Direct Metal Forming of a Microdome Structure with a Glassy Carbon Mold for Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer.
ABSTRACT: The application of microtechnology to traditional mechanical industries is limited owing to the lack of suitable micropatterning technology for durable materials including metal. In this research, a glassy carbon (GC) micromold was applied for the direct metal forming (DMF) of a microstructure on an aluminum (Al) substrate. The GC mold with microdome cavities was prepared by carbonization of a furan precursor, which was replicated from the thermal reflow photoresist master pattern. A microdome array with a diameter of 8.4 ?m, a height of ~0.74 ?m, and a pitch of 9.9 ?m was successfully fabricated on an Al substrate by using DMF at a forming temperature of 645 °C and an applied pressure of 2 MPa. As a practical application of the proposed DMF process, the enhanced boiling heat transfer characteristics of the DMF microdome Al substrate were analyzed. The DMF microdome Al substrate showed 20.4 ± 2.6% higher critical heat flux and 34.1 ± 5.3% higher heat transfer coefficient than those of a bare Al substrate.
Project description:Driven by the trends towards miniaturization in lead free electronic products, researchers are putting immense efforts to improve the properties and reliabilities of Sn based solders. Recently, much interest has been shown on low silver (Ag) content solder SAC105 (Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu) because of economic reasons and improvement of impact resistance as compared to SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu. The present work investigates the effect of minor aluminum (Al) addition (0.1-0.5 wt.%) to SAC105 on the interfacial structure between solder and copper substrate during reflow. The addition of minor Al promoted formation of small, equiaxed Cu-Al particle, which are identified as Cu₃Al₂. Cu₃Al₂ resided at the near surface/edges of the solder and exhibited higher hardness and modulus. Results show that the minor addition of Al does not alter the morphology of the interfacial intermetallic compounds, but they substantially suppress the growth of the interfacial Cu₆Sn₅ intermetallic compound (IMC) after reflow. During isothermal aging, minor alloying Al has reduced the thickness of interfacial Cu₆Sn₅ IMC but has no significant effect on the thickness of Cu₃Sn. It is suggested that of atoms of Al exert their influence by hindering the flow of reacting species at the interface.
Project description:We report the counterintuitive mechanism of increasing boiling heat transfer by incorporating low-conductivity materials at the interface between the surface and fluid. By embedding an array of non-conductive lines into a high-conductivity substrate, in-plane variations in the local surface temperature are created. During boiling the surface temperature varies spatially across the substrate, alternating between high and low values, and promotes the organization of distinct liquid and vapor flows. By systematically tuning the peak-to-peak wavelength of this spatial temperature variation, a resonance-like effect is seen at a value equal to the capillary length of the fluid. Replacing ~18% of the surface with a non-conductive epoxy results in a greater than 5x increase in heat transfer rate at a given superheat temperature. This drastic and counterintuitive increase is shown to be due to optimized bubble dynamics, where ordered pathways allow for efficient removal of vapor and the return of replenishing liquid. The use of engineered thermal gradients represents a potentially disruptive approach to create high-efficiency and high-heat-flux boiling surfaces which are naturally insensitive to fouling and degradation as compared to other approaches.
Project description:Pressure-induced bond type switching and phase transformation in glassy carbon (GC) has been simulated by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and the Stochastic Quenching method (SQ) in a wide range of pressures (0-79 GPa). Under pressure, the GC experiences a hardening transition from sp- and sp(2)-type to sp(3)-type bonding, in agreement with previous experimental results. Moreover, a new crystalline carbon allotrope possessing R3 symmetry (R3-carbon) is predicted using the stochastic SQ method. The results indicate that R3-carbon can be regarded as an allotrope similar to that of amorphous GC. A very small difference in the heat of formation and the coherence of the radial and angular distribution functions of GC and the R3-carbon structure imply that small perturbations to this crystalline carbon allotrope may provide another possible amorphization pathway of carbon besides that of quenching the liquid melt or gas by ultra-fast cooling.
