Genetic diversity of NDUFV1-dependent mitochondrial complex I deficiency.
ABSTRACT: Medical genomics research performed in diverse population facilitates a better understanding of the genetic basis of developmental disorders, with regional implications for community genetics. Autosomal recessive mitochondrial complex I deficiency (MCID) accounts for a constellation of clinical features, including encephalopathies, myopathies, and Leigh Syndrome. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified biallelic missense variants in NDUFV1 that encodes the 51-kD subunit of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) NDUFV1. Mapping the variants on published crystal structures of mitochondrial complex I demonstrate that the novel c.1118T?>?C (p.(Phe373Ser)) variant is predicted to diminish the affinity of the active pocket of NDUFV1 for FMN that correlates to an early onset of debilitating MCID symptoms. The c.1156C?>?T (p.(Arg386Cys)) variant is predicted to alter electron shuttling required for energy production and correlate to a disease onset in childhood. NDUFV1 c.1156C?>?T (p.(Arg386Cys)) represents a founder variant in South Asian populations that have value in prioritizing this variant in a population-specific manner for genetic diagnostic evaluation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the advantage of analyzing population-specific sequences to understand the disease pathophysiology and prevalence of inherited risk variants in the underrepresented populations.
Project description:Leigh syndrome (LS) is most frequently characterized by the presence of focal, bilateral, and symmetric brain lesions Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is a rare condition, characterized by progressive pyramidal, cerebellar, and dorsal column dysfunction. We describe a case with infantile-onset neurodegeneration, psychomotor retardation, irritability, hypotonia, and nystagmus. Brain MRI demonstrated signal abnormalities in the deep cerebral white matter, corticospinal and dorsal column tracts, and pyramids, which resemble the MRI pattern of a severe form of LBSL, and involvement of basal ganglia and thalamus that resemble the radiological features of LS. We identified biallelic loss-of-function mutations, one novel (c.756delC, p.Thr253Glnfs*44) and another reported (c.1156C > T, p.Arg386Cys), in <i>NDUFV1</i> (NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Core Subunit V1) by exome sequencing. Biochemical and functional analyses revealed lactic acidosis, complex I (CI) assembly and enzyme deficiency, and a loss of NDUFV1 protein. Complementation assays restored the NDUFV1 protein, CI assembly, and CI enzyme levels. The clinical and radiological features of this case are compatible with the phenotype of LS and LBSL associated with <i>NDUFV1</i> mutations.
Project description:Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is the most common oxidative phosphorylation disorder described. It shows a wide range of phenotypes with poor correlation within genotypes. Herein we expand the clinics and genetics of CI deficiency in the brazilian population by reporting three patients with pathogenic (c.640G>A, c.1268C>T, c.1207dupG) and likely pathogenic (c.766C>T) variants in the NDUFV1 gene. We show the mutation c.766C>T associated with a childhood onset phenotype of hypotonia, muscle weakness, psychomotor regression, lethargy, dysphagia, and strabismus. Additionally, this mutation was found to be associated with headaches and exercise intolerance in adulthood. We also review reported pathogenic variants in NDUFV1 highlighting the wide phenotypic heterogeneity in CI deficiency.
Project description:Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH):ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and complex I deficiency accounts for approximately 30% cases of respiratory-chain deficiency in humans. Only seven mitochondrial DNA genes, but >35 nuclear genes encode complex I subunits. In an attempt to elucidate the molecular bases of complex I deficiency, we studied the six most-conserved complex I nuclear genes (NDUFV1, NDUFS8, NDUFS7, NDUFS1, NDUFA8, and NDUFB6) in a series of 36 patients with isolated complex I deficiency by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and by direct sequencing of the corresponding cDNA from cultured skin fibroblasts. In 3/36 patients, we identified, for the first time, five point mutations (del222, D252G, M707V, R241W, and R557X) and one large-scale deletion in the NDUFS1 gene. In addition, we found six novel NDUFV1 mutations (Y204C, C206G, E214K, IVS 8+41, A432P, and del nt 989-990) in three other patients. The six unrelated patients presented with hypotonia, ataxia, psychomotor retardation, or Leigh syndrome. These results suggest that screening for complex I nuclear gene mutations is of particular interest in patients with complex I deficiency, even when normal respiratory-chain-enzyme activities in cultured fibroblasts are observed.
