Paper-Based Analytical Device for Zinc Ion Quantification in Water Samples with Power-Free Analyte Concentration
ABSTRACT: Insufficient sensitivity is a general issue of colorimetric paper-based analytical devices (PADs) for trace analyte detection, such as metal ions, in environmental water. This paper demonstrates the colorimetric detection of zinc ions (Zn2+) on a paper-based analytical device with an integrated analyte concentration system. Concentration of Zn2+ ions from an enlarged sample volume (1 mL) has been achieved with the aid of a colorimetric Zn2+ indicator (Zincon) electrostatically immobilized onto a filter paper substrate in combination with highly water-absorbent materials. Analyte concentration as well as sample pretreatment, including pH adjustment and interferent masking, has been elaborated. The resulting device enables colorimetric quantification of Zn2+ in environmental water samples (tap water, river water) from a single sample application. The achieved detection limit of 0.53 ?M is a significant improvement over that of a commercial colorimetric Zn2+ test paper (9.7 ?M), demonstrating the efficiency of the developed analyte concentration system not requiring any equipment.
Project description:Exposure to metal-containing aerosols has been linked with adverse health outcomes for almost every organ in the human body. Commercially available techniques for quantifying particulate metals are time-intensive, laborious, and expensive; often sample analysis exceeds $100. We report a simple technique, based upon a distance-based detection motif, for quantifying metal concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Fe in airborne particulate matter using microfluidic paper-based analytical devices. Paper substrates are used to create sensors that are self-contained, self-timing, and require only a drop of sample for operation. Unlike other colorimetric approaches in paper microfluidics that rely on optical instrumentation for analysis, with distance-based detection, analyte is quantified visually based on the distance of a colorimetric reaction, similar to reading temperature on a thermometer. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, Ni, Cu, and Fe were measured individually in single-channel devices; detection limits as low as 0.1, 0.1, and 0.05 ?g were reported for Ni, Cu, and Fe. Multiplexed analysis of all three metals was achieved with detection limits of 1, 5, and 1 ?g for Ni, Cu, and Fe. We also extended the dynamic range for multi-analyte detection by printing concentration gradients of colorimetric reagents using an off-the-shelf inkjet printer. Analyte selectivity was demonstrated for common interferences. To demonstrate utility of the method, Ni, Cu, and Fe were measured from samples of certified welding fume; levels measured with paper sensors matched known values determined gravimetrically.
Project description:The present paper reports a facile and selective colorimetric method for the detection of potential environmental and health hazardous metal ions using green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Here the organic functional groups present in the plant extract (Mentha arvensis) are used as reductants and stabilizers in the synthesis of AgNPs. They also provide a suitable binding site to the (Al(III)) analyte in the detection mechanism. The leaf extract of Mentha arvensis was used to synthesize AgNPs at room-temperature and at 80?°C. The AgNPs synthesized at 80?°C exhibit excellent selective colorimetric detection of Al(III). The as-synthesized AgNPs have been characterized, and the synthesis, stabilization of NPs and detection mechanism has also been illustrated by using UV-vis, XPS, FTIR, TEM, EDX, SEM, AAS, and TGA analytical tools and techniques. The selectivity of detection probe was supported by the reaction between probe and metal ions followed first-order kinetics having the highest value of the regression coefficient (R2?=?0.99) for Al(III) and the analysis of thermodynamic parameters. The prepared sensor showed a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 1?nM (S/N?=?3.2) in real water samples. The proposed method can be successfully utilized for the detection of Al(III) from both drinking and real water samples at the nanomolar level.
Project description:Accurate recognition and speciation analysis of heavy-metal ions in complex hydrological environments is always a serious challenge. In this work, we proposed a small-molecule-based ultrasensitive colorimetric detection strategy and successfully applied it to the accurate detection of Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, and Hg2+ in groundwater through the specific recognition of multiple ligands of different metal ions. The detection limits for Hg2+, Co2+, Fe2+, and Fe3+ are calculated to be 6.51, 0.34, 0.49, and 1.01 ppb, respectively, which are far below the drinking water standards and superior to most of the reported colorimetric sensors. Remarkably, the speciation analysis of Fe2+/Fe3+ also has been successfully realized by a one-step method without complex pretreatment. The speciation and concentration of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in actual water samples can be accurately identified and monitored. In addition, as an attempt of visual onsite detection, we have developed a simple test strip, which has been applied to visual monitoring of four metal ions with the detection limit estimated by the naked eye to be as low as ppb level. This proposed colorimetric method realizes the rapid, sensitive, and portable multiple metal ions recognition and Fe2+/Fe3+ speciation analysis, displaying great potential for onsite rapid water quality analysis.
