Calcium-induced chloride secretion is decreased by Resveratrol in ileal porcine tissue.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Chloride (Cl-) secretion is crucial for intestinal fluid secretion. Therefore, effects of the polyphenol Resveratrol (RSV) on Cl- secretion have been investigated. In a previous study, we observed effects of RSV on forskolin-induced Cl- secretion in the porcine jejunum but not the ileum although RSV itself induced a transepithelial ion current that may represent Cl- secretion in the ileum. The aim of this study was to gain further insights regarding the effects of RSV on characteristics of Cl- secretion in the porcine ileum using the Ussing chamber technique (recording of short circuit currents (Isc) as a measure for epithelial net ion transfer). RESULTS:RSV increased the Isc in the porcine ileum but not in the porcine jejunum as is already known. This increase was absent in a Cl--free buffer system, indicating that RSV indeed induces Cl- secretion. However, the carbachol-induced Isc was significantly inhibited by RSV indicating an inhibition of Ca2+-induced Cl- secretion. The cellular basis for these contradictory, segment specific results of RSV on Cl- secretion has to be subjected to further studies. The results also underline, that is difficult to generalize effects of RSV between different intestinal locations, organs, cell culture models or species.
Project description:Chloroquine (CQ), a bitter tasting drug widely used in treatment of malaria, is associated gastrointestinal side effects including nausea or diarrhea. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CQ on electrolyte transport in rat ileum using the Ussing chamber technique. The results showed that CQ evoked an increase in short circuit current (ISC) in rat ileum at lower concentration (?5×10(-4) M) but induced a decrease at higher concentrations (?10(-3) M). These responses were not affected by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Other bitter compounds, such as denatoniumbenzoate and quinine, exhibited similar effects. CQ-evoked increase in ISC was partly reduced by amiloride(10(-4) M), a blocker of epithelial Na(+) channels. Furosemide (10(-4) M), an inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter, also inhibited the increased ISC response to CQ, whereas another Cl(-) channel inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172(10(-5) M), had no effect. Intriguingly, CQ-evoked increases were almost completely abolished by niflumic acid (10(-4) M), a relatively specific Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) inhibitor. Furthermore, other CaCC inhibitors, such as DIDS and NPPB, also exhibited similar effects. CQ-induced increases in ISC were also abolished by thapsigargin(10(-6) M), a Ca(2+) pump inhibitor and in the absence of either Cl(-) or Ca(2+) from bathing solutions. Further studies demonstrated that T2R and CaCC-TMEM16A were colocalized in small intestinal epithelial cells and the T2R agonist CQ evoked an increase of intracelluar Ca(2+) in small intestinal epithelial cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CQ induces Cl(-) secretion in rat ileum through CaCC at low concentrations, suggesting a novel explanation for CQ-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during the treatment of malaria.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects intestinal epithelial cells, destroys the intestinal mucosal barrier and then causes diarrhea in piglets. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a specific intestinal growth hormone that promotes the repair of damaged intestinal mucosa and improves the intestinal barrier. In this study, we investigated the functions of porcine <i>GLP-2</i> gene in regulating PEDV infection. The intestinal tissues with damaged intestinal structures caused by PEDV infection were first confirmed and collected. Expression analysis indicated that the <i>GLP-2</i> gene was expressed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum tissues, and the mRNA level was significantly down-regulated in jejunum and ileum of piglets with damaged intestinal mucosa. Infection of PEDV to porcine small intestinal epithelial cells in vitro showed that <i>GLP-2</i> gene was significantly decreased, which was consistent with the expression pattern in intestinal tissues. In addition, we silenced the <i>GLP-2</i> gene by shRNA interfering and found that the copy numbers of PEDV were remarkably increased in the <i>GLP-2</i> gene silencing cells. Our findings suggest that the <i>GLP-2</i> gene was potentially involved in regulating PEDV infection and in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier structure, which could contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of PEDV pathogenesis and provide a theoretical basis for the identification and application of resistant genes in pig selective breeding for porcine epidemic diarrhea.
Project description:We measured the short-circuit current (Isc) in rat ileum mucosa to identify the effect of oxytocin (OT) on mucosal secretion in small intestine. We identified a COX-2-derived pulsatile PGE2 release triggered by OT in rat ileum mucosa. OT receptors (OTR) are expressed in intestine crypt epithelial cells. Notably, OT evoked a dynamic change of [Ca(2+)]i in ileum crypts, which was responsible for this pulsatile release of PGE2. OT ameliorated 5-FU-, radiation- or DSS- induced injury in vivo, including the improvement of weight loss, reduced villus height and impaired survival of crypt transit-amplifying cells as well as crypt. Moreover, these protective effects of OT against intestinal injury were eliminated by coadministration of a selective inhibitor of PGE2, AH6809. Our findings strongly suggest that OT, a novel and important regulator of intestine mucosa barrier, is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury. Considering that OT is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent chemo-radiotherapy induced intestine injury or to treat IBD.
