Functionalizable Stereocontrolled Cyclopolyethers by Ring-Closing Metathesis as Natural Polymer Mimics.
ABSTRACT: Whereas complex stereoregular cyclic architectures are commonplace in biomacromolecules, they remain rare in synthetic polymer chemistry, thus limiting the potential to develop synthetic mimics or advanced materials for biomedical applications. Herein we disclose the formation of a stereocontrolled 1,4-linked six-membered cyclopolyether prepared by ring-closing metathesis (RCM). Ru-mediated RCM, with careful control of the catalyst, concentration, and temperature, selectively affords the six-membered-ring cyclopolymer. Under optimized reaction conditions, no metathetical degradation, macrocycle formation, or cross-linking was observed. Post-polymerization modification by dihydroxylation afforded a novel polymer family encompassing a poly(ethylene glycol) backbone and sugar-like functionalities ("PEGose"). This strategy also paves the way for using RCM as an efficient method to synthesize other stereocontrolled cyclopolymers.
Project description:The total syntheses of the lycopodium alkaloids fawcettimine, fawcettidine, lycoflexine, and lycoposerramine B have been accomplished through an efficient, unified, and stereocontrolled strategy that relies on a Diels-Alder reaction to construct the cis-fused 6,5-carbocycles with one all-carbon quaternary center. Access to the enantioselective syntheses of both antipodes of those alkaloids can be achieved by kinetic resolution of the earliest intermediate via a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (Sharpless AD). Compared to existing approaches to these alkaloids, our synthetic route possesses superior stereocontrol over the C-4 and C-15 stereogenic centers as well as allowing for more functional variation on the 6-membered ring.
Project description:Macrocyclic compounds are central to the development of new drugs, but preparing them can be challenging because of the energy barrier that must be surmounted in order to bring together and fuse the two ends of an acyclic precursor such as an alkene (also known as an olefin). To this end, the catalytic process known as ring-closing metathesis (RCM) has allowed access to countless biologically active macrocyclic organic molecules, even for large-scale production. Stereoselectivity is often critical in such cases: the potency of a macrocyclic compound can depend on the stereochemistry of its alkene; alternatively, one isomer of the compound can be subjected to stereoselective modification (such as dihydroxylation). Kinetically controlled Z-selective RCM reactions have been reported, but the only available metathesis approach for accessing macrocyclic E-olefins entails selective removal of the Z-component of a stereoisomeric mixture by ethenolysis, sacrificing substantial quantities of material if E/Z ratios are near unity. Use of ethylene can also cause adventitious olefin isomerization-a particularly serious problem when the E-alkene is energetically less favoured. Here, we show that dienes containing an E-alkenyl-B(pinacolato) group, widely used in catalytic cross-coupling, possess the requisite electronic and steric attributes to allow them to be converted stereoselectively to E-macrocyclic alkenes. The reaction is promoted by a molybdenum monoaryloxide pyrrolide complex and affords products at a yield of up to 73 per cent and an E/Z ratio greater than 98/2. We highlight the utility of the approach by preparing recifeiolide (a 12-membered-ring antibiotic) and pacritinib (an 18-membered-ring enzyme inhibitor), the Z-isomer of which is less potent than the E-isomer. Notably, the 18-membered-ring moiety of pacritinib-a potent anti-cancer agent that is in advanced clinical trials for treating lymphoma and myelofibrosis-was prepared by RCM carried out at a substrate concentration 20 times greater than when a ruthenium carbene was used.
Project description:The total synthesis of hyacinthacine A2 is reported via a novel transannular hydroamination in which planar chirality of a 5-aza-trans-cyclooctene precursor is transferred to point chirality in the product. Key to the success of this strategy was the development of a method for establishing absolute planar chirality via stereocontrolled photoisomerization of a 5-aza-cis-cyclooctene. This was accomplished by constructing a 5-aza-cis-cyclooctene precursor with a trans-fused acetonide. The improved diastereoselectivity observed upon photoisomerization of this derivative is attributed to the conformational strain of the eight-membered ring in the minor diastereomer.
Project description:The synthesis of didemniserinolipid B utilizing a ketalization/ring-closing metathesis (K/RCM) strategy is described. In the course of this work, a novel 2-allyl-4-fluorophenyl auxiliary for relay ring-closing metathesis (RRCM) was developed, which increased the yield of the RCM. The resulting 6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octene core was selectively functionalized by complimentary dihydroxylation and epoxidation routes to install the C10 axial alcohol. This bicyclic ketal core was further functionalized by etherification and an alkene cross metathesis with an unsaturated alpha-phenylselenyl ester en route to completing the total synthesis.
