Integrated design, execution, and analysis of arrayed and pooled CRISPR genome-editing experiments.
ABSTRACT: CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) genome-editing experiments offer enormous potential for the evaluation of genomic loci using arrayed single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) or pooled sgRNA libraries. Numerous computational tools are available to help design sgRNAs with optimal on-target efficiency and minimal off-target potential. In addition, computational tools have been developed to analyze deep-sequencing data resulting from genome-editing experiments. However, these tools are typically developed in isolation and oftentimes are not readily translatable into laboratory-based experiments. Here, we present a protocol that describes in detail both the computational and benchtop implementation of an arrayed and/or pooled CRISPR genome-editing experiment. This protocol provides instructions for sgRNA design with CRISPOR (computational tool for the design, evaluation, and cloning of sgRNA sequences), experimental implementation, and analysis of the resulting high-throughput sequencing data with CRISPResso (computational tool for analysis of genome-editing outcomes from deep-sequencing data). This protocol allows for design and execution of arrayed and pooled CRISPR experiments in 4-5 weeks by non-experts, as well as computational data analysis that can be performed in 1-2 d by both computational and noncomputational biologists alike using web-based and/or command-line versions.
Project description:The CRISPR/Cas9 system was recently developed as a powerful and flexible technology for targeted genome engineering, including genome editing (altering the genetic sequence) and gene regulation (without altering the genetic sequence). These applications require the design of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) that are efficient and specific. However, this remains challenging, as it requires the consideration of many criteria. Several sgRNA design tools have been developed for gene editing, but currently there is no tool for the design of sgRNAs for gene regulation. With accumulating experimental data on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for gene editing and regulation, we implement a comprehensive computational tool based on a set of sgRNA design rules summarized from these published reports. We report a genome-wide sgRNA design tool and provide an online website for predicting sgRNAs that are efficient and specific. We name the tool CRISPR-ERA, for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-mediated editing, repression, and activation (ERA).http://CRISPR-ERA.firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.comSupplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:The CRISPR-Cas9 system has revolutionized genome engineering, allowing precise modification of DNA in various organisms. The most popular method for conducting CRISPR-based functional screens involves the use of pooled lentiviral libraries in selection screens coupled with next-generation sequencing. Screens employing genome-scale pooled small guide RNA (sgRNA) libraries are demanding, particularly when complex assays are used. Furthermore, pooled libraries are not suitable for microscopy-based high-content screens or for systematic interrogation of protein function. To overcome these limitations and exploit CRISPR-based technologies to comprehensively investigate epigenetic mechanisms, we have generated a focused sgRNA library targeting 450 epigenetic regulators with multiple sgRNAs in human cells. The lentiviral library is available both in an arrayed and pooled format and allows temporally-controlled induction of gene knock-out. Characterization of the library showed high editing activity of most sgRNAs and efficient knock-out at the protein level in polyclonal populations. The sgRNA library can be used for both selection and high-content screens, as well as for targeted investigation of selected proteins without requiring isolation of knock-out clones. Using a variety of functional assays we show that the library is suitable for both in vitro and in vivo applications, representing a unique resource to study epigenetic mechanisms in physiological and pathological conditions.
Project description:CRISPR-Cas9 technology has accelerated biological research becoming routine for many laboratories. It is rapidly replacing conventional gene editing techniques and has high utility for both genome-wide and gene-focussed applications. Here we present the first individually cloned CRISPR-Cas9 genome wide arrayed sgRNA libraries covering 17,166 human and 20,430 mouse genes at a complexity of 34,332 sgRNAs for human and 40,860 sgRNAs for the mouse genome. For flexibility in generating stable cell lines the sgRNAs have been cloned in a lentivirus backbone containing PiggyBac transposase recognition elements together with fluorescent and drug selection markers. Over 95% of tested sgRNA induced specific DNA cleavage as measured by CEL-1 assays. Furthermore, sgRNA targeting GPI anchor protein pathway genes induced loss of function mutations in human and mouse cell lines measured by FLAER labelling. These arrayed libraries offer the prospect for performing screens on individual genes, combinations as well as larger gene sets. They also facilitate rapid deconvolution of signals from genome-wide screens. This set of vectors provide an organized comprehensive gene editing toolbox of considerable scientific value.