Project description:The density of intestinal mast cells has been reported to increase during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As mast cell mediators are known to increase the permeability of epithelial tight junctions, we hypothesized that antigen responses in sensitized animals might be enhanced under inflammatory conditions. This would contribute to a vicious circle by further enhancing the entry of luminal antigens into the colonic wall and thereby continuing the inadequate immune response during IBD. Therefore, one group of rats was sensitized against ovalbumin. In a second group of animals additionally a colitis was induced by rectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in ethanol. Specimens from distal colon and jejunum (as intestinal segment located distantly from the inflamed area) were mounted in Ussing chambers to measure tissue conductance, short-circuit current (Isc) induced by antigen exposure and paracellular permeability (fluorescein flux). This was paralleled by determination of mast cell markers and tight junction proteins with immunofluorescence and qPCR. In contrast to the initial hypothesis, antigen-induced Isc was not upregulated, but tended to be downregulated in the tissues from the colitis animals, both in colon and in jejunum. Only in the jejunum mast cell degranulation evoked an increase in fluorescein flux. Mast cell density was not altered significantly in the colon of the colitis animals. In the jejunum, sensitization induced a strong increase in mast cell density, which was unaffected by additional induction of colitis. Expression of sealing tight junction components claudin-3 and -4 were increased on the protein level in the sensitized animals in comparison to non-sensitized animals. Additional induction of colitis evoked a downregulation of claudin-3 in both intestinal segments and an upregulation of claudin-4 in the jejunum. Consequently, these data indicate segment differences in mast cell - epithelium interaction, but no enhancement of ion secretion in the TNBS/ethanol model of acute colitis after prior sensitization.
Project description:Kinetic characterization of electrogenic sodium-dependent transport in Ussing chambers of d-glucose and d-galactose demonstrated sigmoidal/Hill kinetics in the porcine jejunum and ileum, with the absence of transport in the distal colon. In the jejunum, a high-affinity, super-low-capacity (Ha/sLc) kinetic system accounted for glucose transport, and a low-affinity, low-capacity (La/Lc) kinetic system accounted for galactose transport. In contrast, the ileum demonstrated a high-affinity, super-high-capacity (Ha/sHc) glucose transport and a low-affinity, high-capacity (La/Hc) galactose transport systems. Jejunal glucose transport was not inhibited by dapagliflozin, but galactose transport was inhibited. Comparatively, ileal glucose and galactose transport were both sensitive to dapagliflozin. Genomic and gene expression analyses identified 10 of the 12 known SLC5A family members in the porcine jejunum, ileum, and distal colon. Dominant SGLT1 (SLC5A1) and SGLT3 (SLC5A4) expression was associated with the sigmoidal Ha/sLc glucose and La/Lc galactose transport systems in the jejunum. Comparatively, the dominant expression of SGLT1 (SLC5A1) in the ileum was only associated with Ha glucose and La galactose kinetic systems. However, the sigmoidal kinetics and overall high capacity (Hc) of transport is unlikely accounted for by SGLT1 (SLC5A1) alone. Finally, the absence of transport and lack of pharmacological inhibition in the colon was associated with the poor expression of SLC5A genes. Altogether, the results demonstrated intestinal segregation of monosaccharide transport fit different sigmoidal kinetic systems. This reveals multiple transporter populations in each system, supported by gene expression profiles and pharmacological inhibition. Overall, this work demonstrates a complexity to transporter involvement in intestinal electrogenic monosaccharide absorption systems not previously defined.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes enteric disease and compromises food safety. In pigs, the molecular response of the intestine to S. typhimurium has been traditionally characterized by in vitro models that do not reflect the actual immunological competence of the intestinal mucosa. In this work, we performed an oral S. typhimurium infection study to obtain insight into the in vitro response in three different sections (jejunum, ileum and colon) of the porcine intestine. For this, samples from one-month-old infected piglets were collected during a time course comprising 1, 2, and 6 days post inoculation to evaluate the intestinal response by quantifying the mRNA expression of gene coding for 28 innate immune system molecules using quantitative real-time PCR assays. In addition, samples from non-infected control animals were also employed to establish differences in the steady state gene expression between intestinal sections. The panel of quantified molecules included an assortment of cytokines, chemokines, pattern-recognition receptors, intracellular signaling molecules, transcription factors and antimicrobial molecules. Changes in gene expression occurred in the three different parts of the intestine and during the course of the S. typhimurium infection. Moreover, the high variation observed in expression patterns of genes coding for inflammatory mediators could indicate that each intestinal section responds differently to the infection. Thus, on the contrary to findings in the jejunum and colon, a down-regulation and lack of induction of some proinflammatory cytokine transcripts was observed in the ileum. Nevertheless, all chemoattractant cytokines assayed were up-regulated in the ileum and jejunum whereas only interleukin-8 and MIP-1alpha mRNA were over expressed in the colon. In conclusion, our results reveal regional differences in gene expression profiles along the porcine intestinal gut as well as regional differences in the inflammatory response to S. typhimurium infection. Taken together, these data should provide a basis for a complete understanding of the porcine intestinal response to bacterial infection.
