ABSTRACT: Although technical advances in non-invasive and minimally invasive approaches to lung and pleural cancer diagnosis and staging have become more widely available and accurate, surgical techniques remain the gold standard in assessing the extent of loco-regional involvement. Precise surgical staging of lung or pleural tumours is pivotal in the selection of surgical candidates and for predicting survival. In some patients, both mediastinal and pleural exploration may be needed for many different reasons. Transcervical videomediastino-thoracoscopy (VMT) combines simultaneously the exploration of both the mediastinum and the pleural cavities through a single cervical incision, allowing for biopsies or sampling of the mediastinal lymph nodes, lymphadenectomy and pleuropulmonary assessment (mainly pleural effusions, tumour involvement of the visceral and parietal pleura and pulmonary nodules). Thoracic surgeons should be aware of this combined surgical approach and completely familiar with classical indications and technical details of the transcervical approach to the mediastinum and thoracoscopic exploration of the pleural cavities.
Project description:Preoperative mediastinal staging is crucial in the management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially to define prognosis and the most proper treatment. To obtain the highest certainty level before lung resection, the current American and European guidelines for preoperative mediastinal nodal staging for NSCLC recommend getting tissue confirmation of regional nodal spread in all cases except in patients with small (?3 cm) peripheral carcinomas with no evidence of nodal involvement on computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET). We have a wide variety of surgical methods for mediastinal staging that are well integrated in the current preoperative algorithms. Their main indication is the validation of negative results obtained by minimally invasive endoscopic techniques. However, recent studies have reported the superiority of mediastinoscopy over endosonography methods in terms of accuracy for those tumours classified as clinical (c) N0-1 by CT and PET or with intermediate risk of N2 disease (cN1 and central tumours). Apart from the exploration of the mediastinum, other surgical procedures [parasternal mediastinotomy, extended cervical mediastinoscopy (ECM) and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)] allow the completion of the staging process with the assessment of the primary tumour and metastasis, exploring the lung, pleural cavity, and pericardium when it is required. Transcervical lymphadenectomies represent the evolution of mediastinoscopy and they are already considered the most reliable method for mediastinal staging, mainly in the subgroup of patients in whom endosonography methods have a low sensitivity: tumours with normal mediastinum by CT and PET. In addition to their indication for staging, these procedures have also demonstrated to be feasible as preresectional lymphadenectomy in VATS lobectomy, improving the radicality of the number of lymph nodes and lymph node stations explored, mostly for left-sided tumours for which a complete mediastinal nodal dissection is not always possible by VATS approach.
Project description:To reduce pulmonary complications after esophagectomy, the transthoracic procedure should be shortened or totally avoided. Transcervical approach assisted by mediastinoscope for the upper mediastinum may be advantageous for this purpose. We carried out video-assisted transcervical mediastinal dissection (VATCMD) as part of totally non-transthoracic radical esophagectomy. A single-port laparoscopy device was adopted to a small cervical incision and the mediastinum was inflated with a positive pressure of 6 to 10 mmHg. Without assistant's retractor, the upper mediastinum and partially the middle mediastinum were dissected mainly by mediastinoscopic-assisted surgery. Video of the operation is demonstrated with illustrations. We have carried out and reported 17 cases of esophagectomy including VATCMD and its perioperative outcome. Non-transthoracic esophagectomy was completed without conversion to transthoracic procedure in all 17 cases. Procedure-related adverse event was not observed and postoperative course was favorable with a zero occurrence (0%) of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, chyle leakage or pulmonary complications. Median number of harvested lymph nodes from the upper mediastinal stations was 10. VATCMD is suggested as a safe and feasible approach for the upper mediastinum in esophagectomy for malignancies. It enabled a totally non-transthoracic radical esophagectomy in combination with a transhiatal approach. Video-assisted transcervical mediastinal dissection is suggested as a safe and feasible approach for the upper mediastinum in esophagectomy for malignancies. It enabled a totally non-transthoracic radical esophagectomy in combination with a transhiatal approach.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mediastinal teratomas occasionally rupture into the thoracic cavity, which induces mediastinitis or various other severe complications. Surgical treatment is crucial for ruptured teratomas; however, few literature reviews to date have addressed the characteristics of ruptured mediastinal teratomas.