Modeling the Transmission Dynamics of Clonorchiasis in Foshan, China.
ABSTRACT: Clonorchiasis, known as the Chinese liver fluke disease, is caused by Clonorchis sinensis infection with food-borne liver fluke, which is transmitted via snails to freshwater fish and then to human beings or other piscivorous mammals. Clonorchis sinensis infection is mainly related to liver and biliary disorders, especially cholangiocarcinoma, and has an increased human-health impact due to the greater consumption of raw freshwater fish. In this article, we propose a deterministic model to describe the spread of clonorchiasis among human-snail-fish populations and use the model to simulate the data on the numbers of inspected and infected individuals of Foshan City, located in Guangdong Province in the southeast of P.R China, from 1980-2010. Mathematical and numerical analyses of the model are carried out to understand the transmission dynamics of clonorchiasis and explore effective control measures for the local outbreaks of the disease. We find that (i) the transmission of clonorchiasis from cercariae to fish plays a more important role than that from eggs to snails and from fish to humans; (ii) As the cycle of infection-treatment-reinfection continues, it is unlikely that treatment with drugs alone can control and eventually eradicate clonorchiasis. These strongly suggest that a more comprehensive approach needs to include environmental modification in order to break the cercariae-fish transmission cycle, to enhance awareness about the disease, and to improve prevention measures.
Project description:Clonorchiasis is caused by infection with food-borne liver fluke, namely Clonorchis sinensis, which is also considered to be a neglected tropical disease. It is estimated that over 10 million people are infected with C. sinensis in China and, subsequently, several thousand new cholangiocarcinoma cases occur annually. On May 18, 2014, China Central Television broadcasted an episode on the habit of raw-fish eating and its potential to cause clonorchiasis in a programme called Health on the tip of the tongue. Here, I briefly introduce the content of the episode and discuss its significance for clonorchiasis control in China.
Project description:Clonorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, and is often associated with a malignant form of bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Although some aspects of the epidemiology of clonorchiasis are understood, little is known about the genetics of C. sinensis populations. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genetic exploration of C. sinensis from endemic geographic regions using complete mitochondrial protein gene sets. Genomic DNA samples from C. sinensis individuals (n = 183) collected from cats and dogs in China (provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Heilongjiang and Jilin) as well as from rats infected with metacercariae from cyprinid fish from the Russian Far East (Primorsky Krai region) were deep sequenced using the BGISEQ-500 platform. Informatic analyses of mitochondrial protein gene data sets revealed marked genetic variation within C. sinensis; significant variation was identified within and among individual worms from distinct geographical locations. No clear affiliation with a particular location or host species was evident, suggesting a high rate of dispersal of the parasite across endemic regions. The present work provides a foundation for future biological, epidemiological and ecological studies using mitochondrial protein gene data sets, which could aid in elucidating associations between particular C. sinensis genotypes/haplotypes and the pathogenesis or severity of clonorchiasis and its complications (including cholangiocarcinoma) in humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection, is a serious food-borne zoonotic disease that is often asymptomatic or shows only mild symptoms, which leads to delayed treatment and chronic clonorchiasis and results in various complications, such as cholelithiasis, cholangitis, cholecystitis and cholangiocarcinoma. However, acute shock caused by C. sinensis infection has not been reported. Here, for the first time, we describe a fatal case of acute shock caused by C. sinensis infection. CASE PRESENTATION:A patient with a history of eating raw or undercooked freshwater fish was hospitalized with acute shock caused by severe abdominal pain. Physical examination suggested acute abdomen with severe abdominal pain and rigidity. Computed tomography (CT) detection indicated acute cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. After cholecystectomy, several liver flukes were found in the drainage tube. Furthermore, morphological analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified the pathogen as C. sinensis. The liver gradually restored normal function after anthelmintic therapy with praziquantel. CONCLUSIONS:In this fatal case, C. sinensis infection was the cause of acute shock, which is rarely found in the clinic environment. This report aims to increase awareness of the hazards and complications related to clonorchiasis. The PCR diagnosis method used in this report might be helpful in reducing the misdiagnosis of clonorchiasis and unnecessary cholecystectomy.
Project description:Clonorchis sinensis is a food-borne trematode that infects more than 15 million people. The liver fluke causes clonorchiasis and chronical cholangitis, and promotes cholangiocarcinoma. The underlying molecular pathogenesis occurring in the bile duct by the infection is little known. In this study, transcriptome profile in the bile ducts infected with C. sinensis were analyzed using microarray methods. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were 1,563 and 1,457 at 2 and 4 weeks after infection. Majority of the DEGs were temporally dysregulated at 2 weeks, but 519 DEGs showed monotonically changing expression patterns that formed seven distinct expression profiles. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of the DEG products revealed 5 sub-networks and 10 key hub proteins while weighted co-expression network analysis (WGCNA)-derived gene-gene interaction exhibited 16 co-expression modules and 13 key hub genes. The DEGs were significantly enriched in 16 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, which were related to original systems, cellular process, environmental information processing, and human diseases. This study uncovered a global picture of gene expression profiles in the bile ducts infected with C. sinensis, and provided a set of potent predictive biomarkers for early diagnosis of clonorchiasis.
Project description:Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that promotes hepatic inflammatory environments via direct contact or through their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), subsequently leading to cholangitis, periductal fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This study was conducted to examine the host inflammatory responses to C. sinensis ESPs and their putative protein components selected from C. sinensis expressed sequenced tag (EST) pool databases, including TGF-? receptor interacting protein 1(CsTRIP1), legumain (CsLeg), and growth factor binding protein 2 (CsGrb2). Treatment of CCA cells (HuCCT1) with the ESPs or bacterial recombinant C. sinensis proteins differentially promoted the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?) as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-?1, and TGF-?2) in a time-dependent manner. In particular, recombinant C. sinensis protein treatment resulted in increase (at maximum) of ~7-fold in TGF-?1, ~30-fold in TGF-?2, and ~3-fold in TNF-? compared with the increase produced by ESPs, indicating that CsTrip1, CsLeg, and CsGrb2 function as strong inducers for secretion of these cytokines in host cells. These results suggest that C. sinensis ESPs contribute to the immunopathological response in host cells, leading to clonorchiasis-associated hepatobiliary abnormalities of greater severity.
Project description:Clonorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, is a chronic parasitic infection regulated by T cell subsets. An imbalance of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) and interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells (Th17) may control inflammation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of immune evasion. In the present study, we assessed the dynamics of Treg/Th17 and determined whether the Treg/Th17 ratio is altered in C. sinensis-infected mice. The results showed that the percentages of splenic Treg cells in CD4+ T cells were suppressed on day 14 post-infection (PI) but increased on day 56 PI, while Th17 cells were increased on day 56 PI compared with normal control (NC) mice. The Treg/Th17 ratio steadily increased from day 28 to day 56 PI. The hepatic levels of their specific transcription factors (Foxp3 for Treg and ROR?t for Th17) were increased in C. sinensis-infected mice from day 14 to 56 PI, and significantly higher than those in NC mice. Meanwhile, serum levels of IL-2 and IL-17 were profoundly increased in C. sinensis-infected mice throughout the experiment; while the concentrations of IL-6 and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) peaked on day 14 PI, but then decreased on day 28 and 56 PI. Our results provide the first evidence of an increased Treg/Th17 ratio in C. sinensis-infected mice, suggesting that a Treg/Th17 imbalance may play a role in disease outcomes of clonorchiasis.
Project description:Survival of Clonorchis sinensis, a cause of human clonorchiasis, requires tegument proteins, which are localized to the tegumental outer surface membrane. These proteins play an important role in a host response and parasite survival. Thus, these proteins are interesting molecular targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we have determined two crystal structures of the calmodulin like domain (amino acid [aa] positions 1-81) and dynein light chain (DLC)-like domain (aa 83-177) of a 20.8-kDa tegumental-allergen-like protein from Clonorchis sinensis (CsTAL3). The calmodulin like domain has two Ca2+-binding sites (named CB1 and CB2), but Ca2+ binds to only one site, CB1. The DLC-like domain has a dimeric conformation; the interface is formed mainly by hydrogen bonds between the main chain atoms. In addition, we have determined full-length structure of CsTAL3 in solution and showed the conformational change of CsTAL3 induced by Ca2+ ion binding using small-angle X-ray scattering analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. The Ca2+-bound form has a more extended conformation than the Ca2+-free from does. These structural and biochemical analyses will advance the understanding of the biology of this liver fluke and may contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanism of calcium-responsive and tegumental-allergen-like proteins.