Project description:Boiling is a key heat transfer process for a variety of power generation and thermal management technologies. We show that nanopillar arrays fabricated on a substrate enhance both the critical heat flux (CHF) and the critical temperature at CHF of the substrate and thus, effectively increase the limit of boiling before the boiling crisis is triggered. We reveal that the enhancement in both the CHF and the critical temperature results from an intensified rewetting process which increases with the height of nanopillars. We develop a predictive model based on experimental measurements of rewetting velocity to predict the enhancement in CHF and critical temperature of the nanopillar substrates. This model is critical for understanding how to control boiling enhancement and designing various nanostructured surfaces into specific applications.
Project description:A pool boiling phenomenon referred to as secondary boiling effects is discussed. Based on the experimental trends, a mechanism is proposed that identifies the parameters that lead to this phenomenon. Secondary boiling effects refer to a distinct decrease in the wall superheat temperature near the critical heat flux due to a significant increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Recent pool boiling heat transfer experiments using femtosecond laser processed Inconel, stainless steel, and copper multiscale surfaces consistently displayed secondary boiling effects, which were found to be a result of both temperature drop along the microstructures and nucleation characteristic length scales. The temperature drop is a function of microstructure height and thermal conductivity. An increased microstructure height and a decreased thermal conductivity result in a significant temperature drop along the microstructures. This temperature drop becomes more pronounced at higher heat fluxes and along with the right nucleation characteristic length scales results in a change of the boiling dynamics. Nucleation spreads from the bottom of the microstructure valleys to the top of the microstructures, resulting in a decreased surface superheat with an increasing heat flux. This decrease in the wall superheat at higher heat fluxes is reflected by a "hook back" of the traditional boiling curve and is thus referred to as secondary boiling effects. In addition, a boiling hysteresis during increasing and decreasing heat flux develops due to the secondary boiling effects. This hysteresis further validates the existence of secondary boiling effects.
Project description:In situ NMR and DFT modeling demonstrate that N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) promotes the formation of metal-organic framework NH2-MIL-101(Al). In situ NMR studies show that upon dissociation of an aluminum-coordinated aqua ligand in NH2-MOF-235(Al), DMF forms a H-Cl-DMF complex during synthesis. This reaction induces a transformation from the MOF-235 topology into the MIL-101 topology. Electronic structure density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the use of DMF instead of water as the synthesis solvent decreases the energy gap between the kinetically favored MIL-101 and thermodynamically favored MIL-53 products. DMF therefore promotes MIL-101 topology both kinetically and thermodynamically.
Project description:Bubble nucleation control, growth and departure dynamics is important in understanding boiling phenomena and enhancing nucleate boiling heat transfer performance. We report a novel bi-functional heterogeneous surface structure that is capable of tuning bubble nucleation, growth and departure dynamics. For the fabrication of the surface, hydrophobic polymer dot arrays are first printed on a substrate, followed by hydrophilic ZnO nanostructure deposition via microreactor-assisted nanomaterial deposition (MAND) processing. Wettability contrast between the hydrophobic polymer dot arrays and aqueous ZnO solution allows for the fabrication of heterogeneous surfaces with distinct wettability regions. Heterogeneous surfaces with various configurations were fabricated and their bubble dynamics were examined at elevated heat flux, revealing various nucleate boiling phenomena. In particular, aligned and patterned bubbles with a tunable departure frequency and diameter were demonstrated in a boiling experiment for the first time. Taking advantage of our fabrication method, a 6 inch wafer size heterogeneous surface was prepared. Pool boiling experiments were also performed to demonstrate a heat flux enhancement up to 3X at the same surface superheat using bi-functional surfaces, compared to a bare stainless steel surface.
