Human umbilical cord blood plasma as an alternative to animal sera for mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro expansion - A multicomponent metabolomic analysis.
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal Stromal cells (MSCs) have a potential role in cell-based therapies. Foetal bovine serum (FBS) is used to supplement the basal cell culture medium but presents several disadvantages and risks. Other alternatives have been studied, including human umbilical cord blood plasma (hUCBP), aiming at the development of xeno-free culturing protocols. A comparative characterization of multicomponent metabolic composition of hUCBP and commercial FBS based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis was performed. The analysis of 1H-NMR spectra revealed both similarities and differences between the two proposed supplements. Similar metabolites (amino acids, glucose, lipids and nucleotides) were found in the hUCBP and FBS NMR spectra. The results show that the major difference between the metabolic profiles of the two proposed supplements are due to the significantly higher levels of glucose and lower levels of lactate, glutamate, alanine and branched chain amino acids in hUCBP. Similar or slightly different levels of important proteinogenic amino acids, as well as of nucleotides, lipids were found in the hUCBP and FBS. In order to validate it's suitability for cell culture, umbilical cord-MSCs (UC-MSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were expanded using hUCBP. In both hMSCs, in vitro culture with hUCBP supplementation presented similar to improved metabolic performances when compared to FBS. The two cell types tested expressed different optimum hUCBP percentage content. For DPSCs, the optimum hUCBP content was 6% and for UC-MSCs, 4%. Cultured hMSCs displayed no changes in senescence indicators, as well as maintained characteristic surface marker's expression. FBS substitution was associated with an increase in early apoptosis events, in a dose dependent manner, as well as to slight up- and down-regulation of targeted gene's expression. Tri-lineage differentiation capacity was also influenced by the substitution of FBS by hUCBP.
Project description:Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from umbilical cord (UC) blood (UCB) and matrix are tested clinically for a variety of pathologies but in vitro expansion using culture media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) is essential to achieve appropriate cell numbers for clinical use. Human UCB plasma (hUCBP) can be used as a supplement for hMSCs culture, since UCB is rich in soluble growth factors and due to worldwide increased number of cryopreserved UCB units in public and private banks, without the disadvantages listed for FBS. On the other hand, the culture media enriched in growth factors produced by these hMSCs in expansion (Conditioned medium--CM) can be an alternative to hMSCs application. The CM of the hMSCs from the UC might be a better therapeutic option compared to cell transplantation, as it can benefit from the local tissue response to the secreted molecules without the difficulties and complications associated to the engraftment of the allo- or xeno-transplanted cells. These facts drove us to know the detailed composition of the hUCBP and CM, by 1H-NMR and Multiplexing LASER Bead Technology. hUCBP is an adequate alternative for the FBS and the CM and hUCBP are important sources of growth factors, which can be used in MSCs-based therapies. Some of the major proliferative, chemotactic and immunomodulatory soluble factors (TGF-?, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8) were detected in high concentrations in CM and even higher in hUCBP. The results from 1H-NMR spectroscopic analysis of CM endorsed a better understanding of hMSCs metabolism during in vitro culture, and the relative composition of several metabolites present in CM and hUCBP was obtained. The data reinforces the potential use of hUCBP and CM in tissue regeneration and focus the possible use of hUCBP as a substitute for the FBS used in hMSCs in vitro culture.
