Development of novel aptamers for low-density lipoprotein particle quantification.
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is commonly used for CVD risk assessment; however, recent research has shown LDL particle (LDL-P) number to be a more sensitive indicator of CVD risk than both LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Described herein are five single stranded DNA aptamers with dissociation constants in the low picomolar range specific to LDL-P and its subfractions. Furthermore, a set of antisense sequences have been developed and characterized that are capable of binding to the best aptamers and undergoing displacement by LDL-P for use in a simple, affordable diagnostic assay.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Whereas epidemiological studies show that levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) predict incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), there is limited evidence relating lipoprotein subfractions and composite measures of subfractions to risk for CVD in prospective cohort studies. METHODS AND RESULTS:We tested whether combinations of lipoprotein subfractions independently predict CVD in a prospective cohort of 4594 initially healthy men and women (the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, mean follow-up 12.2 years, 377 incident cardiovascular events). Plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein subfractions were measured at baseline with a novel high-resolution ion mobility technique. Principal component analysis (PCA) of subfraction concentrations identified 3 major independent (ie, zero correlation) components of CVD risk, one representing LDL-associated risk, a second representing HDL-associated protection, and the third representing a pattern of decreased large HDL, increased small/medium LDL, and increased triglycerides. The last corresponds to the previously described "atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype." Several genes that may underlie this phenotype-CETP, LIPC, GALNT2, MLXIPL, APOA1/A5, LPL-are suggested by SNPs associated with the combination of small/medium LDL and large HDL. CONCLUSIONS:PCA on lipoprotein subfractions yielded three independent components of CVD risk. Genetic analyses suggest these components represent independent mechanistic pathways for development of CVD.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in individuals with low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C). We investigated whether detailed measures of LDL subfractions and other lipoproteins can be used to assess CVD risk in a population with both low LDL-C and high C-reactive protein who were randomized to high-intensity statin or placebo.In 11?186 Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) participants, we tested whether lipids, apolipoproteins, and ion mobility-measured particle concentrations at baseline and after random allocation to rosuvastatin 20 mg/d or placebo were associated with first CVD events (n=307) or CVD/all-cause death (n=522). In placebo-allocated participants, baseline LDL-C was not associated with CVD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per SD, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.21). In contrast, associations with CVD events were observed for baseline non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), apolipoprotein B (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.11-1.48), and ion mobility-measured non-HDL particles (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.35) and LDL particles (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.07-1.37). Association with CVD events was also observed for several LDL and very-low-density lipoprotein subfractions but not for ion mobility-measured HDL subfractions. In statin-allocated participants, CVD events were associated with on-treatment LDL-C, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B; these were also associated with CVD/all-cause death, as were several LDL and very-low-density lipoprotein subfractions, albeit with a pattern of association that differed from the baseline risk.In JUPITER, baseline LDL-C was not associated with CVD events, in contrast with significant associations for non-HDL cholesterol and atherogenic particles: apolipoprotein B and ion mobility-measured non-HDL particles, LDL particles, and select subfractions of very-low-density lipoprotein particles and LDL particles. During high-intensity statin therapy, on-treatment levels of LDL-C and atherogenic particles were associated with residual risk of CVD/all-cause death.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00239681.
Project description:Statin therapy influences not only low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels but also LDL-related biomarkers, including non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apolipoprotein B, total number of LDL particles, and mean LDL particle size. Recent studies have identified many genetic loci influencing circulating lipid levels and statin-induced LDL cholesterol reduction. However, it is unknown how these genetic variants influence statin-induced changes in LDL subfractions and non-HDL-C.One hundred sixty candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms for effects on circulating lipid levels or statin-induced LDL-cholesterol lowering were tested for association with response of LDL subfractions and non-HDL-C to rosuvastatin or placebo for 1 year among 7046 participants from the Justification for Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial. Of the 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with statin response for ? 1 of the LDL subfractions or non-HDL-C, 20 single-nucleotide polymorphisms could be clustered according to effects predominantly on LDL particle size, predominantly on LDL particle number, and on apolipoprotein B but not on LDL cholesterol or non-HDL-C.These differential associations point to pathways of LDL response to statin therapy and possibly to mechanisms of statin-dependent cardiovascular disease risk reduction.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00239681.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dietary recommendations to limit red meat are based on observational studies linking intake to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk together with the potential of its saturated fatty acid (SFA) content to raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, the relation of white meat to CVD risk, and the effects of dietary protein source on lipoprotein particle subfractions, have not been extensively evaluated. OBJECTIVE:We tested whether levels of atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins differed significantly following consumption of diets with high red meat content compared with diets with similar amounts of protein derived from white meat or nonmeat sources, and whether these effects were modified by concomitant intake of high compared with low SFAs. METHODS:Generally healthy men and women, 21-65 y, body mass index 20-35 kg/m2, were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 parallel arms (high or low SFA) and within each, allocated to red meat, white meat, and nonmeat protein diets consumed for 4 wk each in random order. The primary outcomes were LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), small + medium LDL particles, and total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. RESULTS:Analysis included participants who completed all 3 dietary protein assignments (61 for high SFA; 52 for low SFA). LDL cholesterol and apoB were higher with red and white meat than with nonmeat, independent of SFA content (P < 0.0001 for all, except apoB: red meat compared with nonmeat [P = 0.0004]). This was due primarily to increases in large LDL particles, whereas small + medium LDL and total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were unaffected by protein source (P = 0.10 and P = 0.51, respectively). Primary outcomes did not differ significantly between red and white meat. Independent of protein source, high compared with low SFA increased LDL cholesterol (P = 0.0003), apoB (P = 0.0002), and large LDL (P = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS:The findings are in keeping with recommendations promoting diets with a high proportion of plant-based food but, based on lipid and lipoprotein effects, do not provide evidence for choosing white over red meat for reducing CVD risk. This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01427855.
