Comparative Metagenomic Profiling of Viromes Associated with Four Common Mosquito Species in China.
ABSTRACT: Vast viruses are thought to be associated with mosquitoes. Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus are very common mosquito species in China, and whether the virome structure in each species is species-specific has not been evaluated. In this study, a total of 2222 mosquitoes were collected from the same geographic location, and RNAs were sequenced using the Illumina Miseq platform. After querying to the Refseq database, a total of 3,435,781, 2,223,509, 5,727,523, and 6,387,867 paired-end reads were classified under viral sequences from An. sinensis, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, respectively, with the highest prevalence of virus-associated reads being observed in Cx. quinquefasciatus. The metagenomic comparison analysis showed that the virus-related reads were distributed across 26 virus families, together with an unclassified group of viruses. Anelloviridae, Circoviridae, Genomoviridae, Iridoviridae, Mesoniviridae, Microviridae, Myoviridae, Parvoviridae, Phenuiviridae, and Podoviridae were the top ten significantly different viral families among the four species. Further analysis reveals that the virome is species-specific in four mosquito samples, and several viral sequences which maybe belong to novel viruses are discovered for the first time in those mosquitoes. This investigation provides a basis for a comprehensive knowledge on the mosquito virome status in China.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mosquitoes are the most important invertebrate viral vectors in humans and harbor a high diversity of understudied viruses, which has been shown in many mosquito virome studies in recent years. These studies generally performed metagenomics sequencing on pools of mosquitoes, without assessment of the viral diversity in individual mosquitoes. To address this issue, we applied our optimized viral metagenomics protocol (NetoVIR) to compare the virome of single and pooled Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected from different locations in Guadeloupe, in 2016 and 2017. RESULTS:The total read number and viral reads proportion of samples containing a single mosquito have no significant difference compared with those of pools containing five mosquitoes, which proved the feasibility of using single mosquito for viral metagenomics. A comparative analysis of the virome revealed a higher abundance and more diverse eukaryotic virome in Aedes aegypti, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus harbors a richer and more diverse phageome. The majority of the identified eukaryotic viruses were mosquito-species specific. We further characterized the genomes of 11 novel eukaryotic viruses. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analyses of the six most abundant eukaryotic viruses indicated that the majority of individual mosquitoes were infected by several of the selected viruses with viral genome copies per mosquito ranging from 267 to 1.01 × 108 (median 7.5 × 106) for Ae. aegypti and 192 to 8.69 × 106 (median 4.87 × 104) for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Additionally, in Cx. quinquefasciatus, a number of phage contigs co-occurred with several marker genes of Wolbachia sp. strain wPip. CONCLUSIONS:We firstly demonstrate the feasibility to use single mosquito for viral metagenomics, which can provide much more precise virome profiles of mosquito populations. Interspecific comparisons show striking differences in abundance and diversity between the viromes of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Those two mosquito species seem to have their own relatively stable "core eukaryotic virome", which might have important implications for the competence to transmit important medically relevant arboviruses. The presence of Wolbachia in Cx. quinquefasciatus might explain (1) the lower overall viral load compared to Ae. aegypti, (2) the identification of multiple unknown phage contigs, and (3) the difference in competence for important human pathogens. How these viruses, phages, and bacteria influence the physiology and vector competence of mosquito hosts warrants further research.
Project description:Hainan is a tropical island in southern China with abundant mosquito species, putting Hainan at risk of mosquito-borne virus disease outbreaks. The population genetic diversity of most mosquito species on Hainan Island remains elusive. In this study, we report the diversity of mosquito species and the genetic diversity of the predominant species on Hainan. Field populations of adults or larvae were collected from 12 regions of Hainan Island in 2018 and 2019. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI) gene was sequenced from 1,228 mosquito samples and used for species identification and genetic diversity analysis. Twenty-three known mosquito species from the genera Aedes, Armigeres, Culex, Mansonia, and Anopheles and nine unconfirmed mosquito species were identified. Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were the most prevalent mosquito species on Hainan. The regions north of Danzhou, Tunchang, and Qionghai exhibited high mosquito diversity (26 species). The order of the total haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of the populations from high to low was as follows: Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Ar. subalbatus, Culex pallidothorax, Culex gelidus, Ae. albopictus, and C. p. quinquefasciatus. Tajima's D and Fu's F s tests showed that Ae. albopictus, C. p. quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, and C. gelidus had experienced population expansion, while the Ar. subalbatus and C. pallidothorax populations were in genetic equilibrium. Significant genetic differentiation existed in the overall populations of Ae. albopictus, Ar. subalbatus, C. p. quinquefasciatus, and C. pallidothorax. The Ae. albopictus populations on Hainan were characterized by frequent gene exchange with populations from Guangdong and four other tropical countries, raising the risk of viral disease outbreaks in these regions. Two subgroups were reported in the Ar. subalbatus populations for the first time. Our findings may have important implications for vector control on Hainan Island.
