CG manifestations, with a higher concentration in asymptomatic (162.6?±?29.5?mg/L) vs. symptomatic patients with cutaneous (103?±?17.8?mg/L, p?=?0.04) and neurological (108?±?24?mg/L, p?=?0.04) manifestations. CONCLUSION:In type I IgG CG, IgG1 was the main CG subclass associated with CG vasculitis. In mixed CG, low IgG2 concentration was linked to CG cutaneous and neurological manifestations.
Project description:Donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) are the main risk factor for antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) and graft loss but could have variable pathogenicity according to their IgG subclass composition. Luminex-based test might lack sensitivity for the detection of IgG subclasses and this test does not allow quantifying the relative abundance of each IgG subclass. We investigated the precise repartition of each DSA subclass and their role in ABMR occurrence and severity, using an innovative mass spectrometry-based method. Between 2014 and 2018, we enrolled 69 patients who developed de novo DSA (n = 29 without ABMR, and n = 40 with ABMR) in two transplant centers. All IgG subclasses were detected in every samples tested: 62.7% were IgG1, 26.6% were IgG2, 6.6% were IgG3, and 4.2% were IgG4. The IgG3 proportion was significantly higher in the ABMR+ compared to the ABMR- group (8.4% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.003). The proportion of IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 of DSA was similar between the two groups. Higher IgG3 level was associated with higher C4d deposition, higher microvascular inflammation scores, and glomerular filtration rate decline >25%. IgG3 proportion was not correlated with DSA MFI. Multivariate analysis showed that proteinuria and high level of IgG3 DSA were the only two factors independently associated with ABMR. In conclusion, de novo DSA are always composed of the four IgG subclasses, but in different proportions. High IgG3 proportion is associated with ABMR occurrence and severity and with poorer outcome, independently of DSA MFI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The literature is scarce regarding the prevalence and clinical impact of IgG subclass deficiency in COPD. We investigated the prevalence of IgG subclass deficiencies and their association with exacerbations and hospitalizations using subjects from two COPD cohorts. METHODS:We measured IgG subclass levels using immunonephelometry in serum samples from participants enrolled in two previous COPD trials: Macrolide Azithromycin for Prevention of Exacerbations of COPD (MACRO; n = 976) and Simvastatin for the Prevention of Exacerbations in Moderate-to-Severe COPD (STATCOPE; n = 653). All samples were collected from clinically stable participants upon entry into both studies. IgG subclass deficiency was diagnosed when IgG subclass levels were below their respective lower limit of normal: IgG1 < 2.8 g/L; IgG2 < 1.15 g/L; IgG3 < 0.24 g/L; and IgG4 < 0.052 g/L. To investigate the impact of IgG subclass levels on time to first exacerbation or hospitalization, we log-transformed IgG levels and performed Cox regression models, with adjustments for confounders. RESULTS:One or more IgG subclass deficiencies were found in 173 (17.7%) and 133 (20.4%) participants in MACRO and STATCOPE, respectively. Lower IgG1 or IgG2 levels resulted in increased risk of exacerbations with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.10-1.54, p < 0.01) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35, p < 0.01), respectively in the MACRO study, with STATCOPE yielding similar results. Reduced IgG1 or IgG2 levels were also associated with increased risk of hospitalizations: the adjusted HR for IgG1 and IgG2 was 1.52 (95% CI: 1.15-2.02, p < 0.01) and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08-1.64, p < 0.01), respectively for the MACRO study; in STATCOPE, only IgG2 was an independent predictor of hospitalization. In our multivariate Cox models, IgG3 and IgG4 levels did not result in significant associations for both outcomes in either MACRO or STATCOPE cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:Approximately 1 in 5 COPD patients had one or more IgG subclass deficiencies. Reduced IgG subclass levels were independent risk factors for both COPD exacerbations (IgG1 and IgG2) and hospitalizations (IgG2) in two COPD cohorts. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study used serum samples from participants of the MACRO ( NCT00325897 ) and STATCOPE ( NCT01061671 ) trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND: HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms have been associated with malaria resistance in humans, whereas cytophilic immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are thought to play a critical role in immune protection against asexual blood stages of the parasite. Furthermore, HBB, IL4, TNF, and FCGR2A have been associated with both malaria resistance and IgG levels. This suggests that some malaria resistance genes influence the levels of IgG subclass antibodies. METHODS: In this study, the effect of HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms on the levels of IgG responses against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage extract was investigated in 220 individuals living in Burkina Faso. The Pearson's correlation coefficient among IgG subclasses was determined. A family-based approach was used to assess the association of polymorphisms with anti-P. falciparum IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels. RESULTS: After applying a multiple test correction, several polymorphisms were associated with IgG subclass or IgG levels. There was an association of i) haemoglobin C with IgG levels; ii) the Fc?RIIa H/R131 with IgG2 and IgG3 levels; iii) TNF-863 with IgG3 levels; iv) TNF-857 with IgG levels; and, v) TNF1304 with IgG3, IgG4, and IgG levels. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that some polymorphisms affect malaria resistance through their effect on the acquired immune response, and pave the way towards further comprehension of genetic control of an individual's humoral response against malaria.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies reporting the natural immune responses against malaria in children from different geographical settings in endemic areas are not readily available. This study was aimed at comparing the immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum MSP-119 antigen in children from five contrasting bioecological zones in Cameroon. METHODS:In a cross-sectional survey, children between 2 and 15 years, were enrolled from five ecological strata including the south Cameroonian equatorial forest, sudano-sahelian, high inland plateau, high western plateau, and the coastal strata. The children were screened for clinical malaria (defined by malaria parasitaemia ??5000 parasites/µl plus axillary temperature ??37.5 °C). Their antibody responses were measured against P. falciparum MSP-119 antigen using standard ELISA technique. RESULTS:In all, 415 children comprising 217 (52.3%) males participated. Total IgG and IgG1-IgG4 titres were observed to increase with age in all the strata except in the sudano-sahelian and high inland plateau strata. Total IgG and IgG1-IgG4 titres were significantly higher in the coastal strata and lowest in the high inland plateau (for IgG1 and IgG2) and sudano-sahelian strata (for IgG3 and IgG4). Titres of the cytophilic antibodies (IgG1 and IgG3) were significantly higher than the non-cytophilic antibodies (IgG2 and IgG4) in all the strata except in the sudano-sahelian and high inland plateau strata. Total IgG and IgG subclass titres were significantly higher in children positive for clinical malaria compared to negative children in all study sites except in the high western plateau and coastal (for IgG1 and IgG3), and the sudano-sahelian strata (for all antibodies). Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between parasite density and IgG2 or IgG4 titres in all study sites except in the south Cameroonian equatorial forest and sudano-sahelian strata. CONCLUSIONS:This study showed that antibody responses against MSP-119 vary considerably in children from the different bioecological strata in Cameroon and could be linked to the differential exposure to malaria in the different strata. Furthermore, the rate of antibody acquisition was not observed to increase in an age-dependent manner in low transmission settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) includes four different subtypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4), and it is also now appreciated that there are genetic variations within IgG subtypes (called isoallotypes). Twenty-nine different isoallotypes have been described, with 7, 4, 15, and 3 isoallotypes described for IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, respectively. The reactivity of anti-IgG with different isoallotypes has not been characterized. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:A novel monoclonal anti-K antibody (PugetSound Monoclonal Antibody 1 [PUMA1]) was isolated and sequenced, and a panel of PUMA1 variants was expressed, consisting of the 29 known IgG isoallotypes. The resulting panel of antibodies was preincubated with K-positive red blood cells (RBCs) and then subjected to testing with currently approved anti-IgG by flow cytometry, solid phase systems, gel cards, and tube testing. RESULTS:A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved monoclonal anti-IgG (gamma-clone) failed to recognize 2 of 15 IgG3 isoallotypes (IgG3-03 and IgG3-13) and 3 of 3 IgG4 isoallotypes (IgG4-01, IgG4-02, and IgG4-03). In contrast, an FDA-approved rabbit polyclonal anti-IgG recognized each of the known human IgG isoallotypes. CONCLUSION:These findings demonstrate "blind spots" in isoalloantibody detection by a monoclonal anti-IgG. If a patient has anti-RBC antibodies predominantly of an IgG3 subtype (the IgG3-03 and/or IgG3-13 variety), then it is possible that a clinically significant alloantibody would be missed. IgG-03 and IgG-13 have an estimated frequency of 1% to 3% in Caucasian populations and 20% to 30% in certain African populations. Nonreactivity with IgG4 is a known characteristic of this monoclonal anti-IgG, but IgG4 isoallotypes have not been previously reported.