Project description:Dysfunctions in mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) are both genetically and clinically highly diverse and a major cause of human mitochondrial diseases. The genetic determinants of individual clinical cases are increasingly being described, but how these genetic defects affect complex I on the molecular and cellular level, and have different clinical consequences in different individuals, is little understood. Furthermore, without molecular-level information innocent genetic variants may be misassigned as pathogenic. Here, we have used a yeast model system (Yarrowia lipolytica) to study the molecular consequences of 16 single amino acid substitutions, classified as pathogenic, in the NDUFV1 subunit of complex I. NDUFV1 binds the flavin cofactor that oxidizes NADH and is the site of complex I-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Seven mutations caused loss of complex I expression, suggesting they are detrimental but precluding further study. In two variants complex I was fully assembled but did not contain any flavin, and four mutations led to functionally compromised enzymes. Our study provides a molecular rationale for assignment of all these variants as pathogenic. However, three variants provided complex I that was functionally equivalent to the wild-type enzyme, challenging their assignment as pathogenic. By combining structural, bioinformatic and functional data, a simple scoring system for the initial evaluation of future NDUFV1 variants is proposed. Overall, our results broaden understanding of how mutations in this centrally important core subunit of complex I affect its function and provide a basis for understanding the role of NDUFV1 mutations in mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:Leigh syndrome is a subacute necrotising encephalomyopathy proven by post-mortem analysis of brain tissue showing spongiform lesions with vacuolation of the neuropil followed by demyelination, gliosis and capillary proliferation caused by mutations in one of over 75 different genes, including nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded genes, most of which are associated with mitochondrial respiratory chain function. In this study, we report a patient with suspected Leigh syndrome presenting with seizures, ptosis, scoliosis, dystonia, symmetrical putaminal abnormalities and a lactate peak on brain MRS, but showing normal MRC enzymology in muscle and liver, thereby complicating the diagnosis. Whole exome sequencing uncovered compound heterozygous mutations in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 1 gene (NDUFV1), c.1162+4A>C (NM_007103.3), resulting in skipping of exon 8, and c.640G>A, causing the amino acid substitution p.Glu214Lys, both of which have previously been reported in a patient with complex I deficiency. Patient fibroblasts showed a significant reduction in NDUFV1 protein expression, decreased complex CI and complex IV assembly and consequential reductions in the enzymatic activities of both complexes by 38% and 67%, respectively. The pathogenic effect of these variations was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis of subunits for MRC enzyme complexes in patient muscle, liver and fibroblast where we observed 90%, 60% and 95% reduction in complex CI, respectively. Together these studies highlight the importance of a comprehensive, multipronged approach to the laboratory evaluation of patients with suspected Leigh syndrome.
Project description:It has been shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors hold considerable therapeutic potentials for treating neurodegeneration-related diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Here, we synthesized an HDAC inhibitor named as HGC and examined its neuroprotective roles in PD models. Our results showed that HGC protects dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP<sup>+</sup>)-induced insults. Furthermore, in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD model mice, HGC application rectifies behavioral defects, improves tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the midbrain, and maintains mitochondrial integrity and functions. Mechanistically, mass spectrometry data revealed that HGC stimulates acetylation modification at lysine 28 of NDUFV1. Inhibition of HDAC6 by HGC is responsible for this acetylation modification. Functional tests showed that, as well as HGC, NDUFV1 exhibits beneficial roles against MPP<sup>+</sup> injuries. Moreover, knockdown of NDUFV1 abolishes the neuroprotective roles of HGC. Taken together, our data indicate that HGC has a great therapeutic potential for treating PD and NDUFV1 might be a target for developing drugs against PD.
Project description:Leigh syndrome is a mitochondrial disease caused by pathogenic variants in over 85 genes. Whole exome sequencing of a patient with Leigh-like syndrome identified homozygous protein-truncating variants in two genes associated with Leigh syndrome; a reported pathogenic variant in PDHX (NP_003468.2:p.(Arg446*)), and an uncharacterized variant in complex I (CI) assembly factor TIMMDC1 (NP_057673.2:p.(Arg225*)). The TIMMDC1 variant was predicted to truncate 61 amino acids at the C-terminus and functional studies demonstrated a hypomorphic impact of the variant on CI assembly. However, the mutant protein could still rescue CI assembly in TIMMDC1 knockout cells and the patient's clinical phenotype was not clearly distinct from that of other patients with the same PDHX defect. Our data suggest that the hypomorphic effect of the TIMMDC1 protein-truncating variant does not constitute a dual diagnosis in this individual. We recommend cautious assessment of variants in the C-terminus of TIMMDC1 and emphasize the need to consider the caveats detailed within the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) criteria when assessing variants.
Project description:Mitochondrial diseases are notoriously difficult to diagnose due to extreme locus and allelic heterogeneity, with both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes potentially liable. Using exome sequencing we demonstrate the ability to rapidly and cost effectively evaluate both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes to obtain a molecular diagnosis for four patients with three distinct mitochondrial disorders. One patient was found to have Leigh syndrome due to a mutation in MT-ATP6, two affected siblings were discovered to be compound heterozygous for mutations in the NDUFV1 gene, which causes mitochondrial complex I deficiency, and one patient was found to have coenzyme Q10 deficiency due to compound heterozygous mutations in COQ2. In all cases conventional diagnostic testing failed to identify a molecular diagnosis. We suggest that additional studies should be conducted to evaluate exome sequencing as a primary diagnostic test for mitochondrial diseases, including those due to mtDNA mutations.
Project description:Biallelic mutations in NDUFAF6 have been identified as responsible for cases of autosomal recessive Leigh syndrome associated with mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Here we report two siblings and two unrelated subjects with Leigh syndrome, in which we found the same compound heterozygous missense (c.532G>C:p.A178P) and deep intronic (c.420+784C>T) variants in NDUFAF6. We demonstrated that the identified intronic variant creates an alternative splice site, leading to the production of an aberrant transcript. A detailed analysis of whole-exome sequencing data together with the functional validation based on mRNA analysis may reveal pathogenic variants even in non-exonic regions.
Project description:Leigh syndrome is an early onset progressive disorder caused by defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Pathogenic variants in nuclear and mitochondrial genes are associated with the syndrome. Homozygous pathogenic variants in the C12orf65 gene impair the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. We describe a new case of Leigh syndrome caused by a novel pathogenic variant of the C12orf65 gene resulting in the lack of the Gly-Gly-Gln (GGQ) domain in the predicted protein, and review clinical and molecular data from previously reported patients. Our study supports that the phenotype caused by C12orf65 gene variants is heterogeneous and varies from spastic paraparesis to Leigh syndrome. Loss-of-function variants are more likely to cause the disease, and variants affecting the GGQ domain tend to be associated with more severe phenotypes, reinforcing a possible genotype-phenotype correlation.