Midbody: From the Regulator of Cytokinesis to Postmitotic Signaling Organelle.
ABSTRACT: Faithful cell division is crucial for successful proliferation, differentiation, and development of cells, tissue homeostasis, and preservation of genomic integrity. Cytokinesis is a terminal stage of cell division, leaving two genetically identical daughter cells connected by an intercellular bridge (ICB) containing the midbody (MB), a large protein-rich organelle, in the middle. Cell division may result in asymmetric or symmetric abscission of the ICB. In the first case, the ICB is severed on the one side of the MB, and the MB is inherited by the opposite daughter cell. In the second case, the MB is cut from both sides, expelled into the extracellular space, and later it can be engulfed by surrounding cells. Cells with lower autophagic activity, such as stem cells and cancer stem cells, are inclined to accumulate MBs. Inherited MBs affect cell polarity, modulate intra- and intercellular communication, enhance pluripotency of stem cells, and increase tumorigenic potential of cancer cells. In this review, we briefly summarize the latest knowledge on MB formation, inheritance, degradation, and function, and in addition, present and discuss our recent findings on the electrical and chemical communication of cells connected through the MB-containing ICB.
Project description:The post-mitotic midbody (MB) is a remnant of cytokinesis that can be asymmetrically inherited by one of the daughter cells following cytokinesis. Until recently, the MB was thought to be degraded immediately following cytokinesis. However, recent evidence suggests that the MB is a protein-rich organelle that accumulates in stem cell and cancer cell populations, indicating that it may have post-mitotic functions. Here, we investigate the role of FYCO1, an LC3-binding protein (herein, LC3 refers to MAP1LC3B), and its function in regulating the degradation of post-mitotic MBs. We show that FYCO1 is responsible for formation of LC3-containing membrane around the post-mitotic MB and that FYCO1 knockdown increases MB accumulation. Although MBs accumulate in the stem-cell-like population of squamous cell carcinomas, FYCO1 depletion does not affect the clonogenicity of these cells. Instead, MB accumulation leads to an increase in anchorage-independent growth and invadopodia formation in HeLa cells and squamous carcinoma cells. Collectively, our data suggest that FYCO1 regulates MB degradation, and we present the first evidence that cancer invasiveness is a feature that can be modulated by the accumulation of MBs in cancer stem cells.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:The midbody is a singular organelle formed between daughter cells during cytokinesis and required for their final separation. Midbodies persist in cells long after division as midbody derivatives (MB(d)s), but their fate is unclear. Here we show that MB(d)s are inherited asymmetrically by the daughter cell with the older centrosome. They selectively accumulate in stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and potential cancer 'stem cells' in vivo and in vitro. MB(d) loss accompanies stem-cell differentiation, and involves autophagic degradation mediated by binding of the autophagic receptor NBR1 to the midbody protein CEP55. Differentiating cells and normal dividing cells do not accumulate MB(d)s and possess high autophagic activity. Stem cells and cancer cells accumulate MB(d)s by evading autophagosome encapsulation and exhibit low autophagic activity. MB(d) enrichment enhances reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells and increases the in vitro tumorigenicity of cancer cells. These results indicate unexpected roles for MB(d)s in stem cells and cancer 'stem cells'.
Project description:Histones are constitutive components of nucleosomes and key regulators of chromatin structure. We previously observed that an extrachromosomal histone H2B (ecH2B) localizes at the intercellular bridge (ICB) connecting the two daughter cells during cytokinesis independently of DNA and RNA. Here, we show that ecH2B binds and colocalizes with CHMP4B, a key component of the ESCRT-III machinery responsible for abscission, the final step of cell division. Abscission requires the formation of an abscission site at the ICB where the ESCRT-III complex organizes into narrowing cortical helices that drive the physical separation of sibling cells. ecH2B depletion does not prevent membrane cleavage rather results in abscission delay and accumulation of abnormally long and thin ICBs. In the absence of ecH2B, CHMP4B and other components of the fission machinery, such as IST1 and Spastin, are recruited to the ICB and localize at the midbody. However, in the late stage of abscission, these fission factors fail to re-localize at the periphery of the midbody and the abscission site fails to form. These results show that extrachromosomal activity of histone H2B is required in the formation of the abscission site and the proper localization of the fission machinery.
