Present indications of surgical exploration of the mediastinum.
ABSTRACT: Preoperative mediastinal staging is crucial in the management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially to define prognosis and the most proper treatment. To obtain the highest certainty level before lung resection, the current American and European guidelines for preoperative mediastinal nodal staging for NSCLC recommend getting tissue confirmation of regional nodal spread in all cases except in patients with small (?3 cm) peripheral carcinomas with no evidence of nodal involvement on computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET). We have a wide variety of surgical methods for mediastinal staging that are well integrated in the current preoperative algorithms. Their main indication is the validation of negative results obtained by minimally invasive endoscopic techniques. However, recent studies have reported the superiority of mediastinoscopy over endosonography methods in terms of accuracy for those tumours classified as clinical (c) N0-1 by CT and PET or with intermediate risk of N2 disease (cN1 and central tumours). Apart from the exploration of the mediastinum, other surgical procedures [parasternal mediastinotomy, extended cervical mediastinoscopy (ECM) and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)] allow the completion of the staging process with the assessment of the primary tumour and metastasis, exploring the lung, pleural cavity, and pericardium when it is required. Transcervical lymphadenectomies represent the evolution of mediastinoscopy and they are already considered the most reliable method for mediastinal staging, mainly in the subgroup of patients in whom endosonography methods have a low sensitivity: tumours with normal mediastinum by CT and PET. In addition to their indication for staging, these procedures have also demonstrated to be feasible as preresectional lymphadenectomy in VATS lobectomy, improving the radicality of the number of lymph nodes and lymph node stations explored, mostly for left-sided tumours for which a complete mediastinal nodal dissection is not always possible by VATS approach.
Project description:In case of suspicious lymph nodes on computed tomography (CT) or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), advanced tumour size or central tumour location in patients with suspected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), Dutch and European guidelines recommend mediastinal staging by endosonography (endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)) with sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes. If biopsy results from endosonography turn out negative, additional surgical staging of the mediastinum by mediastinoscopy is advised to prevent unnecessary lung resection due to false negative endosonography findings. We hypothesize that omitting mediastinoscopy after negative endosonography in mediastinal staging of NSCLC does not result in an unacceptable percentage of unforeseen N2 disease at surgical resection. In addition, omitting mediastinoscopy comprises no extra waiting time until definite surgery, omits one extra general anaesthesia and hospital admission, and may be associated with lower morbidity and comparable survival. Therefore, this strategy may reduce health care costs and increase quality of life. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of mediastinal staging strategies including and excluding mediastinoscopy.This study is a multicenter parallel randomized non-inferiority trial comparing two diagnostic strategies (with or without mediastinoscopy) for mediastinal staging in 360 patients with suspected resectable NSCLC. Patients are eligible for inclusion when they underwent systematic endosonography to evaluate mediastinal lymph nodes including tissue sampling with negative endosonography results. Patients will not be eligible for inclusion when PET/CT demonstrates 'bulky N2-N3' disease or the combination of a highly suspicious as well as irresectable mediastinal lymph node. Primary outcome measure for non-inferiority is the proportion of patients with unforeseen N2 disease at surgery. Secondary outcome measures are hospitalization, morbidity, overall 2-year survival, quality of life, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. Patients will be followed up 2 years after start of treatment.Results of the MEDIASTrial will have immediate impact on national and international guidelines, which are accessible to public, possibly reducing mediastinoscopy as a commonly performed invasive procedure for NSCLC staging and diminishing variation in clinical practice.The trial is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register on July 6th, 2017 ( NTR 6528 ).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Invasive mediastinal nodal staging is recommended by guidelines in selected patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Endosonography is recommended as initial staging technique, followed by confirmatory mediastinoscopy in case of negative N2 or N3 cytology after endosonography. Confirmatory mediastinoscopy however is under debate owing its limited additional diagnostic value, its associated morbidity and its delay in the start of lung cancer treatment. The MEDIASTrial examines whether confirmatory mediastinoscopy can be safely omitted after negative endosonography in mediastinal nodal staging of NSCLC. The present work is the proposed statistical analysis plan of the clinical consequences of omitting mediastinoscopy, which is submitted before closure of the MEDIASTrial and before knowledge of any results was done to enhance transparency of scientific behaviour.