Project description:Cytophilic immunoglobulin (IgG) subclass responses (IgG1 and IgG3) to Plasmodium falciparum antigens have been associated with protection from malaria, yet the relative importance of transmission intensity and age in generation of subclass responses to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens have not been clearly defined. We analyzed IgG subclass responses to the pre-erythrocytic antigens CSP, LSA-1, and TRAP and the blood-stage antigens AMA-1, EBA-175, and MSP-1 in asymptomatic residents age 2 years or older in stable (n=116) and unstable (n=96) transmission areas in Western Kenya. In the area of stable malaria transmission, a high prevalence of cytophilic (IgG1 and IgG3) antibodies to each antigen was seen in all age groups. Prevalence and levels of cytophilic antibodies to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage P. falciparum antigens increased with age in the unstable transmission area, yet IgG1 and IgG3 responses to most antigens for all ages in the unstable transmission area were less prevalent and lower in magnitude than even the youngest age group from the stable transmission area. The dominance of cytophilic responses over non-cytophilic (IgG2 and IgG4) was more pronounced in the stable transmission area, and the ratio of IgG3 over IgG1 generally increased with age. In the unstable transmission area, the ratio of cytophilic to non-cytophilic antibodies did not increase with age, and tended to be IgG3-biased for pre-erythrocytic antigens yet IgG1-biased for blood-stage antigens. The differences between areas could not be attributed to active parasitemia status, as there were minimal differences in antibody responses between those positive and negative for Plasmodium infection by microscopy in the stable transmission area. Individuals in areas of unstable transmission have low cytophilic to non-cytophilic IgG subclass ratios and low IgG3:IgG1 ratios to P. falciparum antigens. These imbalances could contribute to the persistent risk of clinical malaria in these areas and serve as population-level, age-specific biomarkers of transmission.
Project description:Antibodies raised in Indian rhesus macaques [Macaca mulatta (MM)] in many preclinical vaccine studies are often evaluated in vitro for titer, antigen-recognition breadth, neutralization potency, and/or effector function, and in vivo for potential associations with protection. However, despite reliance on this key animal model in translation of promising candidate vaccines for evaluation in first in man studies, little is known about the properties of MM immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and how they may compare to human IgG subclasses. Here, we evaluate the binding of MM IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 to human Fc gamma receptors (Fc?R) and their ability to elicit the effector functions of human Fc?R-bearing cells, and unlike in humans, find a notable absence of subclasses with dramatically silent Fc regions. Biophysical, in vitro, and in vivo characterization revealed MM IgG1 exhibited the greatest effector function activity followed by IgG2 and then IgG3/4. These findings in rhesus are in contrast with the canonical understanding that IgG1 and IgG3 dominate effector function in humans, indicating that subclass-switching profiles observed in rhesus studies may not strictly recapitulate those observed in human vaccine studies.
Project description:Naturally acquired immunity (NAI) to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is mainly mediated by IgG antibodies but the subclasses, epitope targets and effector functions have not been unequivocally defined. Dissecting the type and specificity of antibody responses mediating NAI is a key step toward developing more effective vaccines to control the disease. We investigated the role of IgG subclasses to malaria antigens in protection against disease and the factors that affect their levels, including vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E. We analyzed plasma and serum samples at baseline and 1 month after primary vaccination with RTS,S or comparator in African children and infants participating in a phase 3 trial in two sites of different malaria transmission intensity: Kintampo in Ghana and Manhiça in Mozambique. We used quantitative suspension array technology (qSAT) to measure IgG1-4 responses to 35 P. falciparum pre-erythrocytic and blood stage antigens. Our results show that the pattern of IgG response is predominantly IgG1 or IgG3, with lower levels of IgG2 and IgG4. Age, site and RTS,S vaccination significantly affected antibody subclass levels to different antigens and susceptibility to clinical malaria. Univariable and multivariable analysis showed associations with protection mainly for cytophilic IgG3 levels to selected antigens, followed by IgG1 levels and, unexpectedly, also with IgG4 levels, mainly to antigens that increased upon RTS,S vaccination such as MSP5 and MSP1 block 2, among others. In contrast, IgG2 was associated with malaria risk. Stratified analysis in RTS,S vaccinees pointed to novel associations of IgG4 responses with immunity mainly involving pre-erythrocytic antigens upon RTS,S vaccination. Multi-marker analysis revealed a significant contribution of IgG3 responses to malaria protection and IgG2 responses to malaria risk. We propose that the pattern of cytophilic and non-cytophilic IgG antibodies is antigen-dependent and more complex than initially thought, and that mechanisms of both types of subclasses could be involved in protection. Our data also suggests that RTS,S efficacy is significantly affected by NAI, and indicates that RTS,S vaccination significantly alters NAI.