Effects of extreme prematurity and kindergarten neuropsychological skills on early academic progress.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The study was designed to investigate the effect of extreme prematurity on growth in academic achievement across the early school years and the validity of kindergarten neuropsychological skills as predictors of achievement. METHOD:A 2001-2003 birth cohort of 145 extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW) children from a single medical center, along with 111 normal birth weight (NBW) classmate controls, were recruited during their first year in kindergarten and followed annually across the next 2 years in school. Mixed model analysis was conducted to compare the groups on growth in achievement across years and examine kindergarten neuropsychological skills as predictors of growth. RESULTS:The EPT/ELBW group scored significantly below NBW controls on all achievement tests across years and had higher rates of special education placement and grade repetition. Despite limited catch-up of the EPT/ELBW group to the NBW controls in spelling, group differences were generally stable. Differences in spelling and mathematics achievement remained significant when controlling for global intelligence or excluding children who had intellectual or neurosensory impairments or repeated a grade. Higher scores on kindergarten tests of multiple neuropsychological ability domains predicted higher achievement levels and steeper growth in achievement. CONCLUSIONS:The findings document persistent academic weaknesses in EPT/ELBW children across the early school years. Results point to the need for preschool interventions to enhance academic readiness and suggest that neuropsychological skills assessed in kindergarten are useful in identifying individual differences in early learning progress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Research on developmental outcomes of preterm birth has traditionally focused on adverse effects. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of resilience in 146 extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW) children (gestational age <28 weeks and/or birth weight <1000 g) attending kindergarten and 111 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) controls. METHODS:Adaptive competence (i.e., "resilience" in the EPT/ELBW group) was defined by scores within grade expectations on achievement tests and the absence of clinically elevated parent ratings of child behavior problems. The "adaptive" children who met these criteria were compared to the "maladaptive" children who did not on child and family characteristics. Additional analyses were conducted to assess the conjoint effects of group (ELBW vs. NBW) and family factors on adaptive competence. RESULTS:A substantial minority of the EPT/ELBW group (45%) were competent compared to a majority of NBW controls (73%), odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.26 (0.15, 0.45), p<.001. Adaptive competence was associated with higher cognitive skills, more favorable ratings of behavior and learning not used to define adaptive competence, and more advantaged family environments in both groups, as well as with a lower rate of earlier neurodevelopmental impairment in the EPT/ELBW group. Higher socioeconomic status and more favorable proximal home environments were associated with competence independent of group, and group differences in competence persisted across the next two school years. CONCLUSIONS:The findings document resilience in kindergarten children with extreme prematurity and highlight the role of environmental factors as potential influences on outcome. (JINS, 2019, 25, 362-374).
Project description:This study examined the development of emerging self-regulation (SR) skills across the preschool years and relations to academic achievement in kindergarten and first grade. SR skills of 403 low-income African American and Latino children were measured at 2&1/2, 3&1/2, and 5 years (kindergarten). Reading and math skills were measured at 5 and 6 years (first grade) using the Woodcock-Johnson. Transactional relations between SR skills and achievement outcomes were estimated with latent difference score models. Increases in set shifting predicted prospective increases in reading, but not math scores. Increases in simple response inhibition predicted prospective increases in math, but not reading scores. Application of these findings to early intervention programming and needed supports for school readiness and achievement are discussed.
Project description:This study evaluated direct relations of both kindergarteners' (N = 301) naturalistically observed emotion in 2 different school contexts and early kindergarten verbal competence to academic adjustment (i.e., standardized measures of academic achievement, teacher-reported academic skills, teacher-reported and observed school engagement) and if these relations were mediated by teacher-reported conflict with students and by peer acceptance. When controlling for verbal competence, positive emotions expressed in the classroom context positively directly predicted academic skills, whereas positive emotions expressed outside class (lunch/recess) negatively predicted academic skills. Negative emotions observed in the classroom context and during lunch/recess negatively predicted academic achievement. Positive emotions observed in both contexts indirectly predicted higher school engagement through its positive relation to peer acceptance; positive emotions expressed in lunch and recess indirectly predicted higher school engagement via lower teacher-student conflict. Negative emotions observed in both contexts also indirectly predicted lower school engagement via higher teacher-student conflict. Furthermore, verbal competence indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via lower teacher-student conflict. Moreover, verbal competence moderated the association between peer acceptance (but not teacher-student conflict) and academic adjustment. Because verbal competence moderated the associations from peer competence, positive emotions in both contexts indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via higher peer acceptance primarily for children with low, but not high, initial verbal competence. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study examined early predictors of and changes in school-age academic achievement and class placement in children referred for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at age 2. METHOD:Of 111 ASD referrals, 74 were diagnosed with ASD at age 18. Regression analyses were performed to identify age 3 predictors of achievement in arithmetic, passage comprehension, word reading, and spelling at ages 9 and 18. Linear Mixed Models were used to examine predictors of academic growth between ages 9 and 18. RESULTS:Academic skills varied widely at 9 and 18, but were mostly commensurate with or higher than expected given cognitive levels. However, 22% (age 9) and 32% (age 18) of children with average/above average IQ showed below/low average achievement in at least one academic domain. Children who remained in general education/inclusion classrooms had higher achievement than those who moved to special education classrooms. Stronger cognitive skills at age 3 and 9 predicted better academic achievement and faster academic growth from age 9 to 18. Parent participation in intervention by age 3 predicted better achievement at age 9 and 18. CONCLUSIONS:Many children with ASD achieve basic academic skills commensurate with or higher than their cognitive ability. However, more rigorous screening for learning difficulties may be important for those with average cognitive skills because a significant minority show relative academic delays. Interventions targeting cognitive skills and parent participation in early treatment may have cascading effects on long-term academic development.