Project description:Mosquito sampling during Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-associated studies, particularly in India, has usually been conducted via aspirators or light traps to catch mosquitoes around cattle, which are dead-end hosts for JEV. High numbers of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, relative to other species, have often been caught during these studies. Less frequently, studies have involved sampling outdoor resting mosquitoes. We aimed to compare the relative abundance of mosquito species between these two previously used mosquito sampling methods. From September to December 2013 entomological surveys were undertaken in eight villages in a Japanese encephalitis (JE) endemic area of Bangladesh. Light traps were used to collect active mosquitoes in households, and resting boxes and a Bina Pani Das hop cage were used near oviposition sites to collect resting mosquitoes. Numbers of humans and domestic animals present in households where light traps were set were recorded. In five villages Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was more likely to be selected from light trap samples near hosts than resting collection samples near oviposition sites, according to log odds ratio tests. The opposite was true for Cx. pseudovishnui and Armigeres subalbatus, which can also transmit JEV. Culex tritaeniorhynchus constituted 59% of the mosquitoes sampled from households with cattle, 28% from households without cattle and 17% in resting collections. In contrast Cx. pseudovishnui constituted 5.4% of the sample from households with cattle, 16% from households with no cattle and 27% from resting collections, while Ar. subalbatus constituted 0.15%, 0.38%, and 8.4% of these samples respectively. These observations may be due to differences in timing of biting activity, host preference and host-seeking strategy rather than differences in population density. We suggest that future studies aiming to implicate vector species in transmission of JEV should consider focusing catches around hosts able to transmit JEV.
Project description:Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI), providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy.
Project description:Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens pallens are the major vectors of the Japanese encephalitis virus and Wuchereria bancrofti, the causative agent of filariasis. The knowledge of mitochondrial genomes has been widely useful for the studies on molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics.In this study, we sequenced and annotated the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. p. pallens, and performed a comparative analysis including four known mt genomes of species of the subgenus Culex (Culex). The phylogenetic relationships of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. p. pallens and four known Culex mt genome sequences were reconstructed by maximum likelihood based on concatenated protein-coding gene sequences.Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. p. pallens mt genomes are 14,844 bp and 15,617 bp long, both consists of 13 PCGs, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 1 CR (not sequenced for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus). The initiation and termination codons of PCGs are ATN and TAA, respectively, except for COI starting with TCG, and COI and COII terminated with T. tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf secondary structures except for trnS ((AGN)) that is lacking the DHU stem. 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA secondary structures were drawn for the first time for mosquito mt genomes. The control region of Cx. p. pallens mt genome is 747 bp long and with four tandem repeat structures. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the mt genome of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was significantly separated from the remaining five mt genomes of Culex spp. Culex p. pipiens, Cx. p. pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus formed a monophyletic clade with Cx. p. quinquefasciatus linked in the middle of the clade, and Cx. p. pallens should have the same taxonomic level as Culex p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus.The mt genomes of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. p. pallens share the same gene composition and order with those of two other Culex species. Culex p. pallens of the Pipiens complex should have the same taxonomic level as Culex p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus investigated. We enriched the Culex mt genome data and provided a reference basis for further Culex mt genome sequencing and analyses.