Project description:The recently developed CRISPR screen technology, based on the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system, enables genome-wide interrogation of gene functions in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Although many computational algorithms and web servers have been developed to design single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) with high specificity and efficiency, algorithms specifically designed for conducting CRISPR screens are still lacking. Here we present CRISPR-FOCUS, a web-based platform to search and prioritize sgRNAs for CRISPR screen experiments. With official gene symbols or RefSeq IDs as the only mandatory input, CRISPR-FOCUS filters and prioritizes sgRNAs based on multiple criteria, including efficiency, specificity, sequence conservation, isoform structure, as well as genomic variations including Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and cancer somatic mutations. CRISPR-FOCUS also provides pre-defined positive and negative control sgRNAs, as well as other necessary sequences in the construct (e.g., U6 promoters to drive sgRNA transcription and RNA scaffolds of the CRISPR/Cas9). These features allow users to synthesize oligonucleotides directly based on the output of CRISPR-FOCUS. Overall, CRISPR-FOCUS provides a rational and high-throughput approach for sgRNA library design that enables users to efficiently conduct a focused screen experiment targeting up to thousands of genes. (CRISPR-FOCUS is freely available at http://cistrome.org/crispr-focus/).
Project description:The CRISPR/Cas9-sgRNA system has been developed to mediate genome editing and become a powerful tool for biological research. Employing the CRISPR/Cas9-sgRNA system for genome editing and manipulation has accelerated research and expanded researchers' ability to generate genetic models. However, the method evaluating the efficiency of sgRNAs is lacking in plants. Based on the nucleotide compositions and secondary structures of sgRNAs which have been experimentally validated in plants, we instituted criteria to design efficient sgRNAs. To facilitate the assembly of multiple sgRNA cassettes, we also developed a new strategy to rapidly construct CRISPR/Cas9-sgRNA system for multiplex editing in plants. In theory, up to ten single guide RNA (sgRNA) cassettes can be simultaneously assembled into the final binary vectors. As a proof of concept, 21 sgRNAs complying with the criteria were designed and the corresponding Cas9/sgRNAs expression vectors were constructed. Sequencing analysis of transgenic rice plants suggested that 82% of the desired target sites were edited with deletion, insertion, substitution, and inversion, displaying high editing efficiency. This work provides a convenient approach to select efficient sgRNAs for target editing.
Project description:CRISPR-Cas9 is a powerful genome editing technology in which a single guide RNA (sgRNA) confers target site specificity to achieve Cas9-mediated genome editing. Numerous sgRNA design tools have been developed based on reference genomes for humans and model organisms. However, existing resources are not optimal as genetic mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the targeting region affect the efficiency of CRISPR-based approaches by interfering with guide-target complementarity. To facilitate identification of sgRNAs (1) in non-reference genomes, (2) across varying genetic backgrounds, or (3) for specific targeting of SNP-containing alleles, for example, disease relevant mutations, we developed a web tool, SNP-CRISPR (https://www.flyrnai.org/tools/snp_crispr/). SNP-CRISPR can be used to design sgRNAs based on public variant data sets or user-identified variants. In addition, the tool computes efficiency and specificity scores for sgRNA designs targeting both the variant and the reference. Moreover, SNP-CRISPR provides the option to upload multiple SNPs and target single or multiple nearby base changes simultaneously with a single sgRNA design. Given these capabilities, SNP-CRISPR has a wide range of potential research applications in model systems and for design of sgRNAs for disease-associated variant correction.
