The Influence of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Living to Age 85 Years Without Disease and Disability in Older Women.
ABSTRACT: Background:Whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior influence the odds of women living to age 85 years without chronic disease or disability is not well described. Methods:Participants of the Women's Health Initiative (n = 49,612) were categorized based on health status by age 85 years: (i) lived without developing major chronic disease or mobility disability ("healthy"); (ii) lived and developed mobility disability with or without disease; (iii) lived and developed major chronic disease, but not mobility disability; and (iv) died before their 85th birth year. Multinomial logistic regression models that adjusted for covariates such as age, race/ethnicity, and body size estimated associations of self-reported PA and sitting time on developing major disease or mobility disability or dying before age 85 relative to being healthy. Results:Mean ± SD baseline age was 70.2 ± 3.6 years. Distributions were: 22% healthy, 23% had mobility disability, 26% had major disease, and 29% died. Relative to those with high total PA, the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (confidence intervals [CI]) for mobility disability was 1.6 (1.4-1.7), 1.2 (1.1-1.3), and 1.1 (1.0-1.2) for women with no, low, and moderate total PA, respectively (p-trend < .001). The corresponding covariate-adjusted OR (CI) for mortality was 1.7 (1.5-1.8), 1.2 (1.1-1.3), and 1.0 (1.0-1.1) (p-trend < .001). Total PA was not associated with developing chronic disease before age 85 years. Sitting ≥10 relative to <5 hours per day increased the odds of mobility disability (1.1, CI: 1.0-1.3) and mortality (1.2, CI: 1.0-1.3) prior to age 85 years (p < .001). Conclusions:Increasing PA to recommended levels and reducing sitting time are modifiable behaviors that may improve healthy aging in older women.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Explanations for the male-female disability-survival paradox - that woman live longer than men but with more disability - include sex differences in diseases and their impact on disability and death. Less is known about the paradox in the very old. We examine sex differences in the presence and impact of disabling and fatal diseases accounting for the male-female disability-survival paradox in very late life.<h4>Methods</h4>We use data from the Newcastle 85+ Study, a cohort of people born in 1921 and all recruited at age 85 in 2006. Participants underwent a health assessment (HA) at baseline, 18 months, 36 months, 60 months, and a review of their GP records (GPRR) at baseline and 36 months. We used multi-state modelling to assess the impact of specific diseases on disability and death. Disability (measured via ADLs/IADLs) was categorised as no disability (difficulty with 0 activities), or disabled (difficulty with one or more activities). Diseases were ascertained from review of general practice records and cognitive impairment which was defined as an sMMSE of 21 or less (from health assessment).<h4>Results</h4>In participants who had complete HA and GPRR, women had more arthritis (RR?=?1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3) and hypertension (RR?=?1.2, 95%CI 1.0-1.3), more disability, and were more likely disabled at all follow-ups. From multistate models, women with cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.1-3.4) or respiratory disease (HR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) were more likely to become disabled than those without but this did not hold for men (sex difference p<0.01). Men were more likely to die from respiratory disease (HR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.8-2.8) but this did not hold for women (p?=?0.002).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The disability-survival paradox was still evident at age 85 and appears due to sex differences in the types of diseases and their impact on the disability pathway.
Project description:Anaemia inhibits health and development in Bhutan. We estimated anaemia prevalence and explored risk factors in children and women using data from Bhutan's National Nutrition Survey 2015. Prevalence was calculated using life-stage-specific cut-offs adjusted for altitude and survey design. Risk factors were evaluated in modified Poisson regressions. Anaemia affected 42%, 29%, 36%, and 28% of children, adolescent girls, and non-pregnant and pregnant women, respectively. Risk of anaemia was greater in children who were younger (RR 2.0, 95% CI [1.7, 2.3] and RR 1.9, 95% CI [1.6, 2.3], respectively, for 12-23 and 6-11 vs. 24-59 months), male (1.2, 1.1-1.4, ref.: female), and stunted (1.2, 1.0-1.3, ref.: height-for-age ? -2z). Older (15-19 years) versus younger (10-14 years) adolescents were at higher risk (1.5, 1.2-1.8), as were adolescents living at home versus at school (1.2, 0.9-1.6) and those working versus studying (1.3, 1.0-1.7). Among adult women, anaemia risk increased with age (1.2, 1.0-1.4 and 1.3, 1.1-1.5, for 30-39 and 40-49, respectively, vs. 20-29 years) and was higher for women without schooling (1.1, 1.0-1.3, vs. primary schooling), who were unmarried or separated (1.4, 1.2-1.7 and 1.3, 1.1-1.6, respectively, vs. married), without a child <5 years (1.1, 1.0-1.3), and lacking improved sanitation (1.1, 1.0-1.3). High coverage of antennal iron and folic acid supplementation may contribute to the lower prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and women with young children. Expansion of iron supplementation programmes, fortification, and other strategies to improve dietary iron intake may reduce the prevalence of anaemia, but causes of anaemia other than iron deficiency (e.g., thalassemias) should also be investigated.