Project description:To evaluate the impact of an early childhood, family-centered, school-based intervention on children's kindergarten academic achievement.This was a cluster (school) randomized controlled trial with assessments from pre-kindergarten (pre-k) entry through the end of kindergarten. The setting was 10 public elementary schools with 26 pre-k classes in 2 school districts in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods serving a largely black, low-income population. Participants were 1050 black and Latino, low-income children (age 4; 88% of pre-k population) enrolled in 10 schools over 4 years. Universal intervention aimed to promote self-regulation and early learning by strengthening positive behavior support and effective behavior management at home and school, and increasing parent involvement in education. Intervention included after-school group sessions for families of pre-k students (13 2-hour sessions; co-led by pre-k teachers) and professional development for pre-k and kindergarten teachers. The outcome measures were standardized test scores of kindergarten reading, writing, and math achievement by independent evaluators masked to intervention condition (primary outcome); developmental trajectories of teacher-rated academic performance from pre-k through kindergarten (secondary outcome).Relative to children in control schools, children in intervention schools had higher kindergarten achievement test scores (Cohen's d = 0.18, mean difference = 2.64, SE = 0.90, P = .03) and higher teacher-rated academic performance (Cohen's d = 0.25, mean difference = 5.65, SE = 2.34, P = .01).Early childhood population-level intervention that enhances both home and school environments shows promise to advance academic achievement among minority children from disadvantaged, urban neighborhoods.
Project description:AIM:This study determined possible discrepancies between verbal IQ and performance IQ in 8-year-old very preterm (VPT) and extremely preterm (EPT) children, and examined associations between verbal IQ and performance IQ, and sociodemographic factors, perinatal factors, early cognitive outcomes and also with school achievement scores. METHODS:This prospective cohort study included 120 eight-year-old VPT/EPT children. Cognitive development was assessed at the ages of 2, 5 and 8 years. Eight years' school achievement results in arithmetic, reading and spelling were collected. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of verbal IQ and performance IQ at the age of 8 years and to determine associations with school achievement scores. RESULTS:Mean performance IQ (89.8) was significantly lower than mean verbal IQ (99.4; Cohen's d = 0.59) at the age of 8 years. Gestational age (GA), small for GA status, and cognitive scores at the ages of 2 and 5 years significantly predicted verbal IQ and performance IQ at the age of 8 years. Performance IQ at age 8 years was an important predictor for arithmetic scores (? = 0.42). CONCLUSION:Performance IQ was more strongly affected than verbal IQ in 8-year-old VPT/EPT children and was strongly related to mathematical difficulties.
Project description:Gender differences in elementary school performance among immigrant children have not yet been well documented. This study examined how differences in parental involvement, child effort, and family characteristics and resources contribute to immigrant boys'-and girls' academic achievement from kindergarten through 5th-grade. The sample was drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort. Using a latent score growth model, this study found that parents' involvement at home benefited boys' reading and mathematics skills throughout all early elementary school years, but did not have the same benefit for girls. For both boys and girls, child effort in reading appears to be strongly linked to better reading and mathematics skills at kindergarten and to subsequent improvement between grades. The positive associations of parental involvement and child's effort with test scores were greater during earlier years than during later years for boys, whereas there was no difference in the association over time for girls.
Project description:We examined individual trajectories, across four time points, of children's (N = 301) expression of negative emotion in classroom settings and whether these trajectories predicted their observed school engagement, teacher-reported academic skills, and passage comprehension assessed with a standardized measure in first grade. In latent growth curve analyses, negative expressivity declined from kindergarten to first grade with significant individual differences in trajectories. Negative expressivity in kindergarten inversely predicted first grade school engagement and teacher-reported academic skills, and the slope of negative expressivity from kindergarten to first grade inversely predicted school engagement (e.g., increasing negative expressivity was associated with lower school engagement). In addition, we examined if prior academic functioning in kindergarten moderated the association between negative expressivity (level in kindergarten and change over time) and academic functioning in first grade. The slope of negative expressivity was negatively associated with first grade school engagement and passage comprehension for children who had lower kindergarten school engagement and passage comprehension, respectively, but was unrelated for those with higher academic functioning in kindergarten. That is, for children who had lower kindergarten school engagement and passage comprehension, greater declines in negative expressivity were associated with higher first grade school engagement and passage comprehension, respectively. The findings suggest that negative emotional expressivity in school is associated with academic outcomes in first grade and, in some cases, this association is more pronounced for children who had lower kindergarten academic functioning.
Project description:Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort of 1998 (n = 15,070), this study used propensity scores to examine the short- and long-term academic and psychosocial benefits of preschool education for a diverse sample of middle-class children. Compared with children who attended informal care at age 4, preschool attendees consistently performed better on achievement tests from age 5 through early adolescence, but exhibited less optimal psychosocial skills. These negative behavioral effects of preschool were concentrated among children who attended preschool for 20 or more hours per week, but otherwise, there was little evidence of heterogeneity as a function of program type or child- and family-characteristics. The long-term academic advantages of preschool were, however, largely explained by their positive effects on academic skills early in formal schooling and there was evidence for convergence in children's academic test scores, which was partially attributed to the differences in children's social skills during the early elementary school years.
Project description:This study evaluated whether the positive association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement is mediated by children's executive functions. Using observations of mothers' parenting from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,306), analyses revealed that mothers' autonomy support over the first 3 years of life predicted enhanced executive functions (i.e., inhibition, delay of gratification, and sustained attention) during the year prior to kindergarten and academic achievement in elementary and high school even when mothers' warmth and cognitive stimulation, as well as other factors (e.g., children's early general cognitive skills and mothers' educational attainment) were covaried. Mediation analyses demonstrated that over and above other attributes (e.g., temperament), children's executive functions partially accounted for the association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement.