Sycrp2 Is Essential for Twitching Motility in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803.
ABSTRACT: Two cAMP receptor proteins (CRPs), Sycrp1 (encoded by sll1371) and Sycrp2 (encoded by sll1924), exist in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Previous studies have demonstrated that Sycrp1 has binding affinity for cAMP and is involved in motility by regulating the formation of pili. However, the function of Sycrp2 remains unknown. Here, we report that sycrp2 disruption results in the loss of motility of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and that the phenotype can be recovered by reintroducing the sycrp2 gene into the genome of sycrp2-disrupted mutants. Electron microscopy showed that the sycrp2-disrupted mutant lost the pilus apparatus on the cell surface, resulting in a lack of cell motility. Furthermore, the transcript level of the pilA9-pilA11 operon (essential for cell motility and regulated by the cAMP receptor protein Sycrp1) was markedly decreased in sycrp2-disrupted mutants compared with the wild-type strain. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid analysis and a pulldown assay demonstrated that Sycrp2 interacted with Sycrp1 to form a heterodimer and that Sycrp1 and Sycrp2 interacted with themselves to form homodimers. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that Sycrp1 specifically binds to the upstream region of pilA9 Together, these findings indicate that in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Sycrp2 regulates the formation of pili and cell motility by interacting with Sycrp1.IMPORTANCE cAMP receptor proteins (CRPs) are widely distributed in cyanobacteria and play important roles in regulating gene expression. Although many cyanobacterial species have two cAMP receptor-like proteins, the functional links between them are unknown. Here, we found that Sycrp2 in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is essential for twitching motility and that it interacts with Sycrp1, a known cAMP receptor protein involved with twitching motility. Our findings indicate that the two cAMP receptor-like proteins in cyanobacteria do not have functional redundancy but rather work together.
Project description:Cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 show similar changes in the metabolic response to changed CO2 conditions but exhibit significant differences at the transcriptomic level. This study employs a systems biology approach to investigate the difference in metabolic regulation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Presented multi-level kinetic model for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a new approach integrating and analysing metabolomic, transcriptomic and fluxomics data obtained under high and ambient CO2 levels. Modelling analysis revealed that higher number of different isozymes in Synechocystis 6803 improves homeostatic stability of several metabolites, especially 3PGA by 275%, against changes in gene expression, compared to Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. Furthermore, both cyanobacteria have the same amount of phosphoglycerate mutases but Synechocystis 6803 exhibits only ~20% differences in their mRNA levels after shifts from high to ambient CO2 level, in comparison to ~500% differences in the case of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. These and other data imply that the biochemical control dominates over transcriptional regulation in Synechocystis 6803 to acclimate central carbon metabolism in the environment of variable inorganic carbon availability without extra cost carried by large changes in the proteome.
Project description:The gene ssr3341 was previously suggested to encode an orthologue of the RNA chaperone Hfq in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. When a phototactic strain of this cyanobacterium was insertionally inactivated at ssr3341, the mutants were not transformable, and were rendered non-phototactic compared to the wild type. The loss of motility was complemented by re-introduction of the wild-type gene, correlated with the re-establishment of type IV pili on the cell surface. Microarray analyses revealed a small set of genes with drastically reduced transcript levels in the knock-out mutant over wild-type cells. Among the most strongly affected genes are with slr1667, slr1668, slr2015, slr2016 and slr2018 five genes which belong to two operons that previously were shown to be involved in motility and controlled by the SYCRP1-cAMP receptor protein. This fact constitutes a link between cAMP signalling, motility, and the involvement of RNA-based regulation. This is the first report demonstrating a functional role of Hfq in cyanobacteria. Keywords: comparative expression profiling Overall design: Microarray experiments were carried out as two-color hybridizations on custom designed 8-pack 15K Synechocystis sp. microarrays (AMADID 016989) from Agilent Technologies (Santa Clara, USA).
