Construction of the Pentacyclic Core and Formal Total Synthesis of (rac)-Renieramycin?T.
ABSTRACT: A formal total synthesis of the antitumor marine natural product (rac)-renieramycin?T, which possesses a characteristic ecteinascidin-type A?ring in the renieramycin-saframycin core skeleton, was elaborated. The key steps in the synthesis of (rac)-renieramycin?T are a modified Pictet-Spengler cyclization of dialkylated oxomalonate derivatives and decarboxylation via a monocarboxylic acid derivative followed by stereocontrolled protonation of the enol intermediate. A key intermediate in our previous synthesis of renieramycin?T was used, and the formal synthesis was accomplished in 21?steps from a known piperazine-2,5-dione derivative.
Project description:The first total synthesis of (±)-renieramycin I, which was isolated from the Indian bright blue sponge Haliclona cribricutis, is described. The key step is the selenium oxide oxidation of pentacyclic bis-p-quinone derivative (3) stereo- and regioselectively. We also report a large-scale synthesis of cribrostatin 4 (renieramycin H) via the C3-C4 double bond formation in an early stage based on the Avendaño's protocol, from readily available 1-acetyl-3-(3-methyl-2,4,5-trimethylphenyl)methyl-piperazine-2,5-dione (8) in 18 steps (8.3% overall yield). The synthesis provides unambiguous evidence supporting the original structure of renieramycin I.
Project description:A formal total synthesis of the potent anticancer agent Et-743 is described. The tetrahydroisoquinoline core is stereoselectively constructed using a novel radical cyclization of a glyoxalimine. Further elaboration of this core rapidly accessed the pentacyclic core of Et-743, but a mixture of regiosisomers was obtained in the key Pictet-Spengler ring closure. A known advanced intermediate in the synthesis of Et-743 was intercepted, constituting a formal synthesis of the molecule.
Project description:The regiochemical outcome of Pictet-Spengler cyclization reactions directed toward the preparation of the pentacyclic core of the ecteinascidin class of antitumor antibiotics has been investigated on two different phenolic substrates. In one substrate, the assistance of an incipient benzylamine group at C-4 is postulated to direct the cyclization in favor of the pentacyclic framework of ET-743, which bears a hydroxyl group at C-18. Conversely, cyclization of an alternative substrate lacking a heteroatom at C-4 favors the opposite regiochemical outcome, primarily affording an unnatural pentacyclic core bearing a hydroxyl group at C-16.
Project description:Two new series of synthetic renieramycins including 22-O-amino ester and hydroquinone 5-O-amino ester derivatives of renieramycin M were semi-synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer H292 and H460 cell lines. Interestingly, the series of 22-O-amino ester derivatives displayed a potent cytotoxic activity greater than the hydroquinone derivatives. The most cytotoxic derivative of the series was the 22-O-(N-Boc-l-glycine) ester of renieramycin M (5a: IC50 3.56 nM), which showed 7-fold higher potency than renieramycin M (IC50 24.56 nM) and 61-fold more than jorunnamycin A (IC50 217.43 nM) against H292 cells. In addition, 5a exhibited a significantly higher cytotoxic activity than doxorubicin (ca. 100 times). The new semi-synthetic renieramycin derivatives will be further studied and developed as potential cytotoxic agents for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma is the most aggressive form of brain tumors showing resistance to treatment with various chemotherapeutic agents. The most effective way to eradicate glioblastoma requires the concurrent inhibition of multiple signaling pathways and target molecules involved in the progression of glioblastoma. Recently, we obtained a series of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids with potent anti-cancer activities, including ecteinascidin-770 (ET-770; the compound 1a) and renieramycin M (RM; the compound 2a) from Thai marine invertebrates, together with a 2'-N-4"-pyridinecarbonyl derivative of ET-770 (the compound 3). We attempted to characterize the molecular pathways responsible for cytotoxic effects of these compounds on a human glioblastoma cell line U373MG. METHODS:We studied the genome-wide gene expression profile on microarrays and molecular networks by using pathway analysis tools of bioinformatics. RESULTS:All of these compounds induced apoptosis of U373MG cells at nanomolar concentrations. The compound 3 reduced the expression of 417 genes and elevated the levels of 84 genes, while ET-770 downregulated 426 genes and upregulated 45 genes. RM decreased the expression of 274 genes and increased the expression of 9 genes. The set of 196 downregulated genes and 6 upregulated genes showed an overlap among all the compounds, suggesting an existence of the common pathways involved in induction of apoptosis. We identified the ErbB (EGFR) signaling pathway as one of the common pathways enriched in the set of downregulated genes, composed of PTK2, AKT3, and GSK3B serving as key molecules that regulate cell movement and the nervous system development. Furthermore, a GSK3B-specific inhibitor induced apoptosis of U373MG cells, supporting an anti-apoptotic role of GSK3B. CONCLUSION:Molecular network analysis is a useful approach not only to characterize the glioma-relevant pathways but also to identify the network-based effective drug targets.