Project description:A detailed kinetic model describing the oxidation of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), a potential second-generation biofuel, is proposed. The kinetic model is based upon quantum chemical calculations for the initial DMF consumption reactions and important reactions of intermediates. The model is validated by comparison to new DMF shock tube ignition delay time measurements (over the temperature range 1300-1831 K and at nominal pressures of 1 and 4 bar) and the DMF pyrolysis speciation measurements of Lifshitz et al. [ J. Phys. Chem. A 1998 , 102 ( 52 ), 10655 - 10670 ]. Globally, modeling predictions are in good agreement with the considered experimental targets. In particular, ignition delay times are predicted well by the new model, with model-experiment deviations of at most a factor of 2, and DMF pyrolysis conversion is predicted well, to within experimental scatter of the Lifshitz et al. data. Additionally, comparisons of measured and model predicted pyrolysis speciation provides validation of theoretically calculated channels for the oxidation of DMF. Sensitivity and reaction flux analyses highlight important reactions as well as the primary reaction pathways responsible for the decomposition of DMF and formation and destruction of key intermediate and product species.
Project description:Thermal stability and crystallization of three multicomponent glassy alloys, Al<sub>86</sub>Y<sub>7</sub>Ni<sub>5</sub>Co<sub>1</sub>Fe<sub>0.5</sub>Pd<sub>0.5</sub>, Al<sub>85</sub>Y<sub>8</sub>Ni<sub>5</sub>Co<sub>1</sub>Fe<sub>0.5</sub>Pd<sub>0.5</sub> and Al<sub>84</sub>Y<sub>9</sub>Ni<sub>4</sub>Co<sub>1.5</sub>Fe<sub>0.5</sub>Pd<sub>1</sub>, were examined to assess the ability to form the mixture of amorphous (am) and fcc-aluminum (?-Al) phases. On heating, the glass transition into the supercooled liquid is shown by the 85Al and 84Al glasses. The crystallization sequences are [am]???[am?+??-Al]???[?-Al?+?compounds] for the 86Al and 85Al alloys, and [am]???[am?+??-Al?+?cubic Al<sub>x</sub>M<sub>y</sub> (M?=?Y, Ni, Co, Fe, Pd)]???[am?+??-Al]???[?-Al?+?Al<sub>3</sub>Y?+?Al<sub>9</sub>(Co, Ni)<sub>2</sub>?+?unknown phase] for the 84Al alloy. The glass transition appears even for the 85Al alloy where the primary phase is ?-Al. The heating-induced reversion from [am?+??-Al?+?multicomponent Al<sub>x</sub>M<sub>y</sub>] to [am?+??-Al] for the 84Al alloy is abnormal, not previously observed in crystallization of glassy alloys, and seems to originate from instability of the metastable Al<sub>x</sub>M<sub>y</sub> compound, in which significant inhomogeneous strain is caused by the mixture of solute elements. This novel reversion phenomenon is encouraging for obtaining the [am?+??-Al] mixture over a wide range of high temperature effective for the formation of Al-based high-strength nanostructured bulk alloys by warm working.
Project description:p-Xylene is a commodity chemical used for the manufacture of plastic bottles and textiles. For the biomass-based route from 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) and ethylene, the properties of the catalyst such as acidity affect product selectivity and catalyst activity. To determine the effect of acidity and extraframework position in faujasite zeolite on p-xylene selectivity, type Y (Si/Al = 40 and Si/Al = 2.55) and X (Si/Al = 1.25) zeolites containing the extraframework Lewis acids Na+, K+, Li+, Ag+ and Cu+, and a Brønsted acid-containing zeolite, HY (Si/Al = 40), were prepared by ion exchange and tested for p-xylene production under solvent-free conditions and low conversions (less than 35%). Here, it is reported that NaX zeolite catalyses DMF and ethylene conversion to p-xylene with 91% selectivity at 30% conversion, which is better than the 25% p-xylene selectivity obtained when using HY at similar conversion. A statistical model and estimation technique, ANOVA, was used to show that there is a synergistic effect between acidity and extraframework position on the rate of p-xylene production. At 7% DMF conversion, Lewis acids were more selective than the Brønsted acid tested (50 versus 30% p-xylene selectivity). p-Xylene selectivity is optimal when using Lewis acids with moderate acidity and extraframework positions located in the faujasite supercage (sites II and III) [corrected].