Project description:A series of ruthenium catalysts have been screened under ring-closing metathesis (RCM) conditions to produce five-, six-, and seven-membered carbamate-protected cyclic amines. Many of these catalysts demonstrated excellent RCM activity and yields with as low as 500 ppm catalyst loadings. RCM of the five-membered carbamate series could be run neat, the six-membered carbamate series could be run at 1.0 M, and the seven-membered carbamate series worked best at 0.2-0.05 M.
Project description:A practical synthesis of a novel oxabicyclo[6.2.1]undecenetriol useful as a medicinal chemistry scaffold has been developed starting from l-ribose. The sequence involves an oxidation/Grignard addition sequence and a challenging ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reaction as the ring forming step. Exploration of the RCM substrate protecting groups revealed the key factor for successful nine-membered medium ring formation to be conformational bias of the reacting alkenes of the RCM substrate by very bulky silyl ether protecting groups. The synthesis also allowed access to an epimeric triol and saturated and unsaturated variants of the nine-membered ring. The medium ring conformation of the oxabicyclo[6.2.1]undecenetriol was determined by X-ray crystallography and correlated to the solution state conformation by NMR experiments.
Project description:Plagiogyrin A (1) was first isolated from the fronds of Plagiogyria matsumureana. Structurally, it features an ?-ketoaldehyde functional group in its hemiacetal form, fused in a cis-substituted lactone ring. We have successfully synthesized the skeleton of this natural product by employing a stereocontrolled aldol reaction followed by the installation of the ?-ketoaldehyde moiety derived from the mild oxidation of an ?-diazoketone. Finally, anhydrous acidic conditions released the protected diol and provided the required cyclized hemiacetal.
Project description:The stereocontrolled total synthesis of 4-hydroxydictyolactone (4), a member of the xenicane diterpene family of natural products, is described. These studies feature the development of the B-alkyl Suzuki cross-coupling reaction for direct access to (E)-cyclononenes from acyclic precursors. The Ireland-Claisen rearrangement is effectively utilized to establish the backbone asymmetry of the contiguous C(2), C(3), C(10) stereotriad of 4. The synthesis strategy has devised an intramolecular Nozaki-Hiyama reductive allylation of a formate ester for the stereoselective formation of five-membered lactols 22. In addition, an internally directed S(E)' propargylation using allenylmagnesium bromide is described to establish the stereochemistry of the C(4) alcohol in 27, and the terminal alkyne is subsequently functionalized via a regioselective syn-silylstannylation to yield 30. Finally, the stereocontrolled phenylselenylation of the ester enolate derived from 43 leads to the desired syn-oxidative elimination to yield the natural product 4.
Project description:An efficient, second-generation synthesis of the signature dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core of (+)-sorangicin A (1), in conjunction with an effective, stereocontrolled protocol to arrive at the requisite (Z,Z,E)-triene acid system has been developed. Highlights of the core construction entail a three-component union, a KHMDS-promoted epoxide ring formation-ring opening cascade, a Takai olefination, and a chemoselective Sharpless dihydroxylation. Assembly of the triene acid system was then achieved via Stille cross-coupling with the ethyl ester of (Z,Z)-5-tributylstannyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid, followed by mild hydrolysis preserving the triene configuration.
Project description:Here we describe chemical innovations that enable the preparation of fully synthetic tetracyclines containing an all-carbon quaternary, stereogenic center at position C5a, a structurally novel class of compounds in this important family of therapeutic agents. In the key transformation and an important extension of the powerful Michael-Claisen cyclization (AB plus D) approach to the construction of fully synthetic tetracyclines, we show that the six-membered C ring comprising a C5a quaternary carbon center can be assembled by highly stereocontrolled coupling reactions of ?-substituted AB enones and o-toluate ester anion D-ring precursors. Novel and versatile ?-functionalization reaction sequences employing tris(methylthio)methyllithium and 2-lithio-1,3-dithiane have been developed to transform the AB enone 1 (the key precursor to fully synthetic tetracyclines) into a diverse range of ?-substituted AB enone products, including a highly efficient, single-operation method for the synthesis of a ?-methyl ester-substituted AB enone. A C5a-C11a-bridged cyclopropane tetracycline precursor was found to undergo efficient and regioselective ring-opening reactions with a range of nucleophiles in the presence of magnesium bromide, thus providing another avenue for the preparation of fully synthetic tetracyclines containing an all-carbon quaternary center at position C5a. Two compounds prepared from the bridged cyclopropane intermediate served as (further) diversifiable branch-points, allowing maximally expedient synthesis of C5a-substituted tetracyclines by final-step diversification.