Development of fluorescence quenching in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon prolonged illumination at 77 K.
ABSTRACT: Low-temperature fluorescence measurements are frequently used in photosynthesis research to assess photosynthetic processes. Upon illumination of photosystem II (PSII) frozen to 77 K, fluorescence quenching is observed. In this work, we studied the light-induced quenching in intact cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at 77 K using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with a streak camera setup. In agreement with previous studies, global analysis of the data shows that prolonged illumination of the sample affects the nanosecond decay component of the PSII emission. Using target analysis, we resolved the quenching on the PSII-684 compartment which describes bulk chlorophyll molecules of the PSII core antenna. Further, we quantified the quenching rate constant and observed that as the illumination proceeds the accumulation of the quencher leads to a speed up of the fluorescence decay of the PSII-684 compartment as the decay rate constant increases from about 3 to 4 ns-?1. The quenching on PSII-684 leads to indirect quenching of the compartments PSII-690 and PSII-695 which represent the red chlorophyll of the PSII core. These results explain past and current observations of light-induced quenching in 77 K steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectra.
Project description:In green algae, light-harvesting complex stress-related 3 (LHCSR3) is responsible for the pH-dependent dissipation of absorbed light energy, a function vital for survival under high-light conditions. LHCSR3 binds the photosystem II and light-harvesting complex II (PSII-LHCII) supercomplex and transforms it into an energy-dissipative form under acidic conditions, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that in the green alga <i>Chlamydomonas reinhardtii</i>, LHCSR3 modulates the excitation energy flow and dissipates the excitation energy within the light-harvesting complexes of the PSII supercomplex. Using fluorescence decay-associated spectra analysis, we found that, when the PSII supercomplex is associated with LHCSR3 under high-light conditions, excitation energy transfer from light-harvesting complexes to chlorophyll-binding protein CP43 is selectively inhibited compared with that to CP47, preventing excess excitation energy from overloading the reaction center. By analyzing femtosecond up-conversion fluorescence kinetics, we further found that pH- and LHCSR3-dependent quenching of the PSII-LHCII-LHCSR3 supercomplex is accompanied by a fluorescence emission centered at 684 nm, with a decay time constant of 18.6 ps, which is equivalent to the rise time constant of the lutein radical cation generated within a chlorophyll-lutein heterodimer. These results suggest a mechanism in which LHCSR3 transforms the PSII supercomplex into an energy-dissipative state and provide critical insight into the molecular events and characteristics in LHCSR3-dependent energy quenching.
Project description:The quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence caused by photodamage of Photosystem II (qI) is a well recognized phenomenon, where the nature and physiological role of which are still debatable. Paradoxically, photodamage to the reaction centre of Photosystem II is supposed to be alleviated by excitation quenching mechanisms which manifest as fluorescence quenchers. Here we investigated the time course of PSII photodamage in vivo and in vitro and that of picosecond time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence (quencher formation). Two long-lived fluorescence quenching processes during photodamage were observed and were formed at different speeds. The slow-developing quenching process exhibited a time course similar to that of the accumulation of photodamaged PSII, while the fast-developing process took place faster than the light-induced PSII damage. We attribute the slow process to the accumulation of photodamaged PSII and the fast process to an independent quenching mechanism that precedes PSII photodamage and that alleviates the inactivation of the PSII reaction centre.
Project description:Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a mechanism of energy dissipation in higher plants protects photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers from damage by excess light. NPQ involves a reduction in the chlorophyll excited state lifetime in the PSII harvesting antenna (LHCII) by a quencher. Yet, little is known about the effect of the quencher on chlorophyll excited state energy and dynamics. Application of picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that NPQ involves a red-shift (60 +/- 5 cm(-1)) and slight enhancement of the vibronic satellite of the main PSII lifetime component present in intact chloroplasts. Whereas this fluorescence red-shift was enhanced by the presence of zeaxanthin, it was not dependent upon it. The red-shifted fluorescence of intact chloroplasts in the NPQ state was accompanied by red-shifted chlorophyll a absorption. Nearly identical absorption and fluorescence changes were observed in isolated LHCII complexes quenched in a low detergent media, suggesting that the mechanism of quenching is the same in both systems. In both cases, the extent of the fluorescence red-shift was shown to correlate with the lifetime of a component. The alteration in the energy of the emitting chlorophyll(s) in intact chloroplasts and isolated LHCII was also accompanied by changes in lutein 1 observed in their 77K fluorescence excitation spectra. We suggest that the characteristic red-shifted fluorescence emission reflects an altered environment of the emitting chlorophyll(s) in LHCII brought about by their closer interaction with lutein 1 in the quenching locus.