<h4>Case presentation</h4>We report a 29-year-old woman with severe mediastinitis owing to a mediastinal mature teratoma that ruptured into the mediastinum and right pleural cavity. Surgical resection by median sternotomy was performed within 24 hours after emergency admission. Intraoperative findings demonstrated the ruptured wall of the tumor with exposure of its white contents, which appeared similar to skin and fat, and necrotic tissue in the anterior mediastinum. The tumor was adhered to the right upper lobe, the ascending aorta, and pericardium. Owing to the severe adhesion of the tumor caused by inflammation in the surrounding tissues, a small portion of the tumor could not be removed, and hence complete resection with a sufficient surgical margin was not achieved. Pathologically, the tumor consisted of a solid mass and a cystic mass with severe adhesion to the resected portion of the lung, which included skin and lipid tissue. The tumor was concluded to be a mature teratoma as neither an immature component nor malignant transformation was observed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course.<h4>Conclusions</h4>To our knowledge, this is the report of successful surgical resection of a ruptured mediastinal teratoma causing severe mediastinitis, with the first literature review of ruptured mediastinal teratomas. We also discuss relevant findings from reports in the literature.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Thymoma is an epithelial tumor that commonly lies in the anterior mediastinum. It rarely extends to the pleural cavities. There is no standard approach for resecting similar giant thymomas.<h4>Case presentation</h4>An eighteen-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of progressive exertional dyspnea, weight loss, and loss of appetite. Radiological imaging demonstrated a giant mediastinal mass extending to both pleural cavities, a transthoracic needle biopsy was then performed, which indicated thymic hyperplasia.<h4>Clinical discussion</h4>The tumor was completely resected using a two-step approach, starting with a median sternotomy then extending it to a hemiclamshell incision, which provided better exposure of the tumor and caused less morbidity.The left part of the thymoma was resected using a median sternotomy, which took a relatively long time and caused significant blood loss. Then the incision was extended to a hemiclamshell incision through the pleural cavity to remove the right part of the tumor. This approach helped us to visualize the tumor better and did not cause any significant blood loss.The removed mass measured 36 × 29 × 10 cm and weighed 4500 g. Pathologic diagnosis indicated a type B1 tumor with no capsular invasion according to the World Health Organization classification.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The hemiclamshell approach is superior to the median sternotomy incision in resecting giant thymomas extending to the pleural cavity, as it saves time and causes less morbidity.
Project description:In case of suspicious lymph nodes on computed tomography (CT) or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), advanced tumour size or central tumour location in patients with suspected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), Dutch and European guidelines recommend mediastinal staging by endosonography (endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)) with sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes. If biopsy results from endosonography turn out negative, additional surgical staging of the mediastinum by mediastinoscopy is advised to prevent unnecessary lung resection due to false negative endosonography findings. We hypothesize that omitting mediastinoscopy after negative endosonography in mediastinal staging of NSCLC does not result in an unacceptable percentage of unforeseen N2 disease at surgical resection. In addition, omitting mediastinoscopy comprises no extra waiting time until definite surgery, omits one extra general anaesthesia and hospital admission, and may be associated with lower morbidity and comparable survival. Therefore, this strategy may reduce health care costs and increase quality of life. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of mediastinal staging strategies including and excluding mediastinoscopy.This study is a multicenter parallel randomized non-inferiority trial comparing two diagnostic strategies (with or without mediastinoscopy) for mediastinal staging in 360 patients with suspected resectable NSCLC. Patients are eligible for inclusion when they underwent systematic endosonography to evaluate mediastinal lymph nodes including tissue sampling with negative endosonography results. Patients will not be eligible for inclusion when PET/CT demonstrates 'bulky N2-N3' disease or the combination of a highly suspicious as well as irresectable mediastinal lymph node. Primary outcome measure for non-inferiority is the proportion of patients with unforeseen N2 disease at surgery. Secondary outcome measures are hospitalization, morbidity, overall 2-year survival, quality of life, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. Patients will be followed up 2 years after start of treatment.Results of the MEDIASTrial will have immediate impact on national and international guidelines, which are accessible to public, possibly reducing mediastinoscopy as a commonly performed invasive procedure for NSCLC staging and diminishing variation in clinical practice.The trial is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register on July 6th, 2017 ( NTR 6528 ).
