Validation of CLIF-C ACLF score to define a threshold for futility of intensive care support for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe complication of cirrhosis and is defined by organ failure and high rates of short-term mortality. Patients with ACLF are managed with multiorgan support in the intensive care unit (ICU). Currently, it is unclear when this supportive care becomes futile, particularly in patients who are not candidates for liver transplant. The aim of this study was to determine whether the currently available prognostic scores can identify patients with ACLF in whom prolonged ICU care is likely to be futile despite maximal treatment efforts. METHODS:Data of 202 consecutive patients with ACLF admitted to the ICU at the Royal Free Hospital London between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Prognostic scores for chronic liver diseases, such as Child-Pugh, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), European Foundation for the study of chronic liver failure (CLIF-C) organ failure (OF), and CLIF-C ACLF, were calculated 48 hours after ICU admission and correlated with patient outcome after 28 days. RESULTS:The CLIF-C ACLF score, compared with all other scores, most accurately predicted 28-day mortality, with an area under the receiver operator characteristic of 0.8 (CLIF-C OF, 0.75; MELD, 0.68; Child-Pugh, 0.66). A CLIF-C ACLF score cutoff ??70 identified patients with a 100% mortality within 28 days. These patients had elevated inflammatory parameters representing a systemic inflammatory response, most often renal failure, compared with patients below this cutoff. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with ACLF and high CLIF-C ACLF score (??70) after 48 hours of intensive care may reach a threshold of futility for further ongoing intensive support. The best treatment options in this scenario remain to be determined but may include palliative care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) precipitated by hepatic injury and extrahepatic insults had distinct clinical phenotypes, and prognosis. This study aimed to validate prognostic models for ACLF and to explore their discriminative abilities in ACLF population categorized by the etiologies of precipitating events. METHODS:This study collected data from 343 consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of ACLF according to the EASL-CLIF-Consortium definition. The discrimination abilities of prognostic models at the onset of ACLF were tested with the concordance index and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS:Among the entire cohort, 103 patients survived with medical management, nine patients were transplanted, and 231 patients died without liver transplantation. The predictive accuracy of the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA) for 28-day mortality was similar to the CLIF Consortium Organ Failure (CLIF-C OF) but significantly higher than the CLIF Consortium ACLF, the Child-Turcotte-Pugh, the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), the MELD-sodium, the integrated MELD, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II. Of note, 44 patients had acute hepatic insult triggering ACLF (hepatic-ACLF), 244 were exclusively precipitated by bacterial infection or gastrointestinal bleeding (extrahepatic-ACLF), and 55 cases had no any identifiable potential precipitating events. Patients with hepatic-ACLF had significantly higher 28-day mortality than extrahepatic-ACLF patients. The CLIF-SOFA and CLIF-C OF displayed the highest accuracy significantly outperforming other scoring systems in predicting mortality among patients with hepatic-ACLF and those with extrahepatic-ACLF. CONCLUSION:The CLIF-SOFA and simpler CLIF-C OF are reliable measures of mortality risk in ACLF patients precipitated by either hepatic or extrahepatic insults. Both validated models could be used to stratify the risk of death and improve management of ACLF.
Project description:To validate prognostic scores for acute decompensation of cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure in Brazilian patients.This is a prospective cohort study designed to assess the prognostic performance of the chronic liver failure-consortium (CLIF-C) acute decompensation score (CLIF-C AD) and CLIF-C acute-on-chronic liver failure score (CLIF-C ACLF), regarding 28-d and 90-d mortality, as well as to compare them to other prognostic models, such as Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), MELD Sodium (MELD-Na), Child-Pugh (CP) score, and the CLIF-C Organ Failure score (CLIF-C OF). All participants were adults with acute decompensation of cirrhosis admitted to the Emergency Department of a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. Prognostic performances were evaluated by means of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curves (AUC) and 95%CI.One hundred and thirteen cirrhotic patients were included. At admission, 18 patients had acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and 95 individuals had acute decompensation (AD) without ACLF, of which 24 eventually developed ACLF during the course of hospitalization (AD evolving to ACLF group). The AD group had significantly lower 28-d (9.0%) and 90-d (18.3%) mortality as compared to the AD evolving to ACLF group and to the ACLF group (both P < 0.001). On the other hand, 28-d and 90-d mortalities were not significantly different between AD evolving to ACLF group and ACLF group (P = 0.542 and P = 0.708, respectively). Among patients with ACLF, at 28 d from the diagnosis, CLIF-C ACLF was the only score able to predict mortality significantly better than the reference line, with an AUC (95%CI) of 0.71 (95%CI: 0.54-0.88, P = 0.021). Among patients with AD, all prognostic scores performed significantly better than the reference line regarding 28-d mortality, presenting with similar AUCs: CLIF-C AD score 0.75 (95%CI: 0.63-0.88), CP score 0.72 (95%CI: 0.59-0.85), MELD score 0.75 (95%CI: 0.61-0.90), MELD-Na score 0.76 (95%CI: 0.61-0.90), and CLIF-C OF score 0.74 (95%CI: 0.60-0.88). The same occurred concerning AUCs for 90-d mortality: CLIF-C AD score 0.70 (95%CI: 0.57-0.82), CP score 0.73 (95%CI: 0.62-0.84), MELD score 0.71 (95%CI: 0.59-0.83), MELD-Na score 0.73 (95%CI: 0.62-0.84), and CLIF-C OF score 0.65 (95%CI: 0.52-0.78).This study demonstrated that CLIF-C ACLF is the best available score for the prediction of 28-d mortality among patients with ACLF. CLIF-C AD score is also useful for the prediction of mortality among cirrhotic patients with AD not fulfilling diagnostic criteria for ACLF, but it was not superior to other well-established prognostic scores.