Project description:Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is believed to be a physiological event that occurs during development and tissue homeostasis in a large variety of organisms. ACD produces two unequal daughter cells, one of which resembles a multipotent stem and/or progenitor cell, whereas the other has potential for differentiation. Although recent studies have shown that the balance between self-renewal and differentiation potentials is precisely controlled and that alterations in the balance may lead to tumorigenesis in Drosophila neuroblasts, it is largely unknown whether human cancer cells directly show ACD in an evolutionarily conserved manner. Here, we show that the conserved polarity/spindle protein NuMA is preferentially localized to one side of the cell cortex during cell division, generating unequal inheritance of fate-altering molecules in human neuroblastoma cell lines. We also show that the cells with a single copy of MYCN showed significantly higher percentages of ACD than those with MYCN amplification. Moreover, suppression of MYCN in MYCN-amplified cells caused ACD, whereas expression of MYCN in MYCN-nonamplified cells enhanced symmetric cell division. Furthermore, we demonstrate that centrosome inheritance follows a definite rule in ACD: The daughter centrosome with younger mother centriole is inherited to the daughter cell with NuMA preferentially localized to the cell cortex, whereas the mother centrosome with the older mother centriole migrates to the other daughter cell. Thus, the mechanisms of cell division of ACD or symmetric cell division and centrosome inheritance are recapitulated in human cancer cells, and these findings may facilitate studies on cancer stem cells.
Project description:Although methods for generating cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells have been reported, current methods produce heterogeneous mixtures of cardiomyocytes and noncardiomyocyte cells. Here, we report an entirely novel system in which pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are purified by cardiomyocyte-specific molecular beacons (MBs). MBs are nanoscale probes that emit a fluorescence signal when hybridized to target mRNAs.Five MBs targeting mRNAs of either cardiac troponin T or myosin heavy chain 6/7 were generated. Among 5 MBs, an MB that targeted myosin heavy chain 6/7 mRNA (MHC1-MB) identified up to 99% of HL-1 cardiomyocytes, a mouse cardiomyocyte cell line, but <3% of 4 noncardiomyocyte cell types in flow cytometry analysis, which indicates that MHC1-MB is specific for identifying cardiomyocytes. We delivered MHC1-MB into cardiomyogenically differentiated pluripotent stem cells through nucleofection. The detection rate of cardiomyocytes was similar to the percentages of cardiac troponin T- or cardiac troponin I-positive cardiomyocytes, which supports the specificity of MBs. Finally, MHC1-MB-positive cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorter from mouse and human pluripotent stem cell differentiating cultures, and ?97% cells expressed cardiac troponin T or cardiac troponin I as determined by flow cytometry. These MB-based sorted cells maintained their cardiomyocyte characteristics, which was verified by spontaneous beating, electrophysiological studies, and expression of cardiac proteins. When transplanted in a myocardial infarction model, MB-based purified cardiomyocytes improved cardiac function and demonstrated significant engraftment for 4 weeks without forming tumors.We developed a novel cardiomyocyte selection system that allows production of highly purified cardiomyocytes. These purified cardiomyocytes and this system can be valuable for cell therapy and drug discovery.
Project description:While cell sorting usually relies on cell-surface protein markers, molecular beacons (MBs) offer the potential to sort cells based on the presence of any expressed mRNA and in principle could be extremely useful to sort rare cell populations from primary isolates. We show here how stem cells can be purified from mixed cell populations by sorting based on MBs. Specifically, we designed molecular beacons targeting Sox2, a well-known stem cell marker for murine embryonic (mES) and neural stem cells (NSC). One of our designed molecular beacons displayed an increase in fluorescence compared to a nonspecific molecular beacon both in vitro and in vivo when tested in mES and NSCs. We sorted Sox2-MB(+)SSEA1(+) cells from a mixed population of 4-day retinoic acid-treated mES cells and effectively isolated live undifferentiated stem cells. Additionally, Sox2-MB(+) cells isolated from primary mouse brains were sorted and generated neurospheres with higher efficiency than Sox2-MB(-) cells. These results demonstrate the utility of MBs for stem cell sorting in an mRNA-specific manner.