Project description:TMEM16A (Transmembrane protein 16A or Anoctamin1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel. (CaCC),that exerts critical roles in epithelial secretion. However, its localization, function, and regulation in intestinal chloride (Cl<sup>-</sup>) secretion remain obscure. Here, we show that TMEM16A protein abundance correlates with Cl<sup>-</sup> secretion in different regions of native intestine activated by the Ca<sup>2+</sup>-elevating muscarinic agonist carbachol (CCH). Basal, as well as both cAMP- and CCH-stimulated Isc, was largely reduced in <i>Ano1</i> ± mouse intestine. We found CCH was not able to increase Isc in the presence of apical to serosal Cl<sup>-</sup> gradient, strongly supporting TMEM16A as primarily a luminal Cl<sup>-</sup> channel. Immunostaining demonstrated apical localization of TMEM16A where it colocalized with NHERF1 in mouse colonic tissue. Cellular depletion of NHERF1 in human colonic T84 cells caused a significant reduction of both cAMP- and CCH-stimulated Isc. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that NHERF1 forms a complex with TMEM16A through a PDZ-based interaction. We conclude that TMEM16A is a luminal Cl<sup>-</sup> channel in the intestine that functionally interacts with CFTR via PDZ-based interaction of NHERF1 for efficient and specific cholinergic stimulation of intestinal Cl<sup>-</sup> secretion.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel emerging enteric coronavirus found in pigs. Intestinal enteroids, which partially recreate the structure and function of intestinal villi-crypts, have many physiological similarities to the intestinal tissues in vivo. Enteroids exhibit advantages in studying the interactions between intestines and enteric pathogens. To create a novel infection model for PDCoV, we developed an in vitro system to generate porcine intestinal enteroids from crypts of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of pigs. Enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, Paneth cells, stem cells, proliferating cells, and goblet cells were found in the differentiated enteroids. Replication of PDCoV was detected in the cultured enteroids by immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR. Double immunofluorescence labeling demonstrated that PDCoV was present in Sox9-positive intestinal cells and Villin1-positive enterocytes. There were multiple cellular responses shown as changes of transcription of genes related to mucosal immunity, antiviral genes, and marker genes of stem cells and other cells in the enteroids infected with PDCoV. We conclude that the 2-D enteroids derived from porcine jejunum can be used as an in vitro multicellular model for the investigation of pathogenesis and host immune responses to porcine enteric pathogens, such as PDCoV.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different sources of starch in starter feed on small intestinal growth and endogenous glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) secretion in preweaned lambs. Twenty-four 10-d-old lambs were divided into three groups that were treated with different iso-starch diets containing purified cassava starch (CS, n = 8), maize starch (MS, n = 8), and pea starch (PS, n = 8). At 56 d old, there was no significant difference in final body weight (BW) of lambs among the three groups. However, different starch source in starter significantly affected the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) of lambs among three groups. Compared with the CS and MS diets, the PS diet significantly increased the GLP-2 concentration in blood plasma (P < 0.001), the crypt depth of the jejunum (P = 0.006), and the villus height of the ileum (P = 0.039). Meanwhile, PS diet significantly increased the mRNA expression of proglucagon and the glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP-2R) in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the PS diet significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of cyclin D1 (P < 0.001), cyclin E (P = 0.006), and cyclin-dependent kinases 6 (CDK6) (P = 0.048) in the jejunum and cyclin A (P < 0.001), cyclin D1 (P < 0.001), and CDK6 (P = 0.002) in the ileum. Correlation analysis showed that endogenous GLP-2 secretion was positively related to the mRNA levels of cell cycle proteins in small intestinal mucosa. In summary, all results showed that PS in starter feed promoted small intestinal growth that may, in part, be related to cell cycle acceleration and endogenous GLP-2 secretion in preweaned lambs. These findings provide new insights into nutritional interventions that promote the development of small intestines in young ruminants.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the dietary supplementation of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on intestinal integrity, oxidative status, and the inflammation response with hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) challenge. In total, 30 rats were randomly assigned to three groups with 10 replications: CON group, basal diet; AS group, basal diet + 0.1% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> in drinking water; ASC group, basal diet + 200 mg/kg COS + 0.1% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> in drinking water. The results indicated that COS upregulated (<i>p</i> < 0.05) villus height (VH) of the small intestine, duodenum, and ileum; mucosal glutathione peroxidase activity; jejunum and ileum mucosal total antioxidant capacity; duodenum and ileum mucosal interleukin (IL)-6 level; jejunum mucosal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? level; duodenum and ileum mucosal IL-10 level; the mRNA expression level of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 in the jejunum and ileum, claudin in the duodenum, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-like 2 in the jejunum, and heme oxygenase-1 in the duodenum and ileum; and the protein expression of ZO-1 and claudin in jejunum; however, it downregulated (<i>p</i> < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase activity and D-lactate level; small intestine mucosal malondialdehyde content; duodenum and ileum mucosal IL-6 level; jejunum mucosal TNF-? level; and the mRNA expression of IL-6 in the duodenum and jejunum, and TNF-? in the jejunum and ileum. These results suggested COS could maintain intestinal integrity under oxidative stress by modulating the intestinal oxidative status and release of inflammatory cytokines.