Project description:Limited data is available on long-term outcome predictions for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Assessing the reliability and accuracy of several mortality prediction models for these patients is helpful. Two hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with ACLF and admittance to the liver ICU in a single center in northern Taiwan between December 2012 and March 2015 were enrolled in the study and were tracked until February 2017. Ninety-one patients had chronic hepatitis B-related cirrhosis. Clinical features and laboratory data were collected at or within 24 h of the first ICU admission course. Eight commonly used clinical scores in chronic liver disease were calculated. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III and chronic liver failure consortium (CLIF-C) ACLF scores were significantly superior to other models in predicting overall mortality as determined by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (area under the ROC curve (AUROC): 0.817). Subgroup analysis of patients with chronic hepatitis B-related cirrhosis displayed similar results. CLIF-C organ function (OF), CLIF-C ACLF, and APACHE III scores were statistically superior to the mortality probability model III at zero hours (MPM0-III) and the simplified acute physiology (SAP) III scores in predicting 28-day mortality. In conclusion, for 28-day and overall mortality prediction of patients with ACLF admitted to the ICU, APACHE III, CLIF-OF, and CLIF-C ACLF scores might outperform other models. Further prospective study is warranted.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Prognosis for patients with cirrhosis admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) is poor. ICU prognostic models are more accurate than liver-specific models. We identified predictors of mortality, developed a novel prognostic score (Royal Free Hospital (RFH) score), and tested it against established prognostic models and the yet unvalidated Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA) model. METHODS: Predictors of mortality were defined by logistic regression in a cohort of 635 consecutive patients with cirrhosis admitted to ICU (1989-2012). The RFH score was derived using a 75% training and 25% validation set. Predictive accuracy and calibration were evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) and goodness-of-fit ?(2) for the RFH score, as well as for SOFA, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), and Child-Pugh. CLIF-SOFA was applied to a recent subset (2005-2012) of patients. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality was 52.3%. Mortality improved over time but with a corresponding reduction in acuity of illness on admission. Predictors of mortality in training set, which constituted the RFH score, were the following: bilirubin, international normalized ratio, lactate, alveolar arterial partial pressure oxygen gradient, urea, while variceal bleeding as indication for admission conferred lesser risk. Classification accuracy was 73.4% in training and 76.7% in validation sample and did not change significantly across different eras of admission. The AUROC for the derived model was 0.83 and the goodness-of-fit ?(2) was 3.74 (P=0.88). AUROC for SOFA was 0.81, MELD was 0.79, APACHE II was 0.78, and Child-Pugh was 0.67. In 2005-2012 cohort, AUROC was: SOFA: 0.74, CLIF-SOFA: 0.75, and RFH: 0.78. Goodness-of-fit ?(2) was: SOFA: 6.21 (P=0.63), CLIF-SOFA: 9.18 (P=0.33), and RFH: 2.91 (P=0.94). CONCLUSIONS: RFH score demonstrated good discriminative ability and calibration. Internal validation supports its generalizability. CLIF-SOFA did not perform better than RFH and the original SOFA. External validation of our model should be undertaken to confirm its clinical utility.