Project description:Importance:Severe disability greatly diminishes quality of life and often leads to a protracted period of long-term care or death, yet the processes underlying severe disability have not been fully evaluated. Objective:To evaluate potential risk factors and precipitants associated with severe disability that develops progressively (during ?2 months) vs catastrophically (from 1 month to the next). Design, Setting, and Participants:Prospective cohort study conducted in greater New Haven, Connecticut, from March 1998 to December 2016, with 754 nondisabled community-living persons aged 70 years or older. Data analysis was conducted from November 2018 to May 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Candidate risk factors were assessed every 18 months. Functional status and potential precipitants, including illnesses or injuries leading to hospitalization, emergency department visit, or restricted activity, were assessed each month. Severe disability was defined as the need for personal assistance with at least 3 of 4 essential activities of daily living. The analysis was based on person-months within 18-month intervals. Results:The mean (SD) age for the 754 participants was 78.4 (5.3) years, 487 (64.6%) were women, and 683 (90.5%) were non-Hispanic white participants. The incidence of progressive and catastrophic severe disability was 3.5% and 9.7%, respectively, based on 3550 intervals. In multivariable analysis, 6 risk factors were independently associated with progressive disability (?85 years: hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4; hearing impairment: HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.8; frailty: HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.7; cognitive impairment: HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1; low functional self-efficacy: HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8; low peak flow: HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4), and 4 were independently associated with catastrophic disability (visual impairment: HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8; hearing impairment: HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7; poor physical performance: HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5; low peak flow: HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7). The associations of the precipitants were much more pronounced than those of the risk factors, with HRs as high as 321.4 (95% CI, 194.5-531.0) for hospitalization and catastrophic disability and 48.3 (95% CI, 31.0%-75.4%) for hospitalization and progressive disability. Elimination of an intervening hospitalization was associated with a decrease in the risk of progressive and catastrophic severe disability of 3.0% (95% CI, 3.0%-3.1%) and 12.3% (95% CI, 12.1%-12.5%), respectively. Risk differences were 0.6% (95% CI, 0.6%-0.6%) and 1.3% (95% CI, 1.3%-1.4%) for emergency department visit and 0.1% (95% CI, 0.1%-0.2%) and 0.4% (95% CI, 0.4%-0.4%) for restricted activity, and ranged from 0.1% (95% CI, 0.1%-0.1%) to 0.3% (95% CI, 0.3%-0.3%) for the independent risk factors, for progressive and catastrophic disability, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance:The findings of this study suggest that whether it develops progressively or catastrophically, severe disability among older community-living adults arises most commonly in the setting of an intervening illness or injury. To reduce the burden of severe disability, more aggressive efforts will be needed to prevent and manage intervening illnesses or injuries and to facilitate recovery after these debilitating events.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important treatment goal that could serve as low-cost prognostication tool in resource poor settings. We sought to validate the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and evaluate its use as a predictor of 3?months all-cause mortality among heart failure participants in rural Uganda. METHODS:The Mbarara Heart Failure Registry Cohort study observes heart failure patients during hospital stay and in the community in rural Uganda. Participants completed health failure evaluations and HRQoL questionnaires at enrollment, 1 and 3?months of follow-up. We used Cronbach's alpha coefficients to define internal consistency, intraclass correlation coefficients as a reliability coefficient, and Cox proportional hazard models to predict the risk of 3?months all-cause mortality. RESULTS:Among the 195 participants who completed HRQoL questionnaires, the mean age was 52 (standard deviation (SD) 21.4) years, 68% were women and 29% reported history of hypertension. The KCCQ had excellent internal consistency (87% Cronbach alpha) but poor reliability. Independent predictors of all-cause mortality within 3?months included: worse overall KCCQ score (Adjusted Hazard ratio (AHR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 8.1), highest asset ownership (AHR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2, 10.8), alcoholic drinks per sitting (AHR per 1 drink 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9), New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV heart failure (AHR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3, 5.4), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30 to 59?ml/min/1.73?m2 (AHR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1, 10.8), and eGFR less than 15?ml/min/1.73?m2 (AHR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0, 7.1), each 1?pg/mL increase in Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) (AHR, 1.0, 95% CI 1.0, 1.0), and each 1?ng/mL increase in Creatine-Kinase MB isomer (CKMB) (AHR 1.0, 95% CI 1.0, 1.1). CONCLUSION:The KCCQ showed excellent internal consistency. Worse overall KCCQ score, highest asset ownership, increasing alcoholic drink per sitting, NYHA class IV, decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate, BNP, and CKMB predicted all-cause mortality at 3?months. The KCCQ could be an additional low-cost tool to aid in the prognostication of acute heart failure patients.