Project description:Pooled CRISPR screens based on lentiviral systems have been widely applied to identify the effect of gene knockout on cellular phenotype. Although many screens were successful, they also have the limitation that genes conferring mild phenotypes or those essential for growth can be overlooked, as every genetic perturbation is incorporated in the same population. Arrayed screens, on the other hand, incorporate a single genetic perturbation in each well and could overcome these limitations. However, arrayed screens based on siRNA-mediated knockdown were recently criticized for low reproducibility caused by incomplete inhibition of gene expression. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel arrayed CRISPR screen based on a plasmid library expressing a single guide RNA (sgRNA) and disrupted 1514 genes, encoding kinases, proteins related to endocytosis, and Golgi-localized proteins, individually using 4542 sgRNAs (three sgRNAs per gene). This screen revealed host factors required for infection by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) from Picornaviridae, which includes human pathogens causing diverse diseases. Many host factors that had been overlooked in a conventional pooled screen were identified for CVB3 infection, including entry-related factors, translational initiation factors, and several replication factors with different functions, demonstrating the advantage of the arrayed screen. This screen was quite reliable and reproducible, as most genes identified in the primary screen were confirmed in secondary screens. Moreover, ACBD3, whose phenotype was not affected by siRNA-mediated knockdown, was reliably identified. We propose that arrayed CRISPR screens based on sgRNA plasmid libraries are powerful tools for arrayed genetic screening and applicable to larger-scale screens.
Project description:Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in conjunction with CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) can be employed to introduce double stand breaks into mammalian genomes at user-defined loci. The endonuclease activity of the Cas complex can be targeted to a specific genomic region using a single guide RNA (sgRNA). We developed a ligation-independent cloning (LIC) assembly method for efficient and bias-free generation of large sgRNA libraries. Using this system, we performed an iterative shotgun cloning approach to generate an arrayed sgRNA library that targets one critical exon of almost every protein-coding human gene. An orthogonal mixing and deconvolution approach was used to obtain 19,506 unique sequence-validated sgRNAs (91.4% coverage). As tested in HEK 293T cells, constructs of this library have a median genome editing activity of 54.6% and employing sgRNAs of this library to generate knockout cells was successful for 19 out of 19 genes tested.
Project description:Genome editing has been revolutionized by the CRISPR-Cas9 system. CRISPR-Cas9 is composed of single-molecular guide RNA (sgRNA) and a proteinaceous Cas9 nuclease, which recognizes a specific target sequence and a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence and, subsequently, cleaves the targeted DNA sequence. This CRISPR-Cas9 system has been used as an efficient negative-selection tool to cleave unedited or unchanged target DNAs during site-specific mutagenesis and, consequently, obtain microbial cells with desired mutations. This study aimed to investigate the genome editing efficiency of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for in vivo oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis in bacteria. This system successfully introduced two- to four-base mutations in galK in Escherichia coli with high editing efficiencies (81%-86%). However, single-point mutations (T504A or C578A) were rarely introduced with very low editing efficiencies (<3%), probably owing to mismatch tolerance. To resolve this issue, we designed one- or two-base mismatches in the sgRNA sequence to recognize target sequences in galK in E. coli A single-point nucleotide mutation (T504A or C578A in the galK gene) was successfully introduced in 36%-95% of negatively selected E. coli cells using single-base mismatched sgRNAs. Sixteen targets were randomly selected through genome-wide single-base editing experiments using mismatched sgRNAs. Consequently, out of 48 desired single-base mutations, 25 single bases were successfully edited, using mismatched sgRNAs. Finally, applicable design rules for target-mismatched sgRNAs were provided for single-nucleotide editing in microbial genomes.
Project description:The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been rapidly adopted for genome editing. However, one major issue with this system is the lack of robust bioinformatics tools for design of single guide RNA (sgRNA), which determines the efficacy and specificity of genome editing. To address this pressing need, we analyze CRISPR RNA-seq data and identify many novel features that are characteristic of highly potent sgRNAs. These features are used to develop a bioinformatics tool for genome-wide design of sgRNAs with improved efficiency. These sgRNAs as well as the design tool are freely accessible via a web server, WU-CRISPR ( http://crispr.wustl.edu ).