Project description:Background:Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), which is characterized by rapid deterioration of liver function and multiorgan failure, has high mortality. This study was designed to identify prognostic scores to predict short-term and long-term outcome in patients with ACLF to facilitate early treatment and thereby improve patient survival. Materials and Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 102 ACLF patients who were hospitalized in the gastroenterology department. The EASL-CLIF criteria were used to define the ACLF. The demographic characteristics and biochemical examination results of the patients were acquired, and seven scores (CTP score, MELD score, MELD-Na, CLIF ACLF score, CLIF-C OF score, and CLIF SOFA score) were calculated 24 h after admission. All patients were observed until loss to follow-up, death, or specific follow-up times (28 days, 3 months, and 6 months), which were calculated after the initial hospital admission. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was employed to estimate the power of six scores to forecast ACLF patients' outcome. Results:All scores were distinctly higher in nonsurviving patients than in surviving patients and had predictive value for outcome in patients with ACLF at all time points (P < 0.050). The areas under the ROC curve (AUROCs) of the CLIF-SOFA score were higher than those of other scores at all time points. The comparison of the AUROC of the CLIF-SOFA score with other scores was statistically significant at 28 days (P < 0.050), which was the only time point at which it was greater than 0.800. Conclusion:Patients with ACLF have high mortality. These six scores are effective tools for assessing the prognosis of ACLF patients. The CLIF-SOFA score is especially effective for evaluating 28-day mortality.
Project description:Our previous study demonstrated that Th17 cells increased significantly in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). However, their prognostic role in HBV-ACLF patients remains unknown.Sixty-eight consecutive HBV-ACLF patients were enrolled in this cohort study. Th17 cells were examined using flow cytometry. Disease severity scores were assessed. ROC curves were used to evaluate the value in predicting prognosis. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Predictors of mortality were determined by regression analysis.Th17 cells were significantly higher in HBV-ACLF patients compared to patients with chronic hepatitis B and normal controls (both P?<?.001). Also, Th17 cells were higher in nonsurviving HBV-ACLF patients than in surviving patients (P?=?.014). Th17 cells were positively correlated with CLIF-Consortium ACLF (CLIF-C ACLF) score (r?=?0.240, P?=?.048). ROC curves showed that the frequency of Th17 cells had accuracy in predicting 90-day prognosis equivalent to MELD, MELD-Na and CLIF-C ACLF scores in HBV-ACLF (P?=?.34, P?=?.26, and P?=?.15, respectively). More importantly, the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) increased when Th17 cells were combined with MELD, MELD-Na or CLIF-C ACLF score than using Th17 cells alone (P?=?.021, P?=?.006, and P?=?.023, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that higher Th17 cells (?5.9%) were closely associated with poor overall survival in HBV-ACLF (P?=?.0086). Additionally, multivariate regression analysis showed that the frequency of Th17 cells over 5.9% was an independent predictor of mortality (OR?=?0.154, P?=?.025).Circulating Th17 cells positively correlated with disease severity in HBV-ACLF. The frequency of Th17 cells over 5.9% could serve as a prognostic biomarker for HBV-ACLF patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cirrhosis always goes with profound immunity compromise, and makes those patients easily be the target of pneumonia. Cirrhotic patients with pneumonia have a dramatically increased mortality. To recognize the risk factors of mortality and to optimize stratification are critical for improving survival rate. METHODS:Two hundred and three cirrhotic patients with pneumonia at a tertiary care hospital were included in this retrospective study. Demographical, clinical and laboratory parameters, severity models and prognosis were recorded. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of 30-day and 90-day mortality. Area under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROC) was used to compare the predictive value of different prognostic scoring systems. RESULTS:Patients with nosocomial acquired or community acquired pneumonia indicated similar prognosis after 30- and 90-day follow-up. However, patients triggered acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) highly increased mortality (46.4% vs 4.5% for 30-day, 69.6% vs 11.2% for 90-day). Age, inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy (HR: 2.326 p?=?0.018 for 30-day and HR: 3.126 p?<?0.001 for 90-day), bacteremia (HR: 3.037 p?=?0.002 for 30-day and HR: 2.651 p?=?0.001 for 90-day), white blood cell count (WBC) (HR: 1.452 p?<?0.001 for 30-day and HR: 1.551 p?<?0.001 for 90-day) and total bilirubin (HR: 1.059 p?=?0.002 for 90-day) were independent factors for mortality in current study. Chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) displayed highest AUROC (0.89 and 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.95 and 0.85-0.95 for 30-day and 90-day respectively) in current study. CONCLUSIONS:This study found age, bacteremia, WBC, total bilirubin and inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy were independently associated with increased mortality. Pneumonia triggered ACLF remarkably increased mortality. CLIF-SOFA was more accurate in predicting mortality than other five prognostic models (model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), MELD-Na, quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA), pneumonia severity index (PSI), Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score).