<h4>Methods</h4>The primary outcome measure of this non-inferiority trial will be unforeseen N2 disease resulting from lobe-specific mediastinal lymph node dissection. For non-inferiority, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the unforeseen N2 rate in the group without mediastinoscopy should not exceed 14.3% in order to probably have no negative impact on survival. Since this is a non-inferiority trial, both an intention to treat (ITT) and a per protocol (PP) analyses will be done. The ITT and the PP analyses should both indicate non-inferiority before the diagnostic strategy omitting mediastinoscopy will be interpreted as non-inferior to the strategy with mediastinoscopy. Secondary outcome measures include 30-day major morbidity and mortality, the total number of days of hospital care, overall and disease free 2-year survival, generic and disease-specific health related quality of life and cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of staging strategies with and without mediastinoscopy.<h4>Discussion</h4>The MEDIASTrial will determine if confirmatory mediastinoscopy can be omitted after tumour negative systematic endosonography in invasive mediastinal staging of patients with resectable NSCLC.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Netherlands Trial Register NL6344/NTR6528 . Registered on 2017 July 06.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Invasive mediastinal nodal staging is recommended before curative-intent resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer deemed at risk for mediastinal lymph node involvement. We evaluated the use and survival effect of preoperative invasive mediastinal nodal staging in a population-based non-small cell lung cancer cohort. METHODS:We analyzed all curative-intent resections for non-small cell lung cancer from 2009 to 2018 in 11 hospitals in 4 contiguous Dartmouth Hospital Referral Regions, comparing patients who did not have invasive mediastinal nodal staging with those who did. RESULTS:Preoperative invasive nodal staging was used in 22% of 2916 patients, including mediastinoscopy only in 13%, minimally invasive procedures only in 6%, and both approaches in 3%. Sixty-three percent of patients at risk for nodal disease (tumor size ?3.0 cm/T2-T4; N1-N3 by computed tomography or positron-emission tomography-computerized tomography criterion) did not undergo invasive staging; among those who did not have invasive testing, 47% had at least 1 of the 3 clinical indications. Mediastinoscopy yielded a median of 3 lymph nodes and 2 nodal stations; 17% of mediastinoscopies and 31% of endobronchial ultrasound procedures yielded no lymph node material. Patients not invasively staged were more likely to have no nodes (6% vs 2%; P < .0001) and no mediastinal nodes (20% vs 11%; P < .0001) examined at surgery. Invasive staging was associated with significantly better survival (P = .0157). CONCLUSIONS:More than a decade after the 2001 American College of Surgeons Patient Care Evaluation report, preoperative invasive nodal staging remains underused and of variable quality, but was associated with survival benefit in high-risk patients.
Project description:Nodal staging of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is crucial in evaluation of prognosis and determination of therapeutic strategy. This study aimed to determine the negative predictive value (NPV) of combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) in patients with stage I (T1-2N0) NSCLC and to investigate the possible risk factors for occult nodal disease.Studies investigating the performance of PET in conjunction with CT in the nodal staging of stage I NSCLC were identified in the MEDLINE database. The initiative of standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) was used to ensure study quality. Pathologic assessments through mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy were required as the reference standard for evaluation of PET-CT accuracy. Stata-based meta-analysis was applied to calculate the individual and pooled NPVs.Ten studies with a total of 1122 patients with stage I (T1-2N0) NSCLC were eligible for analysis. The NPVs of combined PET and CT for mediastinal metastases were 0.94 in T1 disease and 0.89 in T2 disease. Including both T1 disease and T2 disease, the NPVs were 0.93 for mediastinal metastases and 0.87 for overall nodal metastases. Adenocarcinoma histology type (risk ratio [RR], 2.72) and high fluorine-18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the primary lesion were associated with greater risk of occult nodal metastases.Although overall occult nodal metastases in clinical stage T1-2N0 NSCLC is not infrequent, combined PET and CT provide a favorable NPV for mediastinal metastases in T1N0 NSCLC, suggesting a low yield from routine invasive staging procedures for this subgroup of patients.
Project description:With nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accurate mediastinal nodal staging is crucial to determine whether a patient is or is not a surgical candidate. Traditionally, computed tomography (CT) and fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT are the initial steps followed by tissue sampling through mediastinoscopy and/or thoracotomy, which are invasive procedures. There is controversy regarding the possibility of omission of the invasive diagnostic procedures and solely relying on noninvasive presurgical staging CT and FDG PET/CT results. Eighty-three patients who had PET/CT, mediastinoscopy, and thoracotomy for NSCLC were analyzed. For all lymph nodes that may be sampled by mediastinoscopy, PET/CT sensitivity was 80%, specificity was 86%, positive predictive value was 47%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%; and for those in this group whose clinical stage was T1/T2 M0, sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 84%. For lymph nodes accessible only at thoracotomy, sensitivity was 42% and specificity was 88%. FDG PET/CT is accurate in assessing stations 2R/L, 4R/L, and 7 nodes and has the potential to replace mediastinoscopy in the treatment algorithm of T1/T2 M0 disease. A negative PET/CT may potentially prevent the patient from invasive mediastinoscopy given its high NPV. However, a patient with positive PET/CT should undergo tissue biopsy with pathology confirmation.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Ectopic thyroid tissue is a rare entity, and accounts for approximately 1% of all mediastinal tumours. It is a differential diagnosis of the mediastinum tumors or metastatic deposits from an orthotopic gland, as well as other benign or malignant masses. Although most cases are asymptomatic and discovered incidently by imaging, symptoms related to tumor size and its compression of adjacent structures may also appear which necessites explorations and lead to diagnosis.<h4>Case presentation</h4>This is a 59-year-old women, followed for glaucoma and operated for bilateral congenital cataract reffered to our structure by the service of pnemology for a right laterotracheal mediastinal mass. The patient presented respiratory symptoms over four months, and the physical examination found patient in good condition with PS 0 and normal vital signs, a poor oral health was noticed. The CT scann showed a left basal opacity and a right laterotracheal mediastinal mass at the upper right mediastinum, pushing forward the superior vena cava and compressing the trachea on the contralateral side, with well-defined borders and without signs of infiltration of adjacent structure. The brochoscopy was perfomed which showed the yellowish granulous aspect and the pathophysiology revealed a pulmonary actinomycosis. The patient was treated with antibiotic based on parenteral infusion of penicillin G at 20 million / day for 6 weeks relayed by oral administration of 3 g / day for 3 months with a good response and the left basal opacity disappeared on the CT control but the mediastinal mass persisted. After multidisciplinary concertation, the mediastinoscopy was perfomed and has revealed an ectopic thyroid which was removed by Uniportal Videoassisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (U-VATS) approach.<h4>Discussion</h4>The first case of ectopic thyroid gland was described by Hickman in 1869, since a few cases have been reported by the literature. Its prevalence is about 1 per 100?000-300?000 people, rising to 1 per 4000-8000 patients with thyroid disease. The main techniques indicated in the management of undetermined lesions of the anterior mediastinum, are midline exploratory sternotomy, anterior lateral thoracotomy and VATS. U-VATS has demonstrated its feasibility and safety compared to conventional techniques by several advantages.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Ectopic mediastinal thyroid is an unusual presentation of thyroid pathology. Complete surgical resection remains a therapeutic and a key diagnosis. The aim of this study is to prouve the feasibility, efficiency and efficacity of U-VATS approach as minimally invasive thoracic surgery for mediastinal mass resection.
Project description:Surgery is the most important curative treatment modality for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined the pattern of surgical resection for NSCLC in a high incidence and mortality region of the United States over a 10-year period (2004-2013) in the context of a regional surgical quality improvement initiative. We abstracted patient-level data on all resections at 11 hospitals in 4 contiguous Dartmouth Hospital Referral Regions in North Mississippi, East Arkansas, and West Tennessee. Surgical quality measures focused on intraoperative practice, with emphasis on pathologic nodal staging. We used descriptive statistics and trend analyses to assess changes in practice over time. To measure the effect of an ongoing regional quality improvement intervention with a lymph node specimen collection kit, we used period effect analysis to compare trends between the preintervention and postintervention periods. Of 2566 patients, 18% had no preoperative biopsy, only 15% had a preoperative invasive staging test, and 11% underwent mediastinoscopy. The rate of resections with no mediastinal lymph nodes examined decreased from 48%-32% (P < 0.0001), whereas the rate of resections examining 3 or more mediastinal stations increased from 5%-49% (P < 0.0001). There was a significant period effect in the increase in the number of N1, mediastinal, and total lymph nodes examined (all P < 0.0001). A quality improvement intervention including a lymph node specimen collection kit shows early signs of having a significant positive effect on pathologic nodal examination in this population-based cohort. However, gaps in surgical quality remain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The present study aims to assess the performance of 18F-FDG PET-CT on mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a location with endemic granulomatous infectious disease. METHODS:Diagnostic test study including patients aged 18?years or older with operable stage I-III NSCLC and indication for a mediastinal lymph node biopsy. All patients underwent a 18F-FDG PET-scan before invasive mediastinal staging, either through mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy, which was considered the gold-standard. Surgeons and pathologists were blinded for scan results. Primary endpoint was to evaluate sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of PET-CT with images acquired in the 1st hour of the exam protocol, using predefined cutoffs of maximal SUV, on per-patient basis. RESULTS:Overall, 85 patients with operable NSCLC underwent PET-CT scan followed by invasive mediastinal staging. Mean age was 65?years, 49 patients were male and 68 were white. One patient presented with active tuberculosis and none had HIV infection. Using any SUV_max >?0 as qualitative criteria for positivity, sensitivity and specificity were 0.87 and 0.45, respectively. Nevertheless, even when the highest SUV cut-off was used (SUV_max ?5), specificity remained low (0.79), with an estimated positive predictive value of 54%. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings are in line with the most recent publications and guidelines, which recommend that PET-CT must not be solely used as a tool to mediastinal staging, even in a region with high burden of tuberculosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The LACOG 0114 study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov , before study initiation, under identifier NCT02664792.
Project description:Mediastinoscopy is a good method to evaluate mediastinal lesions. We sought to determine the current role of mediastinoscopy in the investigation of non-lung cancer patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy.We retrospectively reviewed clinical parameters (age, gender, histological diagnosis, morbidity, mortality) of all patients without lung cancer who consecutively underwent mediastinoscopy in Hospital of Faculty of Medicine of Dicle University between June 2003 and December 2016.Two-hundred twenty nine patients without lung cancer who underwent mediastinoscopy for the pathological evaluation of mediastinum during the study period were included. There were 156 female (68%) and 73 male (32%) patients. Mean age was 52.6 years (range, 16 to 85 years). Mean operative time was 41 minutes (range, 25 to 90 minutes). Mean number of biopsies was 9.3 (range, 5 to 24). Totally, 45 patients (19.6%) had previously undergone a nondiagnostic bronchoscopic biopsy such as transbronchial needle aspiration or endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration. Mediastinoscopy was diagnostic for all patients. Diagnosis included sarcoidosis (n=100), tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=66), anthracosis lymphadenitis (n=44), lymphoma (n=11) metastatic carcinoma (n=5), and Castleman's disease (n=1); there was a diagnosis of silicosis in one patient and tymoma in one patient. Neither operative mortality nor major complication developed. The only minor complication was wound infection which was detected in three patients.Although newer diagnostic modalities are being increasingly used to diagnose mediastinal diseases, mediastinoscopy continues to be a reliable method for the investigation of mediastinal lesions.
Project description:Accurate mediastinal lymph node dissection during thoracotomy is mandatory for staging and for adjuvant therapy in lung cancer. Pre-therapeutic staging for neoadjuvant therapy or for video assisted thoracoscopic resection of lung cancer is achieved usually by CT-scan and mediastinoscopy. However, these methods do not reach the accuracy of open nodal dissection. Therefore we developed a technique of radical video-assisted mediastinoscopic lymphadenectomy (VAMLA). This study was designed to show that VAMLA is feasible and that radicality of lymphadenectomy is comparable to the open procedure.In a prospective study all VAMLA procedures were registered and followed up in a database. Specimens of VAMLA were analysed by a single pathologist. Lymph nodes were counted and compared to open lymphadenectomy. The weight of the dissected tissue was documented. In patients receiving tumour resection subsequently to VAMLA, radicality of the previous mediastinoscopic dissection was controlled during thoracotomy.37 patients underwent video-assisted mediastinoscopy from June 1999 to April 2000. Mean duration of anaesthesia was 84.6 (SD 35.8) minutes.In 7 patients radical lymphadenectomy was not intended because of bulky nodal disease or benign disease. The remaining 30 patients underwent complete systematic nodal dissection as VAMLA.18 patients received tumour resection subsequently (12 right- and 6 left-sided thoracotomies). These thoracotomies allowed open re-dissection of 12 paratracheal regions, 10 of which were found free of lymphatic tissue. In two patients, 1 and 2 left over paratracheal nodes were counted respectively. 10/18 re-dissected subcarinal regions were found to be radically dissected by VAMLA. In 6 patients one single node and in the remaining 2 cases 5 and 8 nodes were found, respectively. However these counts also included nodes from the ipsilateral main bronchus. None of these nodes was positive for tumour.Average weight of the tissue that was harvested by VAMLA was 10.1 g (2.2-23.7, SD 6.3). An average number of 20.5 (6-60, SD 12.5) nodes per patient were counted in the specimens. This is comparable to our historical data from open lymphadenectomy.One palsy of the recurrent nerve in a patient with extensive preparation of the nerve and resection of 11 left-sided enlarged nodes was the only severe complication in this series.VAMLA seems to accomplish mediastinal nodal dissection comparable to open lymphadenectomy and supports video assisted surgery for lung cancer. In neoadjuvant setting a correct mediastinal N-staging is achieved.