Project description:Mosquitoes transmit many kinds of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses), and numerous arboviral diseases have become serious problems in Indonesia. In this study, we conducted surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses at several sites in Indonesia during 2016-2018 for risk assessment of arbovirus infection and analysis of virus biodiversity in mosquito populations. We collected 10,015 mosquitoes comprising at least 11 species from 4 genera. Major collected mosquito species were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes aegypti, and Armigeres subalbatus. The collected mosquitoes were divided into 285 pools and used for virus isolation using two mammalian cell lines, Vero and BHK-21, and one mosquito cell line, C6/36. Seventy-two pools showed clear cytopathic effects only in C6/36 cells. Using RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing approaches, these isolates were identified as insect flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus), Banna virus (family Reoviridae, genus Seadornavirus), new permutotetravirus (designed as Bogor virus) (family Permutotetraviridae, genus Alphapermutotetravirus), and alphamesoniviruses 2 and 3 (family Mesoniviridae, genus Alphamesonivirus). We believed that this large surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses provides basic information for the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases.
Project description:Vectors of mosquito-borne diseases in Sri Lanka, except for malaria, belong to the subfamily Culicinae, which includes nearly 84% of the mosquito fauna of the country. Hence, accurate and precise species identification of culicine mosquitoes is a crucial factor in implementing effective vector control strategies. During the present study, a combined effort using morphology and DNA barcoding was made to characterize mosquitoes of the subfamily Culicinae for the first time from nine districts of Sri Lanka. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene from the mitochondrial genome and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region from the nuclear ribosomal DNA were used for molecular characterization.According to morphological identification, the field collected adult mosquitoes belonged to 5 genera and 14 species, i.e. Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. pallidostriatus, Aedes sp. 1, Armigeres sp. 1, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. gelidus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. whitmorei, Mansonia uniformis and Mimomyia chamberlaini. Molecular analyses of 62 cox1 and 36 ITS2 sequences were exclusively comparable with the morphological identifications of all the species except for Ae. pallidostriatus and Aedes sp. 1. Although the species identification of Armigeres sp. 1 specimens using morphological features was not possible during this study, DNA barcodes of the specimens matched 100% with the publicly available Ar. subalbatus sequences, giving their species status. Analysis of all the cox1 sequences (14 clades supported by strong bootstrap value in the Neighbor-Joining tree and interspecific distances of > 3%) showed the presence of 14 different species. This is the first available DNA sequence in the GenBank records for morphologically identified Ae. pallidostriatus. Aedes sp. 1 could not be identified morphologically or by publicly available sequences. Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and all Culex species reported during the current study are vectors of human diseases. All these vector species showed comparatively high diversity.The current study reflects the significance of integrated systematic approach and use of cox1 and ITS genetic markers in mosquito taxonomy. Results of DNA barcoding were comparable with morphological identifications and, more importantly, DNA barcoding could accurately identify the species in the instances where the traditional morphological identification failed due to indistinguishable characters of damaged specimens and the presence of subspecies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To investigate mosquito larval habitats and resistance to common insecticides in areas with high incidence rates of mosquito-borne diseases in Jining, Shandong Province, and to provide a scientific basis for the future prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases and the rational use of insecticides. METHODS AND RESULTS:From June to September 2018, mosquito habitat characteristics and species compositions in Jintun town were studied through a cross-sectional survey. Larvae and pupae were collected in different habitats using the standard dipping technique. A total of 7,815 mosquitoes, comprising 7 species from 4 genera, were collected. Among them, Culex pipiens pallens (n = 5,336, 68.28%) was the local dominant species and found in all four habitats (rice paddies, irrigation channels, water containers, drainage ditches). There were 1,708 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (21.85%), 399 Anopheles sinensis (5.11%), 213 Armigeres subalbatus (2.72%), 124 Aedes albopictus (1.59%), and 35 other (Cx. bitaeniorhynchus and Cx. halifaxii) (0.45%) mosquito samples collected. Spearman correlation analysis was employed to evaluate the relationship between larval density and the physicochemical characteristics of the breeding habitat. It was found that the larval density of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus correlated positively with water depth (r = 0.927 p = 0.003), the larval density of An. sinensis correlated positively with dissolved oxygen (DO) (r = 0.775 p = 