Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of the Extract, Tiliroside, and Patuletin 3-O-?-D-Glucopyranoside from Pfaffia townsendii (Amaranthaceae).
ABSTRACT: Brazilian ginseng, including Pfaffia townsendii, is used in popular medicine as a natural anti-inflammatory, tonic, analgesic, and antidiabetic agent. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition and evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the P. townsendii ethanolic extract as well as the major isolated glycoside flavonoids tiliroside and patuletin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside. Chromatographic techniques and spectroscopic analysis were used for the isolation and identification of the major compounds. The antioxidant potential was determined through DPPH and ORAC-FL assays. The total phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined based on a model of paw edema and carrageenan- (Cg-) induced pleurisy. We identified three phenolic acids, one carboxylic acid and two flavonoids, patuletin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and tiliroside. The ethanol crude extracts, partitions and isolated flavonoids (4581 ?mol of Trolox equivalents/g of extract in ORAC and a SC50 of approximately 31.9 ?g/mL in the DPPH assay) demonstrated antioxidant activity, and the ethanolic extract as well as isolated flavonoids inhibited paw edema induced by Cg and leukocyte migration in the Cg-induced pleurisy model. The extract, tiliroside, and patuletin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside obtained from P. townsendii have therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related and inflammatory disorders.
Project description:An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.
Project description:Preparations from the flowers or herb of the white dead nettle (Lamium album L.) are recommended for the treatment of upper respiratory tract disorders or as a topical medication for mild inflammation of the throat, mouth, and skin. Taking into consideration the significance of L. album in traditional medicines across Europe, as well as the lack of studies describing the quantities of their most abundant constituents, we aimed to design a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for potential standardization procedures of extracts from flowers of L. album. The HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for quantification of iridoids (lamalbid), phenolic acids/depsides (chlorogenic acid), phenylpropanoids (verbascoside), and flavonoids (rutin; quercetin malonylhexoside; tiliroside) in aqueous and ethanolic-aqueous extracts of Lamii albi flos. The method was specific, accurate, and precise. Lamalbid was the most abundant compound both in aqueous (39.09 ± 1.02 m/g dry weight) and ethanolic-aqueous (26.66 ± 0.64 m/g dry weight) extracts. The quantities of selected compounds, except for chlorogenic acid and tiliroside, were higher in the aqueous extract than in the ethanolic-aqueous one. In conclusion, the method developed allowed for quantitation of compounds from different classes. In particular, chlorogenic acid and verbascoside have been proposed as reference compounds for routine quantitative control of Lamii albi flos.
Project description:Many <i>Helianthemum</i> species (Cistaceae) are recognized for their various medicinal virtues. <i>Helianthemum ruficomum</i> is an endemic species to the septentrional Sahara on which no report is available so far. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemical composition and the radical scavenging capacity of this species and its isolated components. Collected from Mougheul (south-west of Algeria), the aerial parts were macerated with 80% EtOH/H?O, after evaporation, the remaining extract was diluted with H?O and extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and <i>n</i>-butanol. EtOAc and <i>n</i>-BuOH extracts were evaluated for their free radical scavenging capacity by on-line HPLC-ABTS<sup>•+</sup> assay. The obtained data which were confirmed by TEAC and ORAC assays, allowed guiding the fractionation of these extracts by CC, TLC and reverse phase HPLC. Among the components, 14 were isolated and identified by spectroscopic analyses: protocatechuic acid (<b>1</b>), <i>trans</i>-tiliroside (<b>2</b>), <i>cis</i>-tiliroside (<b>3</b>), astragalin (<b>4</b>), picein (<b>7</b>), vanillic acid 4-<i>O</i>-?-d-glucopyranoside (<b>8</b>), lavandoside (<b>9</b>), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 4-<i>O</i>-?-d-glucopyranoside (<b>10</b>), nicotiflorin (<b>11</b>), rutin (<b>12</b>), vicenin-<i>2</i> (<b>13</b>), narcissin (<b>14</b>) and stigmasterol (<b>5</b>) and ?-sitosterol (<b>6</b>) as a mixture (71% and 29%, respectively). Compounds <b>5</b>, <b>7</b>, <b>8</b>, <b>9</b>, <b>10</b> and <b>14</b> were new for the genus <i>Helianthemum</i>. The antioxidant power of all the isolated compounds was also evaluated by HPLC-ABTS<sup>•+</sup>, TEAC and ORAC assays. The results clearly indicated high antioxidant potential of the extracts and tested compounds of this species especially, compounds <b>1</b>, <b>4</b>, <b>8</b>, <b>9</b>, <b>10</b> and <b>12</b>.