Project description:The effect of alirocumab on potentially atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions was assessed in a post hoc analysis using the vertical auto profile (VAP) method.Patients from three Phase II studies with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ? 2.59 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) at baseline on stable statin therapy were randomised to receive subcutaneous alirocumab 50-150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or 150-300 mg every 4 weeks (according to study) or placebo for 8-12 weeks. Samples from patients treated with alirocumab 150 mg Q2W (n = 74; dose common to all three trials) or placebo (n = 71) were analysed by VAP. Percent change in lipoprotein subfractions with alirocumab vs. placebo was analysed at Weeks 6, 8 or 12 using analysis of covariance.Alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C and the cholesterol content of subfractions LDL1, LDL2 and LDL3+4. Significant reductions were also observed in triglycerides, apolipoproteins CII and CIII and the cholesterol content of very low-density, intermediate-density, and remnant lipoproteins.Alirocumab achieved reductions across a spectrum of atherogenic lipoproteins in patients receiving background statin therapy.Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: NCT01288443, NCT01288469, NCT01266876.
Project description:Aims:Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) elevation is a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has however been suggested that elevated Lp(a) causes CVD mainly in individuals with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. We hypothesized that the risk associated with high Lp(a) levels would largely be attenuated at low LDL-C levels. Methods and results:In 16 654 individuals from the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study, and in 9448 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) parallel statistical analyses were performed. Individuals were categorized according to their Lp(a) and LDL-C levels. Cut-offs were set at the 80th cohort percentile for Lp(a). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol cut-offs were set at 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 mmol/L. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the primary analyses were corrected for Lp(a)-derived LDL-C (LDL-Ccorr). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated for each category. The category with LDL-Ccorr <2.5 mmol/L and Lp(a) <80th cohort percentile was used as reference category. In the EPIC-Norfolk and CCHS cohorts, individuals with an Lp(a) ?80th percentile were at increased CVD risk compared with those with Lp(a) <80th percentile for any LDL-Ccorr levels ?2.5 mmol/L. In contrast, for LDL-Ccorr <2.5 mmol/L, the risk associated with elevated Lp(a) attenuated. However, there was no interaction between LDL-Ccorr and Lp(a) levels on CVD risk in either cohort. Conclusion:Lipoprotein(a) and LDL-C are independently associated with CVD risk. At LDL-C levels below <2.5 mmol/L, the risk associated with elevated Lp(a) attenuates in a primary prevention setting.