Project description:Acute deterioration of liver cirrhosis (e.g., infections, acute-on-chronic liver failure [ACLF]) requires an increase in cardiac contractility. The insufficiency to respond to these situations could be deleterious. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) has been shown to reflect left cardiac contractility in cirrhosis better than other parameters and might bear prognostic value. Therefore, this retrospective study investigated the role of LV-GLS in the outcome after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and the development of ACLF. We included 114 patients (48 female patients) from the Noninvasive Evaluation Program for TIPS and Their Follow-Up Network (NEPTUN) cohort. This number provided sufficient quality and structured follow-up with the possibility of calculating major scores (Child, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease [MELD], Chronic Liver Failure Consortium acute decompensation [CLIF-C AD] scores) and recording of the events (development of decompensation episode and ACLF). We analyzed the association of LV-GLS with overall mortality and development of ACLF in patients with TIPS. LV-GLS was independently associated with overall mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.123; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.010-1.250) together with aspartate aminotransferase (HR, 1.009; 95% CI, 1.004-1.014) and CLIF-C AD score (HR, 1.080; 95% CI, 1.018-1.137). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis for LV-GLS for overall survival showed higher area under the curve (AUC) than MELD and CLIF-C AD scores (AUC, 0.688 versus 0.646 and 0.573, respectively). The best AUROC-determined LV-GLS cutoff was -16.6% to identify patients with a significantly worse outcome after TIPS at 3 months, 6 months, and overall. LV-GLS was independently associated with development of ACLF (HR, 1.613; 95% CI, 1.025-2.540) together with a MELD score above 15 (HR, 2.222; 95% CI, 1.400-3.528). Conclusion: LV-GLS is useful for identifying patients at risk of developing ACLF and a worse outcome after TIPS. Although validation is required, this tool might help to stratify risk in patients receiving TIPS.
Project description:AIM:To determine the prognostic risk factors of patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) treated with plasma exchange (PE)-based artificial liver support system (ALSS), and create a prognostic predictive model. METHODS:A total of 304 HBV-ACLF patients who received PE-based ALSS were retrospectively analyzed. Potential prognostic factors on admission associated with survival were investigated. Of note, 101 additional patients were analyzed to validate the performance of the prognostic models. RESULTS:According to 28-day survival, a total of 207 patients who survived and 97 non-survivors were identified in the derivation group. Overall, 268 (88.2%) ACLF cases were caused by reactivation of HBV. Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that age, total bilirubin, ln (alpha-fetoprotein [AFP]), encephalopathy (HE) score, sodium level, and international normalized ratio (INR) were independent risk factors of short-term prognosis. We built a model named ALSS-prognosis model (APM) to predict the 28-day survival of HBV-ACLF patients with ALSS; the model APM showed potentially better predictive performance for both the derivation and validation groups than MELD, MELD-Na, and CLIF-C ACLF score. CONCLUSIONS:Low AFP was found to be an independent risk factor for high mortality in HBV-ACLF patients treated with PE-based ALSS. We generated a new model containing AFP, namely APM, which showed potentially better prediction performance than MELD, MELD-Na, and CLIF-C ACLF score for short-term outcomes, and could aid physicians in making optimal therapeutic decisions.
Project description:Liver transplantation (LT) is definitive treatment for end-stage liver disease. This study evaluated factors predicting successful evaluation in patients transferred for urgent inpatient LT evaluation. Eighty-two patients with cirrhosis were transferred for urgent LT evaluation from January 2016 to December 2018. Alcohol-associated liver disease was the common etiology of liver disease (42/82). Of these 82 patients, 35 (43%) were declined for LT, 27 (33%) were wait-listed for LT, 5 (6%) improved, and 15 (18%) died. Psychosocial factors were the most common reasons for being declined for LT (49%). Predictors for listing and receiving LT on multivariate analysis included Hispanic race (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; <i>P</i> = 0.003), Asian race (OR, 1.52<i>; P</i> = 0.02), non-Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 1.49<i>; P</i> = 0.04), hyponatremia (OR, 1.38; <i>P</i> = 0.04), serum albumin (OR, 1.13<i>; P</i> = 0.01), and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD)-Na (OR, 1.02<i>; P</i> = 0.003). Public insurance (i.e., Medicaid) was a predictor of not being listed for LT on multivariate analysis (OR, 0.77<i>; P</i> = 0.02). Excluding patients declined for psychosocial reasons, predictors of being declined for LT on multivariate analysis included Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C) score >51.5 (OR, 1.26<i>; P</i> = 0.03), acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) grade 3 (OR, 1.41<i>; P</i> = 0.01), hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) (OR, 1.38<i>; P</i> = 0.01), and respiratory failure (OR, 1.51<i>; P</i> = 0.01). Predictors of 3-month mortality included CLIF-C score >51.5 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.52; <i>P</i> = 0.04) and intensive care unit (HR, 8.25<i>; P</i> < 0.001). <i>Conclusion:</i> MELD-Na, albumin, hyponatremia, ACLF grade 3, HRS, respiratory failure, public insurance, Hispanic race, Asian race, and non-Hispanic ethnicity predicted liver transplant outcome. Lack of psychosocial support was a major reason for being declined for LT. The CLIF-C score predicted being declined for LT and mortality.