Project description:We investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a 70% v/v ethanol extract of the stem bark of Antrocaryon micraster on murine models of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw oedema. Rat pleural fluid was analysed for volume, protein content, and leucocytes, while lung histology was assessed for damage. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the stem bark. Acute toxicity studies were conducted in rats. In the pleurisy model the extract (30-300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the volume and amount of proteins and leucocytes in the exudate and also protected against lung injury. Tissue level of GSH and SOD and CAT expression were increased while MDA level and MPO activity were reduced. The peak and total oedema responses were significantly suppressed when given both preemptively and curatively in the mice paw oedema test. Saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, and tannins were present in the stem bark. A. micraster extract exhibited no apparent acute toxicity. We conclude that the ethanolic stem-bark extract of A. micraster has antioxidant action and exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity through suppression of pleurisy and paw oedema induced with carrageenan.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Malvaceae) is extensively used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. OBJECTIVE:The current study was to validate the traditional use of S. angustifolia for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery on biological grounds using in vitro antiprotozoal activity and computational experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The ethanol extract, subsequent fractions, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and a sterol were evaluated on Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Moreover, molecular docking studies on tiliroside were performed; it was tested for its affinity against pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (G/FBPA), two glycolytic enzymes of anaerobic protozoa. RESULTS:Bioassay-guided fractionation of extract of the aerial parts of S. angustifolia gives tiliroside and apigenin, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, and ?-sitosterol. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that tiliroside was the most potent antiprotozoal compound on both protozoa with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 17.5 ?g/mL for E. histolytica and 17.4 ?g/mL for G. lamblia. Molecular docking studies using tiliroside showed its probable antiprotozoal mechanism with PFOR and G/FBPA. In both cases, tiliroside showed high affinity and inhibition constant theoretic for PFOR (lowest free binding energy from -9.92 kcal/mol and 53.57 ?M, respectively) and G/FBPA (free binding energy from -7.17 kcal/mol and 55.5 ?M, respectively), like to metronidazole, revealing its potential binding mode at molecular level. CONCLUSION:The results suggest that tiliroside seems to be a potential antiprotozoal compound responsible for antiamoebic and antigiardial activities of S. angustifolia. Its in vitro antiprotozoal activities are in good agreement with the traditional medicinal use of S. angustifolia in gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. SUMMARY:Bioassay-guided fractionation of extract of the aerial parts of S. angustifolia gives: tiliroside and apigenin, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid) and ?-sitosterol. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that tiliroside was the most potent antiprotozoal compound on both protozoa with IC50 values of 17.5 mg/mL for E. histolytica and 17.4 ?g/mL for G. lamblia. Molecular docking studies using tiliroside showed its probable antiprotozoal mechanism with PFOR and G/FBPA. In both cases tiliroside showed high affinity and inhibition constant theoretic for PFOR (lowest free binding energy from -9.92 kcal/mol and 53.57 mM, respectively) and G/FBPA (free binding energy from -7.17 kcal/mol, respectively and 55.5 ?M), like to metronidazole, revealing its potential binding mode at molecular level. The results suggest that tiliroside seems to be a potential antiprotozoal compound responsible for antiamoebic and antigiardial activities of Sphaeralcea angustifolia. Abbreviations Used: PFOR: Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; G/FBPA: Fructose 1,6 bisphosphate aldolase.
Project description:The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the ethanolic extract (SLEE) and fruticulin A from the leaves of Salvia lachnostachys were evaluated in mice, using experimental models of inflammation (paw oedema and pleurisy induced by carrageenan injection) and hyperalgesia (electronic Von Frey). Oral administration of SLEE (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) and fruticulin A (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg) decreased the total leucocytes number in pleural lavage, protein extravasation, and paw oedema. SLEE (100 mg/kg) and fruticulin A (3 mg/kg) also exhibited antihyperalgesic activity in carrageenan induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, fruticulin A (3 mg/kg) prevented mechanical hyperalgesia, inhibiting TNF but not L-DOPA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In conclusion, SLEE and fruticulin A display anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Therefore, fruticulin A is at least partially responsible for the activity observed in the ethanolic extract of Salvia lachnostachys.