Project description:Human dental pulp harbours unique stem cell population exhibiting mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) characteristics. This study aimed to analyse the differentiation potential and other essential functional and morphological features of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in comparison with Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs from the umbilical cord (UC-MSCs), and to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs in 3D culture with a hypoxic microenvironment resembling the stem cell niche. Human DPSCs as well as UC-MSCs were isolated from primary human tissues and were subjected to a series of experiments. We established a multiantigenic profile of DPSCs with CD45-/CD14-/CD34-/CD29+/CD44+/CD73+/CD90+/CD105+/Stro-1+/HLA-DR- (using flow cytometry) and confirmed their tri-lineage osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potential (using qRT-PCR and histochemical staining) in comparison with the UC-MSCs. The results also demonstrated the potency of DPSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro. Moreover, we showed that the DPSCs exhibit limited cardiomyogenic and endothelial differentiation potential. Decreased proliferation and metabolic activity as well as increased osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs in vitro, attributed to 3D cell encapsulation and low oxygen concentration, were also observed. DPSCs exhibiting elevated osteogenic potential may serve as potential candidates for a cell-based product for advanced therapy, particularly for bone repair. Novel tissue engineering approaches combining DPSCs, 3D biomaterial scaffolds, and other stimulating chemical factors may represent innovative strategies for pro-regenerative therapies.
Project description:Dental pulp is an accessible source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The perspective role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in regenerative medicine demands an in vitro expansion and in vivo delivery which must deal with the safety issues about animal serum, usually required in cell culture practice. Human platelet lysate (PL) contains autologous growth factors and has been considered as valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell cultures. The optimum concentration to be added of such supplement is highly dependent on its preparation whose variability limits comparability of results. By in vitro experiments, we aimed to evaluate a standardised formulation of pooled PL. A low selected concentration of PL (1%) was able to support the growth and maintain the viability of the DPSCs. The use of PL in cell cultures did not impair cell surface signature typically expressed by MSCs and even upregulated the transcription of Sox2. Interestingly, DPSCs cultured in presence of PL exhibited a higher healing rate after injury and are less susceptible to toxicity mediated by exogenous H2O2 than those cultured with FBS. Moreover, PL addition was shown as a suitable option for protocols promoting osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Taken together, our results indicated that PL is a valid substitute of FBS to culture and differentiate DPSCs for clinical-grade use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) demonstrate considerable promise for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. However, standard approaches to MSC isolation generate highly heterogeneous cell populations, while bone marrow (BM) constitutes a limited and difficult to access MSC source. Furthermore, a range of cell manufacturing considerations and clinical setting practicalities remain to be explored. METHODS:Adult male rats were subject to E. coli-induced pneumonia and administered CD362+ umbilical cord (UC)-hMSCs using a variety of cell production and clinical relevance considerations. In series 1, animals were instilled with E. coli and randomized to receive heterogeneous BM or UC-hMSCs or CD362+ UC-hMSCs. Subsequent series examined the impact of concomitant antibiotic therapy, MSC therapeutic cryopreservation (cryopreserved vs fresh CD362+ UC-hMSCs), impact of cell passage on efficacy (passages 3 vs 5 vs 7 vs 10), and delay of administration of cell therapy (0?h vs 6?h post-injury vs 6?h?+?12?h) following E. coli installation. RESULTS:CD362+ UC-hMSCs were as effective as heterogonous MSCs in reducing E. coli-induced acute lung injury, improving oxygenation, decreasing bacterial load, reducing histologic injury, and ameliorating inflammatory marker levels. Cryopreserved CD362+ UC-hMSCs recapitulated this efficacy, attenuating E. coli-induced injury, but therapeutic relevance did not extend beyond passage 3 for all indices. CD362+ UC-hMSCs maintained efficacy in the presence of antibiotic therapy and rescued the animal from E. coli injury when delivered at 6?h?+?12?h, following E. coli instillation. CONCLUSIONS:These translational studies demonstrated the efficacy of CD362+ UC-hMSCs, where they decreased the severity of E. coli-induced pneumonia, maintained efficacy following cryopreservation, were more effective at early passage, were effective in the presence of antibiotic therapy, and could continue to provide benefit at later time points following E. coli injury.