Project description:The maximum chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime in isolated photosystem II (PSII) light-harvesting complex (LHCII) antenna is 4 ns; however, it is quenched to 2 ns in intact thylakoid membranes when PSII reaction centers (RCIIs) are closed (Fm). It has been proposed that the closed state of RCIIs is responsible for the quenching. We investigated this proposal using a new, to our knowledge, model system in which the concentration of RCIIs was highly reduced within the thylakoid membrane. The system was developed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants under long-term treatment with lincomycin, a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor. The treatment led to 1), a decreased concentration of RCIIs to 10% of the control level and, interestingly, an increased antenna component; 2), an average reduction in the yield of photochemistry to 0.2; and 3), an increased nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ). Despite these changes, the average fluorescence lifetimes measured in Fm and Fm' (with NPQ) states were nearly identical to those obtained from the control. A 77 K fluorescence spectrum analysis of treated PSII membranes showed the typical features of preaggregation of LHCII, indicating that the state of LHCII antenna in the dark-adapted photosynthetic membrane is sufficient to determine the 2 ns Fm lifetime. Therefore, we conclude that the closed RCs do not cause quenching of excitation in the PSII antenna, and play no role in the formation of NPQ.
Project description:Systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) is an important light acclimatory mechanism that depends on the global adjustments of non-photochemical quenching and chloroplast retrograde signaling. As the exact regulation of these processes is not known, we measured time-resolved fluorescence of chlorophyll a in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves exposed to excess light, in leaves undergoing SAA, and in leaves after excess light episode. We compare the behavior induced in wild-type plants with null mutant of non-photochemical quenching (npq4-1). The wild type rosettes exhibit a small reduction of fluorescence decay times in leaves directly exposed to excess light and in leaves undergoing SAA in ambient low light. However in npq4-1 exposition to excess light results in much faster fluorescence decay, which is insensitive to excitation power. At the same time npq4-1 leaves undergoing SAA displayed intermediate fluorescence decay. The npq4-1 plants also lost the ability to optimize florescence decay, and thus chlorophyll a dynamics up to 2 h after excess light episode. The fluorescence decay dynamics in both WT and npq4-1 can be described by a set of 3 maximum decay times. Based on the results, we concluded that functional PsbS is required for optimization of absorbed photon fate and optimal light acclimatory responses such as SAA or after excess light stress.
Project description:Photosynthetic organisms prevent oxidative stress from light energy absorbed in excess through several photoprotective mechanisms. A major component is thermal dissipation of chlorophyll singlet excited states and is called nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). NPQ is catalyzed in green algae by protein subunits called LHCSRs (Light Harvesting Complex Stress Related), homologous to the Light Harvesting Complexes (LHC), constituting the antenna system of both photosystem I (PSI) and PSII. We investigated the role of LHCSR1 and LHCSR3 in NPQ activation to verify whether these proteins are involved in thermal dissipation of PSI excitation energy, in addition to their well-known effect on PSII. To this aim, we measured the fluorescence emitted at 77 K by whole cells in a quenched or unquenched state, using green fluorescence protein as the internal standard. We show that NPQ activation by high light treatment in <i>Chlamydomonas reinhardtii</i> leads to energy quenching in both PSI and PSII antenna systems. By analyzing quenching properties of mutants affected on the expression of LHCSR1 or LHCSR3 gene products and/or state 1-state 2 transitions or zeaxanthin accumulation, namely, <i>npq4</i>, <i>stt7</i>, <i>stt7 npq4</i>, <i>npq4 lhcsr1</i>, <i>lhcsr3</i>-complemented <i>npq4 lhcsr1</i> and <i>npq1</i>, we showed that PSI undergoes NPQ through quenching of the associated LHCII antenna. This quenching event is fast-reversible on switching the light off, is mainly related to LHCSR3 activity, and is dependent on thylakoid luminal pH. Moreover, PSI quenching could also be observed in the absence of zeaxanthin or STT7 kinase activity.