Project description:The objective of this research was to in vitro evaluate the cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with ethanolic extract of betel nuts Veitchia merrillii.Phytochemical screening was done using FeCl3, Wagner and Dragendorff reagents, NaOH, MgHCl, and Liebermann-Burchard reaction test. Amount of 16 worms were segregated into four groups with three replicates. Four worms of each group submerged into phosphate buffered saline, 25 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml crude ethanolic extract of V. merrillii, and 15 mg/ml albendazole. The effect of these extract was observed 40 h after incubation as soon as worms death. The worms were sectioned transversally and were explored for any cuticular histopathological changes in their body surface under microscope.We found that the ethanolic extract of V. merrillii betel nuts contains tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and saponins. The ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii induces surface alterations caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.We concluded that ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii possess anthelmintic activity caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.
Project description:This study is aimed at determining the relationship of flavonoid structures to their chemical and intracellular antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities of 60 flavonoids were investigated by three different antioxidant assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The result showed 6 flavonoids as good cellular antioxidants evaluated for the first time. The cellular antioxidant activities of compounds 7-methoxy-quercetin, 3-O-methylquercetin, 8-hydroxy-kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-?-arabinofuranose, kaempferol-7-O-glucopyranoside, and luteolin6-C-glucoside were linked with the upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). A structure-activity relationship suggested that 2,3-double bond, 4-keto groups, 3',4'-catechol structure, and 3-hydroxyl in the flavonoid skeleton played important roles in the antioxidant behavior. Furthermore, the cell proliferative assay revealed a low cytotoxicity for 3-O-methylquercetin. The present results provide valuable information for the dietary application of flavonoids with different structures for high antioxidant.
Project description:Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae) is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. The antioxidant properties of its extracts have been previously demonstrated, thus justifying a phytochemical investigation for its bioactive phenolic constituents. This has yielded five new sulphated flavonoids: 8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (yannin) (1a); 4'-O-methyl-7-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (beltraonin) (1b); 7-O-sulphate acacetin (wissadulin) (2a); 4'-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (caicoine) (2b) and 3'-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate hypolaetin (pedroin) (3b) along with the known flavonoids 7,4'-di-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (4), acacetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein, 4'-O-methyl isoscutellarein, 7,4'-di-O-methylisoscutellarein, astragalin and tiliroside. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified by NMR (¹H, (13)C, HMQC, HMBC and COSY) and LC-HRMS. A cell based assay was carried out to evaluate the preliminary cytotoxic properties of the flavonoids against UVW glioma and PC-3M prostate cancer cells as well as non-tumour cell lines. The obtained results showed that acacetin, tiliroside, a mixture of acacetin + apigenin and the sulphated flavonoids 2a + 2b exhibited inhibitory activity against at least one of the cell lines tested. Among the tested flavonoids acacetin and tiliroside showed lower IC50 values, presenting promising antitumor effects.
Project description:Clinopodium tomentosum (Kunth) Govaerts is an endemic species in Ecuador, where it is used as an anti-inflammatory plant to treat respiratory and digestive affections. In this work, effects of a Clinopodium tomentosum ethanolic extract (CTEE), prepared from aerial parts of the plant, were investigated on vascular endothelium functions. In particularly, angiogenesis activity was evaluated, using primary cultures of porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAECs). Cells were cultured for 24?h in the presence of CTEE different concentrations (10, 25, 50, and 100??g/ml); no viability alterations were found in the 10-50??g/ml range, while a slight, but significant, proliferative effect was observed at the highest dose. In addition, treatment with CTEE was able to rescue LPS-induced injury in terms of cell viability. The CTEE ability to affect angiogenesis was evaluated by scratch test analysis and by an in vitro capillary-like network assay. Treatment with 25-50??g/ml of extract caused a significant increase in pAEC's migration and tube formation capabilities compared to untreated cells, as results from the increased master junctions' number. On the other hand, CTEE at 100??g/ml did not induce the same effects. Quantitative PCR data demonstrated that FLK-1 mRNA expression significantly increased at a CTEE dose of 25??g/ml. The CTEE phytochemical composition was assessed through HPLC-DAD; rosmarinic acid among phenolic acids and hesperidin among flavonoids were found as major phenolic components. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content assays showed that flavonoids are the most abundant class of polyphenols. The CTEE antioxidant activity was also showed by means of the DPPH and ORAC assays. Results indicate that CTEE possesses an angiogenic capacity in a dose-dependent manner; this represents an initial step in elucidating the mechanism of the therapeutic use of the plant.