Project description:Stroke induces complex and dynamic, local and systemic changes including inflammatory reactions, immune responses, and repair and recovery processes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to enhance neurological recovery after stroke. We hypothesized that serum factors play a critical role in the activation of bone marrow (BM) MSCs after stroke such as by increasing proliferation, paracrine effects, and rejuvenation. Human MSCs (hMSCs) were grown in fetal bovine serum (FBS), normal healthy control serum (NS), or stroke patient serum (SS). MSCs cultured in growth medium with 10% SS or NS exhibited higher proliferation indices than those cultured with FBS ( P < 0.01). FBS-, NS-, and SS-hMSCs showed differences in the expression of trophic factors; vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and fibroblast growth factor were densely expressed in samples cultured with SS ( P < 0.01). In addition, SS-MSCs revealed different cell cycle- or aging-associated messenger RNA expression in a later passage, and ?-galactosidase staining showed the senescence of MSCs observed during culture expansion was lower in MSCs cultured with SS than those cultured with NS or FBS ( P < 0.01). Several proteins related to the activity of receptors, growth factors, and cytokines were more prevalent in the serum of stroke patients than in that of normal subjects. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis were markedly increased in rats that had received SS-MSCs ( P < 0.05), and these rats showed significant behavioral improvements ( P < 0.01). Our results indicate that stroke induces a process of recovery via the activation of MSCs. Culture methods for MSCs using SS obtained during the acute phase of a stroke could constitute a novel MSC activation method that is feasible and efficient for the neurorestoration of stroke.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show unexplained differences in differentiation potential. In this study, differentiation of human (h) MSCs derived from embryonic, fetal and adult sources toward cardiomyocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells was investigated. Labeled hMSCs derived from embryonic stem cells (hESC-MSCs), fetal umbilical cord, bone marrow, amniotic membrane and adult bone marrow and adipose tissue were co-cultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (nrCMCs) or cardiac fibroblasts (nrCFBs) for 10 days, and also cultured under angiogenic conditions. Cardiomyogenesis was assessed by human-specific immunocytological analysis, whole-cell current-clamp recordings, human-specific qRT-PCR and optical mapping. After co-culture with nrCMCs, significantly more hESC-MSCs than fetal hMSCs stained positive for ?-actinin, whereas adult hMSCs stained negative. Furthermore, functional cardiomyogenic differentiation, based on action potential recordings, was shown to occur, but not in adult hMSCs. Of all sources, hESC-MSCs expressed most cardiac-specific genes. hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs contained significantly higher basal levels of connexin43 than adult hMSCs and co-culture with nrCMCs increased expression. After co-culture with nrCFBs, hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs did not express ?-actinin and connexin43 expression was decreased. Conduction velocity (CV) in co-cultures of nrCMCs and hESC-MSCs was significantly higher than in co-cultures with fetal or adult hMSCs. In angiogenesis bioassays, only hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs were able to form capillary-like structures, which stained for smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers.Human embryonic and fetal MSCs differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages, in contrast to adult MSCs. Cardiomyogenesis is determined by stimuli from the cellular microenvironment, where connexin43 may play an important role.
Project description:Dental pulp-derived stem cells (DPSCs) have the potential to regenerate dentin and dental pulp tissue because of their differentiation capacity and angiogenic properties. However, for regenerative approaches to gain regulatory and clinical acceptance, protocols are needed to determine more feasible ways to cultivate DPSCs, namely, without the use of xenogeneic-derived components (animal sera) and exogenous growth factors.In this study, human DPSCs were isolated from third molars and expanded in standard culture conditions containing fetal bovine serum (DPSCs-FBS) or conditions containing human serum (DPSCs-HS). After cell characterization and evaluation of their angiogenic secretome, DPSCs were seeded in tooth slice/scaffolds and implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. After 30 days, tooth slices were retrieved and evaluated for dental pulp tissue regeneration. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to quantify blood vessel formation and evaluate predentin and dentin formation.After culture, DPSCs-HS produced concentrations of angiogenic growth factors equivalent to DPSCs-FBS. Additionally, in DPSCs-HS, several angiogenic factors were produced in at least 1-fold higher concentrations than in DPSCs-FBS. In vivo, it was determined that DPSCs-HS produced a robust angiogenic response and regeneration of dentin equivalent to DPSCs-FBS.These findings show that DPSCs can be isolated and expanded to clinical scale numbers in media devoid of animal serum or exogenous growth factors and still maintain their pulp regenerative properties. The implications of these findings are significant for further development of clinical protocols using DPSCs in cell therapies.