Project description:Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) present increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study is to improve the assessment of lipoprotein profile in patients with T1D by using a robust developed method 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), for further correlation with clinical factors associated to CVD. Thirty patients with T1D and 30 non-diabetes control (CT) subjects, matched for gender, age, body composition (DXA, BMI, waist/hip ratio), regular physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2peak), were analyzed. Dietary records and routine lipids were assessed. Serum lipoprotein particle subfractions, particle sizes, and cholesterol and triglycerides subfractions were analyzed by 1H NMR. It was evidenced that subjects with T1D presented lower concentrations of small LDL cholesterol, medium VLDL particles, large VLDL triglycerides, and total triglycerides as compared to CT subjects. Women with T1D presented a positive association with HDL size (p<0.005; R = 0.601) and large HDL triglycerides (p<0.005; R = 0.534) and negative (p<0.005; R = -0.586) to small HDL triglycerides. Body fat composition represented an important factor independently of normal BMI, with large LDL particles presenting a positive correlation to total body fat (p<0.005; R = 0.505), and total LDL cholesterol and small LDL cholesterol a positive correlation (p<0.005; R = 0.502 and R = 0.552, respectively) to abdominal fat in T1D subjects; meanwhile, in CT subjects, body fat composition was mainly associated to HDL subclasses. VO2peak was negatively associated (p<0.005; R = -0.520) to large LDL-particles only in the group of patients with T1D. In conclusion, patients with T1D with adequate glycemic control and BMI and without chronic complications presented a more favourable lipoprotein profile as compared to control counterparts. In addition, slight alterations in BMI and/or body fat composition showed to be relevant to provoking alterations in lipoproteins profiles. Finally, body fat composition appears to be a determinant for cardioprotector lipoprotein profile.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Metformin affects low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density (HDL) subfractions in the context of impaired glucose tolerance, but its effects in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown. We determined whether metformin administration affects lipoprotein subfractions 4 months after ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI). Second, we assessed associations of lipoprotein subfractions with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size 4 months after STEMI. METHODS:371 participants without known diabetes participating in the GIPS-III trial, a placebo controlled, double-blind randomized trial studying the effect of metformin (500 mg bid) during 4 months after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI were included of whom 317 completed follow-up (clinicaltrial.gov Identifier: NCT01217307). Lipoprotein subfractions were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at presentation, 24 hours and 4 months after STEMI. (Apo)lipoprotein measures were obtained during acute STEMI and 4 months post-STEMI. LVEF and infarct size were measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS:Metformin treatment slightly decreased LDL cholesterol levels (adjusted P = 0.01), whereas apoB remained unchanged. Large LDL particles and LDL size were also decreased after metformin treatment (adjusted P<0.001). After adjustment for covariates, increased small HDL particles at 24 hours after STEMI predicted higher LVEF (P = 0.005). In addition, increased medium-sized VLDL particles at the same time point predicted a smaller infarct size (P<0.001). CONCLUSION:LDL cholesterol and large LDL particles were decreased during 4 months treatment with metformin started early after MI. Higher small HDL and medium VLDL particle concentrations are associated with favorable LVEF and infarct size.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Elevated postprandial triglycerides reflect a proatherogenic milieu, but underlying mechanisms are unclear.<h4>Objective</h4>We examined differences between fasting and nonfasting profiles of directly measured lipoprotein size and subfractions to assess if postprandial triglycerides reflected increases in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and remnants, or small dense lipid depleted LDL (sdLDL) particles.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 15,397 participants (10,135 fasting; 5262 nonfasting [<8 hours since last meal]) from the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL. Baseline cholesterol subfractions were measured by the vertical auto profile method and particle subfractions by ion mobility. We performed multivariable linear regression adjusting for cardiovascular and lipoprotein-modifying risk factors.<h4>Results</h4>Mean age (SD) was 68.0 years (±7.0), with 50.9% women. Adjusted mean triglyceride concentrations were higher nonfasting by 17.8 ± 1.3%, with higher nonfasting levels of directly measured VLDL cholesterol (by 3.5 ± 0.6%) and total VLDL particles (by 2.0 ± 0.7%), specifically large VLDL (by 12.3 ± 1.3%) and medium VLDL particles (by 5.3 ± 0.8%), all P < .001. By contrast, lower concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and IDL cholesterol and particles were noted for nonfasting participants. sdLDL cholesterol levels and particle concentrations showed no statistically significant difference by fasting status (-1.3 ± 2.1% and 0.07 ± 0.6%, respectively, P > .05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Directly measured particle and cholesterol concentrations of VLDL, not sdLDL, were higher nonfasting and may partly contribute to the proatherogenicity of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. These differences, although statistically significant, were small and may not fully explain the increased risk of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.
Project description:In patients with discordance between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and LDL particle (LDL-P) concentrations, cardiovascular risk more closely correlates with LDL-P.We investigated the effect of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, on lipoprotein particle concentration and size in hypercholesterolemic patients, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Plasma samples were collected from patients receiving alirocumab 150 mg every 2 weeks (n=26) or placebo (n=31) during a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients (LDL cholesterol ?100 mg/dL) on a stable atorvastatin dose. In this post hoc analysis, percentage change in concentrations of LDL-P, very-low-density lipoprotein particles, and high-density lipoprotein particles from baseline to week 12 was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Alirocumab significantly reduced mean concentrations of total LDL-P (-63.3% versus -1.0% with placebo) and large (-71.3% versus -21.8%) and small (-54.0% versus +17.8%) LDL-P subfractions and total very-low-density lipoprotein particle concentrations (-36.4% versus +33.4%; all P<0.01). Total high-density lipoprotein particles increased with alirocumab (+11.2% versus +1.4% with placebo; P<0.01). There were greater increases in large (44.6%) versus medium (17.7%) or small high-density lipoprotein particles (2.8%) with alirocumab. LDL-P size remained relatively unchanged in both groups; however, very-low-density and high-density lipoprotein particle sizes increased to a significantly greater extent with alirocumab.Alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C and LDL-P concentrations in hypercholesterolemic patients receiving stable atorvastatin therapy. These findings may be of particular relevance to patients with discordant LDL-C and LDL-P concentrations.URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01288443.