Project description:Liver fluke proteins, including excretory-secretory products (ESPs) and tegument proteins, are critical for the pathogenesis, nutrient metabolism, etiology and immune response of liver cancer. To understand the functions of various proteins in Clonorchis sinensis physiology and human clonorchiasis, the ESPs and tegument proteins of C. sinensis were identified. Supernatants containing ESPs from adult C. sinensis after culture for 6 h were harvested and concentrated. The tegument was detached using a freeze/thaw method and successively extracted using various extraction buffers. The outer surface proteins of C. sinensis were labeled with biotin, and the biotinylated proteins were purified. The ESP, tegument and labeled outer surface proteins were identified and analyzed by high-resolution LC-MS/MS. The identified proteins were compared with those of other flukes, and the protein functions associated with pathogenesis, carcinogenesis and potential vaccine antigens and drug targets were predicted and analyzed. A total of 175 proteins were identified after the 6-h culture of C. sinensis ESPs. A total of 352 tegument proteins were identified through sequential solubilization of the isolated teguments, and a subset of these proteins were localized to the surface membrane of the tegument by labeling with biotin. Thirty identified proteins, including annexins, actin and tetraspanins, were identified as potential immunomodulators and promising vaccine antigens. Interestingly, among the 352 tegument proteins, as many as 155 were enzymes, and most were oxidoreductases, hydrolases or transferases. A comparison of the outer surface proteins of C. sinensis with those of other flukes indicated that flukes have some common outer surface proteins, such as actin, tetraspanin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and annexin. Granulin, thioredoxin peroxiredoxin, carbonyl reductase 1 and cystatin were identified in the C. sinensis proteome and predicted to be related to liver disease and cancer. The analysis of the C. sinensis proteome could contribute to a more in-depth understanding of complex parasite-host relationships, improve the diagnosis of clonorchiasis and benefit research on the pathogenesis and development of novel interventions, drugs and vaccines to control C. sinensis infection.
Project description:Clonorchiasis remains an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction are not fully understood. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to be key regulators in parasitic diseases. The regulation of miRNAs and host micro-environment may be involved in clonorchiasis, and require further investigation. MiRNA microarray technology and bioinformatic analysis were used to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of host miRNA and to compare miRNA expression profiles in the liver tissues of Clonorchis sinensis-infected rats and controls.A total of eight miRNAs were downregulated and two were upregulated, which showed differentially altered expression profiles in the liver tissue of C. sinensis-infected rats. Further analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that many important signal pathways were triggered after infection with C. sinensis, which were related to clonorchiasis pathogenesis, such as cell apoptosis and inflammation, as well as genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms, such as pathways in cancer and the Wnt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways.This dysregulation in miRNA expression may contribute to the etiology and pathophysiology of clonorchiasis. These results also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in clonorchiasis, which may present potential targets for future C. sinensis control strategies. Overall design: We collected liver from control and 3 weeks post-infection with clonorchis sinensis of rat, respectively.
Project description:Clonorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis infection. C. sinensis is a biological carcinogen causing cholangiocarcinoma in humans. In the mammalian host, C. sinensis newly excysted juveniles (CsNEJs) migrate from the duodenum into the bile duct. Bile drives the chemotactic behavior of CsNEJs. Little is known about which components of bile induce the chemotaxis. We designed a chemotaxis assay panel and measured the chemotactic behavior of CsNEJs in response to bile or bile acids. The CsNEJs migrated toward 0.1-1% bile but away from 5-10% bile. The CsNEJs showed strong chemoattraction to cholic acid ?25 mM, but chemorepulsion to lithocholic acid ?0.25 mM. To the CsNEJs, mixture of cholic acid and lithocholic acid was chemoattractive at a ratio greater than 25:1 but chemorepulsive at one smaller than that. Regarding migration in the mammalian hosts, high concentration of lithocholic acid in the gallbladder bile may repel CsNEJs from entering it. However, bile in the hepatic bile duct has a chemoattractive strength of cholic acid but a trace amount of lithocholic acid. Collectively, our results explain why the CsNEJs migrate principally to the hepatic bile ducts, bypassing the gallbladder.