Project description:Like many other organisms, cyanobacteria exhibit rhythmic gene expression with a period length of 24 hours to adapt to daily environmental changes. In the model organism Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 the central oscillator consists of three proteins: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC and utilizes the histidine kinase SasA and its response regulator RpaA as output-signaling pathway. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains two additional homologs of the kaiB and kaiC genes. Here we demonstrate that RpaA interacts with the core oscillator KaiAB1C1 of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 via SasA, similar to Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However, interaction with the additional Kai homologs was not detected, suggesting different signal transduction components for the clock homologs. Inactivation of rpaA in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, lead to reduced viability of the mutant in light-dark cycles that aggravated under mixotrophic growth conditions. Chemoheterotrophic growth in the dark was abolished completely. In accordance, transcriptomic data revealed that RpaA is involved in the regulation of genes related to CO2‑acclimation and carbon metabolism under diurnal light conditions. Further, our results indicate that RpaA functions in the posttranslational regulation of glycogen metabolism as well, and a potential link between the circadian clock and motility was identified. Overall design: We performed whole-genome transcript profiling of an rpaA deletion mutant and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 WT in light-dark cycles. Samples were taken 5.5 hours after onset of light (5.5 h) or dark (17.5 h). Two independent experiments were performed for each timepoint.
Project description:Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a widely used model cyanobacterium for studying photosynthesis, phototaxis, the production of biofuels and many other aspects. Here we present a re-sequencing study of the genome and seven plasmids of one of the most widely used Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 substrains, the glucose tolerant and motile Moscow or 'PCC-M' strain, revealing considerable evidence for recent microevolution. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specifically shared between 'PCC-M' and the 'PCC-N and PCC-P' substrains indicate that 'PCC-M' belongs to the 'PCC' group of motile strains. The identified indels and SNPs in 'PCC-M' are likely to affect glucose tolerance, motility, phage resistance, certain stress responses as well as functions in the primary metabolism, potentially relevant for the synthesis of alkanes. Three SNPs in intergenic regions could affect the promoter activities of two protein-coding genes and one cis-antisense RNA. Two deletions in 'PCC-M' affect parts of clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats-associated spacer-repeat regions on plasmid pSYSA, in one case by an unusual recombination between spacer sequences.
Project description:NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+-IDH) activity and protein levels in crude extracts from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and the filamentous, dinitrogen-fixing Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 were determined under different nitrogen conditions. The highest NADP+-IDH activity and protein accumulation were found under dinitrogen-fixing conditions for the Anabaena strain and under nitrogen starvation for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The icd gene that encodes the NADP+-IDH from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was cloned by heterologous hybridization with the previously isolated icd gene from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The two cyanobacterial icd genes show 81% sequence identity and share a typical 44-amino-acid region different from all the other icd genes sequenced so far. The icd gene seems to be essential for Synechocystis growth since attempts to generate a completely segregated icd mutant were unsuccessful. Transcripts of 2.0 and 1.6 kb were detected by Northern (RNA) blot analysis, for the Anabaena and Synecho-cystis icd genes, respectively. Maximal icd mRNA accumulation was reached after 5 It of nitrogen starvation in Synechocystis cells and under dinitrogen-fixing conditions in Anabaena cells. Primer extension analysis showed that the structure of the Synechocystis icd gene promoter resembles those of the NtcA-regulated promoters. In addition, mobility shift assays demonstrated that purified Synechocystis NtcA protein binds to the promoter of the icd gene. All these data suggest that the expression of the icd gene from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 may be subjected to nitrogen control mediated by the positively acting regulatory protein NtcA.