Project description:Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of surgery to remove huge mediastinal masses and their pathology. Surgical resection was chosen for accurate diagnosis and treatment of the huge mediastinal masses extending into the pleural cavity. Methods Records were reviewed for eight patients who had the diagnosis of huge benign mediastinal masses and who underwent operation; details of the patients and operations were recorded. Results Mean age was 34.5 (range 22 to 44) years, and male-to-female ratio was 2:6. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to evaluate the location and extent of the abnormality and to characterize the tissue components of the mass. Most of the tumors were located in the posterior mediastinum. The most frequent presenting symptom was exertional dyspnea. The majority of cases underwent posterolateral thoracotomy, and complete resection was possible in seven patients. Partial resection could only be performed in one. The mean diameter of the resected masses was 15 × 10 cm. Histopathologic examination revealed 3 neurogenic tumors, 2 teratomas, 1 thymolipoma, and 1 ectopic thyroid, and 1 hemangioma. Minor complication was seen in two cases. Conclusion The presurgical thoracic MRI provided correct diagnosis along with radiologic characterization and topography. Surgery must be the preferred treatment in huge benign mediastinal masses.
Project description:Odontoidectomy is very effective for the decompression of the ventral craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Various approaches are available for the direct ventral decompression of the CVJ. Because there are many disadvantages of open transoral approach, endoscopic odontoidectomy was developed. There are 3 approaches in endoscopic odontoidectomy. We report transcervical retropharyngeal endoscopic approach for the ventral CVJ in this paper. Three patients with different pathologies received operations using this approach. The decompression was enough and surgical invasion was less in all patients. Each endoscopic approach has some advantages and different working regions due to their approach trajectories, but transcervical retropharyngeal approach is very familiar for our neurospinal surgeons and has a relatively large working area. This approach might have the chance to take the place of open transoral approach for endoscopic spinal surgeons.
Project description:The pleuropericardial membranes are fibro-serous walls that separate the pericardial and pleural cavities and anchor the heart inside the mediastinum. Partial or complete absence of pleuropericardial membranes is a rare human disease, the etiology of which is poorly understood. As an attempt to better understand these defects, we wished to analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms directing the separation of pericardial and pleural cavities by pleuropericardial membranes in the mouse. We found by histological analyses that both in Tbx18- and Wt1-deficient mice the pleural and pericardial cavities communicate due to a partial absence of the pleuropericardial membranes in the hilus region. We trace these defects to a persisting embryonic connection between these cavities, the pericardioperitoneal canals. Furthermore, we identify mesenchymal ridges in the sinus venosus region that tether the growing pleuropericardial membranes to the hilus of the lung, and thus, close the pericardioperitoneal canals. In Tbx18-deficient embryos these mesenchymal ridges are not established, whereas in Wt1-deficient embryos the final fusion process between these tissues and the body wall does not occur. We suggest that this fusion is an active rather than a passive process, and discuss the interrelation between closure of the pericardioperitoneal canals, lateral release of the pleuropericardial membranes from the lateral body wall, and sinus horn development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Standard therapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer with chemotherapy and conventional radiation has suboptimal outcomes. We hypothesized that a combination of surgery followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) would be a safe alternative. METHODS:Patients with stage IIIA (multistation N2) or IIIB non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled from March 2013 to December 2015. The protocol included transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy (TEMLA) followed by surgical resection, 10 Gy SBRT directed to the involved mediastinum/hilar stations and/or positive surgical margins, and adjuvant systemic therapy. Patients not suitable for anatomic lung resection were treated with 30 Gy to the primary tumor. The primary efficacy end-point was the proportion of patients with grade 3 or higher adverse events (AE) or toxicities. RESULTS:Of 10 patients, 7 patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All patients had TEMLA. Nine of 10 patients underwent surgical resection. The remaining patient had an unresectable tumor and received 30 Gy SBRT to the primary lesion. All patients had post-operative SBRT. Median follow-up was 18 months. There were no perioperative mortalities. Six patients had any grade 3 AEs with no grade 4-5 AEs. Of these, 4 were not attributable to radiation. Pulmonary-related grade 3 AEs were experienced by 2 patients. There were no failures within the 10 Gy volume. Overall survival and progression-free survival rates at 2 years were 68% (90% CI 36-86) and 40% (90% CI 16-63), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:In carefully selected patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, combining surgery with SBRT was well tolerated with no local failure. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifying number NCT01781741 . Registered February 1, 2013.
Project description:Solitary fibrous tumors are uncommon soft tissue tumors initially reported only in the pleura but, in recent years, they have been described at many extra pleural sites, such as mediastinum. The treatment of choice is the extensive surgical resection that is curative for most benign lesions.We present the case of solitary fibrous tumor of the anterior mediastinum in obese patient (BMI: 34.3) undergoing complete surgical resection by robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with da Vinci® Surgical System.Robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with da Vinci® Surgical System is an interesting option for obese patient, at higher risk for deep sternal wound infection.