Project description:The final step of cytokinesis is abscission when the intercellular bridge (ICB) linking the two new daughter cells is broken. Correct construction of the ICB is crucial for the assembly of factors involved in abscission, a failure in which results in aneuploidy. Using live imaging and subdiffraction microscopy, we identify new anillin-septin cytoskeleton-dependent stages in ICB formation and maturation. We show that after the formation of an initial ICB, septin filaments drive ICB elongation during which tubules containing anillin-septin rings are extruded from the ICB. Septins then generate sites of further constriction within the mature ICB from which they are subsequently removed. The action of the anillin-septin complex during ICB maturation also primes the ICB for the future assembly of the ESCRT III component Chmp4B at the abscission site. These studies suggest that the sequential action of distinct contractile machineries coordinates the formation of the abscission site and the successful completion of cytokinesis.
Project description:Mesenchymoangioblast (MB) is the earliest precursor for endothelial and mesenchymal cells originating from APLNR+PDGFR?+KDR+ mesoderm in human pluripotent stem cell cultures. MBs are identified based on their capacity to form FGF2-dependent compact spheroid colonies in a serum-free semisolid medium. MBs colonies are composed of PDGFR?+CD271+EMCN+DLK1+CD73- primitive mesenchymal cells which are generated through endothelial/angioblastic intermediates (cores) formed during first 3-4 days of clonogenic cultures. MB-derived primitive mesenchymal cells have potential to differentiate into mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), pericytes, and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we summarize the specification and developmental potential of MBs, emphasize features that distinguish MBs from other mesenchymal progenitors described in the literature and discuss the value of these findings for identifying molecular pathways leading to MSC and vasculogenic cell specification, and developing cellular therapies using MB-derived progeny.
Project description:Many stem cells undergo asymmetric division to produce a self-renewing stem cell and a differentiating daughter cell. Here we show that, similarly to H3, histone H4 is inherited asymmetrically in Drosophila melanogaster male germline stem cells undergoing asymmetric division. In contrast, both H2A and H2B are inherited symmetrically. By combining super-resolution microscopy and chromatin fiber analyses with proximity ligation assays on intact nuclei, we find that old H3 is preferentially incorporated by the leading strand, whereas newly synthesized H3 is enriched on the lagging strand. Using a sequential nucleoside analog incorporation assay, we detect a high incidence of unidirectional replication fork movement in testes-derived chromatin and DNA fibers. Biased fork movement coupled with a strand preference in histone incorporation would explain how asymmetric old and new H3 and H4 are established during replication. These results suggest a role for DNA replication in patterning epigenetic information in asymmetrically dividing cells in multicellular organisms.
Project description:Balanced symmetric and asymmetric divisions of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are crucial for orderly progression of brain development, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we report that mitotic kinesin KIF20A/MKLP2 interacts with RGS3 and plays a crucial role in controlling the division modes of NPCs during the mouse cortical neurogenesis. KIF20A is selectively expressed by daughter progenitors in NPC divisions. Knockdown of KIF20A causes dislocation of RGS3 from the intercellular bridge (ICB) of dividing NPCs, impairs the function of EphrinB-RGS cell fate signaling complex, and leads to a transition in NPCs from proliferative to differentiative divisions. Germ-line and inducible knockout of KIF20A causes a loss of progenitor cells and neurons and results in thinner cortex and ventriculomegaly. Interestingly, loss-of-function of KIF20A induces early cell cycle exit and precocious neuronal differentiation without causing substantial multinucleation or apoptosis in mutant NPCs. Our results thus uncover a novel RGS-KIF20A axis in regulation of cell division mode and suggest a potential link of cytokinesis control within the ICB to regulation of cell fate determination. Overall design: Transcriptome analyses in Kif20a wild-type and knock-out forebrains were performed.