0.041) and the larval density of Cx. p. pallens correlated positively with ammonia nitrogen (r = 0.527 p = 0.002). Resistance bioassays were carried out on the dominant populations of Cx. p. pallens: mosquitoes presented very high resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin, moderate resistance to dichlorvos (DDVP), and low resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), with decreased susceptibility to propoxur. CONCLUSION:We showed that mosquito species vary across habitat type and that the mosquito larval density correlated positively with certain physicochemical characteristics in different habitats. In addition, Cx. p. pallens developed different levels of resistance to five insecticides. Vector monitoring should be strengthened after an epidemic, and further research should be conducted to scientifically prevent and kill mosquitoes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accurate and rapid identification of dipteran vectors is integral for entomological surveys and is a vital component of control programs for mosquito-borne diseases. Conventionally, morphological features are used for mosquito identification, which suffer from biological and geographical variations and lack of standardization. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for protein profiling of mosquito species from North India with the aim of creating a MALDI-TOF MS database and evaluating it. METHODS:Mosquito larvae were collected from different rural and urban areas and reared to adult stages. The adult mosquitoes of four medically important genera, Anopheles, Aedes, Culex and Armigerus, were morphologically identified to the species level and confirmed by ITS2-specific PCR sequencing. The cephalothoraces of the adult specimens were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis and the signature peak spectra were selected for creation of database, which was then evaluated to identify 60 blinded mosquito specimens. RESULTS:Reproducible MALDI-TOF MS spectra spanning over 2-14 kDa m/z range were produced for nine mosquito species: Anopheles (An. stephensi, An. culicifacies and An. annularis); Aedes (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus); Culex (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. vishnui and Cx. tritaenorhynchus); and Armigerus (Ar. subalbatus). Genus- and species-specific peaks were identified to create the database and a score of > 1.8 was used to denote reliable identification. The average numbers of peaks obtained were 55-60 for Anopheles, 80-100 for Aedes, 30-60 for Culex and 45-50 peaks for Armigeres species. Of the 60 coded samples, 58 (96.67%) were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS with a score > 1.8, while there were two unreliable identifications (both Cx. quinquefasciatus with scores < 1.8). CONCLUSIONS:MALDI-TOF MS appears to be a pragmatic technique for accurate and rapid identification of mosquito species. The database needs to be expanded to include species from different geographical regions and also different life-cycle stages to fully harness the technique for entomological surveillance programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Culex species are widespread across Cameroon and responsible for high burden of nuisance in most urban settings. However, despite their high nuisance, they remain less studied compared to anophelines. The present study aimed to assess Culex species distribution, susceptibility to insecticide, bionomics and role in Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) transmission in the city of Yaoundé. METHODS:Mosquito collections were conducted from March to December 2017 using Centre for Disease Control light traps (CDC-LT), human landing catches (HLC) and larval collections. Mosquitoes were identified using morphological identification keys. Mosquitoes from the Culex pipiens complex were further identified using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to assess the presence of sibling species. Bioassays were conducted with 2-5 day-old unfed females to assess mosquito susceptibility to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb following WHO guidelines. Dead, control and surviving mosquitoes from bioassays were screened by PCR to detect the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles. Pools of mosquitoes were examined by PCR to detect the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti. RESULTS:A total of 197,956 mosquitoes belonging to thirteen species were collected. The density of mosquito collected varied according to the collection methods, districts and seasons. Culex quinquefasciatus emerged as the most abundant and the only species of the Culex pipiens complex in Yaoundé. Culex species were found breeding in different types of breeding sites including polluted and unpolluted sites. All Culex species including Cx antennatus, Cx duttoni, Cx perfuscus and Cx tigripes were found to be highly resistant to permethrin, deltamethrin and DDT. Culex quinquefasciatus was also found to be resistant to bendiocarb. A high frequency of the West Africa kdr allele was recorded in resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus. Out of the 247 pooled samples of 25 Culex spp. examined for the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti, none was found infected. CONCLUSION:The study confirms the high adaptation of Culex species particularly Culex quinquefasciatus to the urban environment and no implication of this species in the transmission of LF in Yaoundé Cameroon. Culex species predominance in urban settings highlight potential transmission risk of West Nile and rift valley fever in Yaoundé.