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To examine the association between participation frequency per week in physical education (PE) classes and physical activity (PA) and sitting time levels in adolescents according to the economic development level of the region of residence. METHODS:A cross-sectional study with a sample representative of Brazil was carried out with 12,220 students aged 11-19 years. Participation frequency per week in PE classes, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), PA during PE classes, active commuting, PA outside of school hours, total accumulated PA, time sitting in front of the TV and total sitting time were assessed by using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS:Adolescents who reported having PE classes were more likely to meet MVPA recommendations (1-2 PE class/week-OR: 1.3, 95%CI: 1.1-1.5; ?3 PE class/week-OR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.7-2.5), spent more time in PA outside of school hours (1-2 PE class/week-OR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.4-1.9; ?3 PE class/week-OR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.5-2.6), and accumulated more PA (1-2 PE class/week-OR: 1.9, 95%CI: 1.6-2.2; ?3 PE class/week-OR: 6.0, 95%CI: 4.0-8.9) than students who reported not taking PE classes. Boys from regions with higher Human Development Index (HDI) who took ?3 PE classes/week were more likely to have higher levels of active commuting (OR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.9) and less likely of getting in front of TV (OR: 0.7, 95%CI: 0.5-0.9). Adolescents from regions with higher HDI were more likely to have more time spent in PA during PE classes (Male-OR: 2.7, 95%CI: 2.4-3.1; Female-OR = 3.2, 95%CI: 2.8-3.7). CONCLUSIONS:Having PE classes is associated with a higher level of PA in both sexes and in both regions and lower level of sitting time in boys from regions with higher HDI.
Project description:Data regarding the risk of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are needed to understand the clinical course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and their treatments.We performed a nationwide historical cohort study using Danish health care databases. We identified patients with a diagnosis of CD or UC, recorded from 1978 through 2010, and followed them up until the first occurrence of cancer, death, or emigration. We used standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare cancer incidence in CD and UC patients with that expected in the general population.Excluding cancers diagnosed within 1 year of IBD diagnosis, 772 cases of invasive cancer occurred among 13,756 patients with CD (SIR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.4) and 2331 occurred among 35,152 patients with UC (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1). CD was associated weakly with gastrointestinal cancers (SIR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4) and extraintestinal cancers (SIR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), with the strongest associations for hematologic malignancies (SIR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3), smoking-related cancers (SIR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8), and melanoma (SIR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9). Associations between UC and gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers were weaker (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; and SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1, respectively). The relative risk of extraintestinal cancers among patients with IBD was relatively stable over time, although the risk of gastrointestinal cancers decreased.Patients with IBD, particularly CD, are at increased risk for gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies. The relative risk of gastrointestinal malignancy has decreased since 1978, without a concomitant increase in the risk of nongastrointestinal malignancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There is much interest in the possibility that perinatal factors may influence the risk of disease in later life. We investigated the influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for asthma in children. METHODS: Analysis of data from the Oxford record linkage study (ORLS) to generate a retrospective cohort of 248 612 records of births between 1970 and 1989, with follow-up to records of subsequent hospital admission for 4 017 children with asthma up to 1999. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed significant associations between an increased risk of admission for asthma and later years of birth (reflecting the increase in asthma in the 1970s and 1980s), low social class, asthma in the mother, unmarried mothers, maternal smoking in pregnancy, subsequent births compared with first-born, male sex, low birth weight, short gestational age, caesarean delivery, forceps delivery and not being breastfed. Multivariate analysis, identifying each risk factor that had a significant effect independently of other risk factors, confirmed associations with maternal asthma (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.7-3.6), male sex (versus female, 1.8, 1.7-2.0), low birth weight (1000-2999 g versus 3000-3999 g, 1.2, 1.1-1.3), maternal smoking (1.1, 1.0-1.3) and delivery by caesarean section (1.2; 1.0-1.3). In those first admitted with asthma under two years old, there were associations with having siblings (e.g. second child compared with first-born, OR 1.3, 1.0-1.7) and short gestational age (24-37 weeks versus 38-41 weeks, 1.6, 1.2-2.2). Multivariate analysis confined to those admitted with asthma aged six years or more, showed associations with maternal asthma (OR 3.8, 3.1-4.7), age of mother (under 25 versus 25-34 at birth, OR 1.16, 1.03-1.31; over 35 versus 25-34, OR 1.4, 1.1-1.7); high social class was protective (1 and 2, compared with 3, 0.72; 0.63-0.82). Hospital admission for asthma in people aged over six was more common in males than females (1.4; 1.2-1.5); but, by the teenage years, the sex ratio reversed and admission was more common in females than males. CONCLUSION: Several maternal characteristics and perinatal factors are associated with an elevated risk of hospital admission for asthma in the child in later life.