Project description:The photosystem II (PSII) subunit S (PsbS) plays a key role in nonphotochemical quenching, a photoprotective mechanism for dissipation of excess excitation energy in plants. The precise function of PsbS in nonphotochemical quenching is unknown. By reconstituting PsbS together with the major light-harvesting complex of PSII (LHC-II) and the xanthophyll zeaxanthin (Zea) into proteoliposomes, we have tested the individual contributions of PSII complexes and Zea to chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching in a membrane environment. We demonstrate that PsbS is stable in the absence of pigments in vitro. Significant Chl fluorescence quenching of reconstituted LHC-II was observed in the presence of PsbS and Zea, although neither Zea nor PsbS alone was sufficient to induce the same quenching. Coreconstitution with PsbS resulted in the formation of LHC-II/PsbS heterodimers, indicating their direct interaction in the lipid bilayer. Two-photon excitation measurements on liposomes containing LHC-II, PsbS, and Zea showed an increase of electronic interactions between carotenoid S1 and Chl states, ?(Coupling)(CarS1-Chl), that correlated directly with Chl fluorescence quenching. These findings are in agreement with a carotenoid-dependent Chl fluorescence quenching by direct interactions of LHCs of PSII with PsbS monomers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The optimized illumination of plants using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is beneficial to their photosynthetic performance, and in recent years, LEDs have been widely used in horticultural facilities. However, there are significant differences in the responses of different crops to different wavelengths of light. Thus, the influence of artificial light on photosynthesis requires further investigation to provide theoretical guidelines for the light environments used in industrial crop production. In this study, we tested the effects of different LEDs (white, W; blue, B; green, G; yellow, Y; and red, R) with the same photon flux density (300??mol/m2·s) on the growth, development, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, leaf structure, and chloroplast ultrastructure of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) plants. RESULTS:Plants in the W and B treatments had significantly higher height, leaf area, and fresh weight than those in the other treatments. The photosynthetic pigment content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in the W treatment were significantly higher than those in the monochromatic light treatments, the transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were the highest in the B treatment, and the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was the highest in the Y treatment. The non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) was the highest in the Y treatment, but the other chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics differed among treatments in the following order: W?>?B?>?R?>?G?>?Y. This includes the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) under dark adaptation (Fv/Fm), maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII under light adaptation (Fv'/Fm'), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), actual photochemical efficiency (?PSII), and apparent electron transport rate (ETR). Finally, the leaf structure and chloroplast ultrastructure showed the most complete development in the B treatment. CONCLUSIONS:White and blue light significantly improved the photosynthetic efficiency of Welsh onions, whereas yellow light reduced the photosynthetic efficiency.
Project description:In oxygenic photosynthetic eukaryotes, the hydroxylated carotenoid zeaxanthin is produced from preexisting violaxanthin upon exposure to excess light conditions. Zeaxanthin binding to components of the photosystem II (PSII) antenna system has been investigated thoroughly and shown to help in the dissipation of excess chlorophyll-excited states and scavenging of oxygen radicals. However, the functional consequences of the accumulation of the light-harvesting complex I (LHCI) proteins in the photosystem I (PSI) antenna have remained unclarified so far. In this work we investigated the effect of zeaxanthin binding on photoprotection of PSI-LHCI by comparing preparations isolated from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (i.e., with violaxanthin) and those isolated from the A. thaliana nonphotochemical quenching 2 mutant, in which violaxanthin is replaced by zeaxanthin. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements showed that zeaxanthin binding leads to a previously unrecognized quenching effect on PSI-LHCI fluorescence. The efficiency of energy transfer from the LHCI moiety of the complex to the PSI reaction center was down-regulated, and an enhanced PSI resistance to photoinhibition was observed both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, zeaxanthin was shown to be effective in inducing dissipative states in PSI, similar to its well-known effect on PSII. We propose that, upon acclimation to high light, PSI-LHCI changes its light-harvesting efficiency by a zeaxanthin-dependent quenching of the absorbed excitation energy, whereas in PSII the stoichiometry of LHC antenna proteins per reaction center is reduced directly.
Project description:Photodamage to Photosystem II (PSII) has been attributed either to excessive excitation of photosynthetic pigments or by direct of light absorption by Mn4CaO5 cluster. Here we investigated the time course of PSII photodamage and release of Mn in PSII-enriched membranes under high light illumination at 460?nm and 660?nm. We found that the loss of PSII activity, assayed by chlorophyll fluorescence, is faster than release of Mn from the Mn4CaO5 cluster, assayed by EPR. Loss of PSII activity and Mn release was slower during illumination in the presence of exogenous electron acceptors. Recovery of PSII activity was observed, after 30?min of addition of electron donor post illumination. The same behavior was observed under 460 and 660?nm illumination, suggesting stronger correlation between excessive excitation and photodamage compared to direct light absorption by the cluster. A unified model of PSII photodamage that takes into account present and previous literature reports is presented.