Project description:Background and Objectives:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can be isolated from umbilical cords and are therapeutically used because of their ability to differentiate into various types of cells, in addition to their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Fetal bovine serum (FBS), considered as the standard additive when isolating and culturing MSCs, has a major limitation related to its animal origin. Here, we employed a simple and economically efficient protocol to isolate MSCs from human umbilical cord tissues without using digestive enzymes and replacing FBS with umbilical cord blood serum (CBS). Methods and Results:MSCs were isolated by culturing umbilical cord pieces in CBS or FBS supplemented media. Expansion and proliferation kinetics of cells isolated by explant method in the presence of either FBS or CBS were measured, with morphology and multi-differentiation potential of expanded cells characterized by flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. MSCs maintained morphology, immunophenotyping, multi-differentiation potential, and self-renewal ability, with better proliferation rates for cells cultured in CBS compared to FBS supplement media. Conclusions:We here present a simple, reliable and efficient method to isolate MSCs from umbilical cord tissues, where cells maintained proliferation, differentiation potential and immunophenotyping properties and could be efficiently expanded for clinical applications.
Project description:Several studies have reported that human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) restore neurological damage in vivo through their secretion of paracrine factors. We previously found that UC-MSCs attenuate brain injury by secreting neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). However, how these factors contribute to neuroprotection remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate to what extent UC-MSC-derived HGF and BDNF contribute to neuroprotection using a Transwell co-culture system of neonatal cortical neurons damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation. The influence of HGF and BDNF were determined by investigating neurons in both the presence and absence of UC-MSCs as these cells consistently secrete both factors and can be blocked by neutralizing antibodies. In the co-culture, UC-MSCs significantly improved neuronal injury, as indicated by an increase in immature neuron number, neurite outgrowth, and cell proliferation. Co-culture of damaged neurons with UC-MSCs also exhibited a reduction in the number of neurons displaying signs of apoptosis/necrosis. The neuroprotective actions of UC-MSCs were partially reverted by neutralizing antibodies. Together, our findings reveal that UC-MSC-secreted HGF and BDNF have neuroprotective effects on damaged neurons. Further studies should address the existence of other potential neurotrophic paracrine factors.
Project description:Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are widely used in clinical research because of their multipotential, immunomodulatory, and reparative properties. Previous studies determined that hMSC spheroids from a three-dimensional (3D) culture possess higher therapeutic efficacy than conventional hMSCs from a monolayer (2D) culture. To date, various 3D culture methods have been developed to form hMSC spheroids but most of them used culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), which is not suitable for further clinical use. Here, we demonstrate that dissociated single MSCs seeded in induced pluripotent stem medium (MiPS) adhere loosely to the dish and spontaneously migrate to form spheroids during day 3 to day 6. Through component deletion screening and complementation experiments, the knockout serum replacement (KSR) was identified as necessary and sufficient for hMSC spheroid formation. Transcriptome analysis showed that the overall expression profiles were highly similar between 2D culture with FBS and KSR-derived spheroids. Interestingly, genes related to inflammatory response, immune response, and angiogenesis were upregulated in spheroids at day 6 and qPCR results further validated the increased expression level of related genes, including STC1, CCL7, HGF, IL24, and TGFB3. When spheroids were replated in normal FBS medium, cells formed a typical spindle-shaped morphology and FACS results showed that the recovered cells retained MSC-specific surface markers, such as CD73, CD90, and CD105. In summary, we developed a practical and convenient method to generate hMSC spheroids for clinical research and therapy.