Project description:The effect of phycobilisome antenna-truncation in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 on biomass production and glycogen accumulation have not yet been fully clarified. To investigate these effects here, the apcE gene, which encodes the anchor protein linking the phycobilisome to the thylakoid membrane, was deleted in a glucose tolerant strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biomass production of the apcE-deleted strain under photoautotrophic and atmospheric air conditions was 1.6 times higher than that of strain PCC 6803 (1.32?±?0.01 versus 0.84?±?0.07 g cell-dry weight L(-1), respectively) after 15 days of cultivation. In addition, the glycogen content of the apcE-deleted strain (24.2?±?0.7%) was also higher than that of strain PCC 6803 (11.1?±?0.3%). Together, these results demonstrate that antenna truncation by deleting the apcE gene was effective for increasing biomass production and glycogen accumulation under photoautotrophic and atmospheric air conditions in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
Project description:To elucidate the biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids, especially myxol 2'-glycosides, in cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (also known as Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120) and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 deletion mutants lacking selected proposed carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes and GDP-fucose synthase (WcaG), which is required for myxol 2'-fucoside production, were analyzed. The carotenoids in these mutants were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography, field desorption mass spectrometry, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. The wcaG (all4826) deletion mutant of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 produced myxol 2'-rhamnoside and 4-ketomyxol 2'-rhamnoside as polar carotenoids instead of the myxol 2'-fucoside and 4-ketomyxol 2'-fucoside produced by the wild type. Deletion of the corresponding gene in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (sll1213; 79% amino acid sequence identity with the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 gene product) produced free myxol instead of the myxol 2'-dimethyl-fucoside produced by the wild type. Free myxol might correspond to the unknown component observed previously in the same mutant (H. E. Mohamed, A. M. L. van de Meene, R. W. Roberson, and W. F. J. Vermaas, J. Bacteriol. 187:6883-6892, 2005). These results indicate that in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, but not in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, rhamnose can be substituted for fucose in myxol glycoside. The beta-carotene hydroxylase orthologue (CrtR, Alr4009) of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 catalyzed the transformation of deoxymyxol and deoxymyxol 2'-fucoside to myxol and myxol 2'-fucoside, respectively, but not the beta-carotene-to-zeaxanthin reaction, whereas CrtR from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 catalyzed both reactions. Thus, the substrate specificities or substrate availabilities of both fucosyltransferase and CrtR were different in these species. The biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 are discussed.
Project description:We show that the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) binds to DNA as several different conformers. This situation has precluded discovering a high correlation between any sequence property and binding affinity for proteins that bend DNA. Experimentally quantified affinities of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cAMP receptor protein (SyCrp1), the Escherichia coli Crp (EcCrp, also CAP) and DNA were analyzed to mathematically describe, and make human-readable, the relationship of DNA sequence and binding affinity in a given system. Here, sequence logos and weight matrices were built to model SyCrp1 binding sequences. Comparing the weight matrix model to binding affinity revealed several distinct binding conformations. These Crp/DNA conformations were asymmetrical (non-palindromic).
Project description:The widely distributed members of the Deg/HtrA protease family play an important role in the proteolysis of misfolded and damaged proteins. Here we show that the Deg protease rHhoA is able to degrade PsbO, the extrinsic protein of the Photosystem II (PSII) oxygen-evolving complex in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and in spinach. PsbO is known to be stable in its oxidized form, but after reduction by thioredoxin it became a substrate for recombinant HhoA (rHhoA). rHhoA cleaved reduced eukaryotic (specifically, spinach) PsbO at defined sites and created distinct PsbO fragments that were not further degraded. As for the corresponding prokaryotic substrate (reduced PsbO of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), no PsbO fragments were observed. Assembly to PSII protected PsbO from degradation. For Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, our results show that HhoA, HhoB, and HtrA are localized in the periplasma and/or at the thylakoid membrane. In agreement with the idea that PsbO could be a physiological substrate for Deg proteases, part of the cellular fraction of the three Deg proteases of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (HhoA, HhoB, and HtrA) was detected in the PSII-enriched membrane fraction.
Project description:Cyanobacteria have evolved various strategies to sense and adapt to biotic and abiotic stresses including active movement. Motility in cyanobacteria utilizing the type IV pili (TFP) is useful to cope with changing environmental conditions. The model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter named Synechocystis) exhibits motility via TFP called thick pili, and uses it to seek out favorable light/nutrition or escape from unfavorable conditions. Recently, a number of studies on Synechocystis thick pili have been undertaken. Molecular approaches support the role of the pilin in motility, cell adhesion, metal utilization, and natural competence in Synechocystis. This review summarizes the most recent studies on the function of thick pili as well as their formation and regulation in this cyanobacterium.