Project description:The synthesis of an unusual 1-metalla-2,3-cyclobutadiene complex [rac-(ebthi)Ti(Me3SiC3SiMe3)] (rac-ebthi = rac-1,2-ethylene-1,1'-bis(η5-tetrahydroindenyl)), a formal metallacyclic analogue of a non-existent four-membered 1,2-cyclobutadiene, is described. By variation of the cyclopentadienyl ligand of the titanocene precursor it was possible to stabilise this highly exotic compound which selectively reacts with ketones and aldehydes to yield enynes by oxygen transfer to titanium. Analysis of the bonding and electronic structure of the metallacycle shows that the complex is best described as an unusual antiferromagnetically coupled biradicaloid system, possessing a formal Ti(iii) centre coordinated with a monoanionic radical ligand.
Project description:Development of efficient sequences for the total syntheses of (+/-)-actinophyllic acid (rac-1) and (-)-actinophyllic acid (1) are described. The central step in these syntheses is the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction, which constructs the previously unknown hexacyclic ring system of actinophyllic acid in one step from much simpler tetracyclic precursors. The tetracyclic hexahydro-1,5-methano-1H-azocino[4,3-b]indole ketone rac-37 is assembled from o-nitrophenylacetic acid in four steps, with oxidative cyclization of a dienolate derivative of tricyclic precursor rac-35 being the central step. In the first-generation synthesis, this intermediate is transformed in two steps to homoallyl amine rac-43, whose formaldiminium derivative undergoes efficient aza-Cope/Mannich reaction to give pentacyclic ketone rac-44. In four additional steps, this intermediate is advanced to (+/-)-actinophyllic acid. The synthesis is streamlined by elaborating ketone rac-37 to beta-hydroxyester intermediate rac-53, which is directly transformed to (+/-)-actinophyllic acid upon exposure to HCl and paraformaldehyde. This concise second-generation total synthesis of (+/-)-actinophyllic acid is realized in 22% overall yield from commercially available di-tert-butyl malonate and o-nitrophenylacetic acid by a sequence that proceeds by way of only six isolated intermediates. The first enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-actinophyllic acid (1) is accomplished by this direct sequence from tricyclic keto malonate (S)-35. Catalytic enantioselective reduction of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone 66 is the key step in the preparation of intermediate (S)-35 from the commercially available Boc-amino acid 65. Discussed also is the possibility that the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction might be involved in the biosynthesis of (-)-actinophyllic acid.
Project description:Renieramycin M (RM) is a KCN-stabilized tetrahydroisoquinoline purified from the blue sponge Xestospongia sp., with nanomolar IC50s against several cancer cell lines. Our goal is to evaluate its combination effects with doxorubicin (DOX) in estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were treated simultaneously or sequentially with various combination ratios of RM and DOX for 72 h. Cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Synergism or antagonism was determined using curve-shift analysis, combination index method and isobologram analysis. Synergism was observed with pharmacologically achievable concentrations of DOX when administered simultaneously, but not sequentially. The IC95 values of RM and DOX after combination were reduced by up to four-fold and eight-fold, respectively. To gain insights on the mechanism of synergy, real-time profiling, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis assays, and transcriptome analysis were conducted. The combination treatment displayed a similar profile with DNA-damaging agents and induced a greater and faster cell killing. The combination treatment also showed an increase in apoptosis. DOX induced S and G2/M arrest while RM did not induce significant changes in the cell cycle. DNA replication and repair genes were downregulated commonly by RM and DOX. p53 signaling and cell cycle checkpoints were regulated by DOX while ErbB/PI3K-Akt, integrin and focal adhesion signaling were regulated by RM upon combination. Genes involved in cytochrome C release and interferon gamma signaling were regulated specifically in the combination treatment. This study serves as a basis for in vivo studies and provides a rationale for using RM in combination with other anticancer drugs.
Project description:Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) proteins are promising targets for cancer therapy. Here, we investigated the structure-activity relationships (SARs) and performed molecular docking analysis of renieramycin T (RT) and its analogues and identified the critical functional groups of Mcl-1 targeting. RT have a potent anti-cancer activity against several lung cancer cells and drug-resistant primary cancer cells. RT mediated apoptosis through Mcl-1 suppression and it also reduced the level of Bcl-2 in primary cells. For SAR study, five analogues of RT were synthesized and tested for their anti-cancer and Mcl-1- and Bcl-2-targeting effects. Only two of them (TM-(-)-18 and TM-(-)-4a) exerted anti-cancer activities with the loss of Mcl-1 and partly reduced Bcl-2, while the other analogues had no such effects. Specific cyanide and benzene ring parts of RT's structure were identified to be critical for its Mcl-1-targeting activity. Computational molecular docking indicated that RT, TM-(-)-18, and TM-(-)-4a bound to Mcl-1 with high affinity, whereas TM-(-)-45, a compound with a benzene ring but no cyanide for comparison, showed the lowest binding affinity. As Mcl-1 helps cancer cells evading apoptosis, these data encourage further development of RT compounds as well as the design of novel drugs for treating Mcl-1-driven cancers.
Project description:The catalytic dynamic resolution (CDR) of rac-2-lithio-N-Boc-piperidine using chiral ligand 8 or its diastereomer 9 in the presence of TMEDA has led to the highly enantioselective syntheses of both enantiomers of 2-substituted piperidines using a wide range of electrophiles. The CDR has been applied to the synthesis of (R)- and (S)-pipecolic acid derivatives, (+)-beta-conhydrine, (S)-(+)-pelletierine, and (S)-(-)-ropivacaine and the formal synthesis of (-)-lasubine II and (+)-cermizine C.