Project description:To determine the relation of superolateral Hoffa's fat pad (SHFP) hyperintensity to cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) and tibiofemoral joint (TFJ).We used data from the 60 and 84-month study visits from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) study. SHFP hyperintensity and Hoffa-synovitis were graded from 0 to 3. Cartilage damage and BMLs were scored in the PFJ and TFJ. Structural damage was defined as: any cartilage damage, full-thickness cartilage damage and any BML. Worsening structural damage was defined as any increase in cartilage and BML scores. Logistic regression was used to determine the relation of SHFP hyperintensity and Hoffa-synovitis (>0) to structural damage, adjusting for age, sex and body mass index (BMI).1,094 knees were included in the study. Compared to knees without SHFP hyperintensity, those with SHFP hyperintensity had 1.2 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.1-1.4), 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and 1.6 (1.3-1.9) times the prevalence of any cartilage damage, full-thickness cartilage damage, and BMLs in the lateral PFJ respectively, and 1.1 (1.0-1.2), 1.3 (1.0-1.8), and 1.2 (1.0-1.4) times the prevalence of any cartilage damage, full-thickness cartilage damage, and BMLs in the medial PFJ. SHFP hyperintensity was associated with worsening BMLs in the medial PFJ (RR: 1.4 (1.0-1.9)). In general, there was no relation between SHFP hyperintensity and TFJ outcomes. Hoffa-synovitis was associated both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with structural damage, regardless of definition, in all compartments.SHFP hyperintensity may be a local marker of PFJ structural damage.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinsonism are common neurodegenerative disorders with continuously increasing prevalence, causing high global burdens. However, data concerning the comorbidity burden of patients with PD or Parkinsonism in China are lacking. To investigate the health condition and comorbidity burden, a total of 3367 PD and 823 Parkinsonism patients were included from seven tertiary hospitals in seven cities across China from 2003 to 2012. Their comorbidity burden was collected and quantified by the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). The comorbidity spectra differed between PD and Parkinsonism patients. Compared with PD patients, Parkinsonism patients were older (69.8?±?11.5 vs. 67.9?±?11.4, P?<?0.001); had a higher comorbidity burden, including ECI (1.1?±?1.2 vs. 1.0?±?1.2, P?<?0.001) and CCI (1.3?±?1.6 vs. 1.1?±?1.5, P?<?0.001); and had higher hospitalization expenses. The ECI (1.1?±?1.3 vs. 0.9?±?1.1, P?<?0.001) and CCI (1.3?±?1.6 vs. 0.9?±?1.2, P?<?0.001) were higher in males than in females. The average length of stay and daily hospitalization expenses increased with age, as did ECI and CCI. This is the first study to report the disease burden of Chinese PD and Parkinsonism patients. It provides useful information to better understand their health status, and to raise the awareness of clinicians for providing better health care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) screening disparities, it is important to understand correlates of different types of cancer worry among ethnically diverse individuals. OBJECTIVES:The current study examined the prevalence of three types of cancer worry (i.e., general cancer worry, CRC-specific worry, and worry about CRC test results) as well as sociodemographic and health-related predictors for each type of cancer worry. METHODS:Participants were aged 50-75, at average CRC risk, nonadherent to CRC screening guidelines, and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to increase CRC screening. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire assessing sociodemographics, health beliefs, healthcare experiences, and three cancer worry measures. Associations between study variables were examined with separate univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS:Responses from a total of 416 participants were used. Of these, 47% reported experiencing moderate-to-high levels of general cancer worry. Predictors of general cancer worry were salience and coherence (aOR = 1.1, 95% CI [1.0, 1.3]), perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.2, 95% CI [1.1, 1.3), and social influence (aOR = 1.1, 95% CI [1.0, 0.1]). Fewer (23%) reported moderate-to-high levels of CRC-specific worry or CRC test worry (35%). Predictors of CRC worry were perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.3, 1.6]) and social influence (aOR = 1.1, 95% CI [1.0, 1.2]); predictors of CRC test result worry were perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.2, 95% CI [1.1, 1.3) and marital status (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI [1.1, 3.7] for married/partnered vs. single and aOR = 2.3, 95% CI [1.3, 4.1] for divorced/widowed vs. single). DISCUSSION:Perceived susceptibility consistently predicted the three types of cancer worry, whereas other predictors varied between cancer worry types and in magnitude of association. The three types of cancer worry were generally predicted by health beliefs, suggesting potential malleability. Future research should include multiple measures of cancer worry and clear definitions of how cancer worry is measured.