Project description:A simple 1,2-squaraine based chemosensor material (SQ) has been reported to show dual sensing performance for colorimetric detection of Fe3+ and Hg2+ ions. Compared to common instrumental analysis, this method could provide fast and direct detection though colorimetric changes by the naked eye. The sensor has shown excellent selectivity over the other metal ions by tuning different solvent environments. The detection limit for Fe3+ could reach to 0.538 ?M, which was lower than that in the environmental agency guideline (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. EPA) in drinking water. And for Hg2+ detection, the limit was calculated as 1.689 ?M in our case. A 1:1 binding mode between SQ?Fe3+ and SQ?Hg2+ ion were evidenced by Job's plot measurement and IR analysis. The proposed different binding mechanisms were also supported by Density Function Theory (DFT) calculation. All these findings provide a unique material and a simple, facile, and low cost colorimetric method for dual metal ions analysis and have shown preliminary analytical applications in industrial water sample analysis.
Project description:In this paper, we present a smartphone platform for colorimetric water quality detection based on the use of built-in camera for capturing a single-use reference image. A custom-developed app processes this image for training and creates a reference model to be used later in real experimental conditions to calculate the concentration of the unknown solution. This platform has been tested on four different water quality colorimetric assays with various concentration levels, and results show that the presented platform provides approximately 100% accuracy for colorimetric assays with noticeable color difference. This portable, cost-effective, and user-friendly platform is promising for application in water quality monitoring.
Project description:The development of a novel all-solid-state optical sensor array based on heteroatomic macrocyclic fluorophores (diaza-crown ether, metallocorrole and pyridinophans) for the photographic analysis of liquid media, is presented. The sensitivity of the new optical system toward a number of different species (cations: Li+, K+, Na+, NH4+ , Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ and anions: NO2- , NO3- , Cl-, Br-, HCO3- ) was evaluated both in single selective sensor mode and in multisensory arrangement. The satisfactory PLS1 regression models between sensor array optical response and analyte concentration were obtained for Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and NO2- ions in all the range of tested concentrations. Among these species the highest attention was focused onto detection of cadmium and nitrite ions, for which the detection limits, DL, estimated by 3? method were found 0.0013 mg/L and 0.21 mg/L respectively, and these values are lower than the corresponding WHO guideline values of 0.003 mg/L (Cd2+) and 2 mg/L ( NO2- ). The suitability of the developed sensors implemented with familiar devices for signal acquisition (Light Emitting Diode, LED, as light source and a digital camera as a signal detector), and chemometric methods for data treatment to perform fast and low-cost monitoring of species under interest, in real samples of environmental importance, is demonstrated.
Project description:A highly selective and sensitive optical sensor was developed to colorimetric detect trace Fe3+ ions in aqueous solution. The sensor was the sulfasalazine (SSZ) functionalized microgels (SSZ-MGs), which were fabricated via in-situ quaternization reaction. The obtained SSZ-MGs had hydrodynamic radius of about 259 ± 24 nm with uniform size distribution at 25 °C. The SSZ-MG aqueous suspensions can selectively and sensitively response to Fe3+ ions in aqueous solution at 25 °C and pH of 5.6, which can be quantified by UV-visible spectroscopy and also easily distinguished by the naked eye. Job's plot indicated that the molar binding ratio of SSZ moiety in SSZ-MGs to Fe3+ was close to 1:1 with an apparent association constant of 1.72 × 104 M-1. A linear range of 0-12 μM with the detection limit of 0.110 μM (0.006 mg/L) was found. The obtained detection limit was much lower than the maximum allowance level of Fe3+ ions in drinking water (0.3 mg/L) regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States. The existence of 19 other species of metal ions, namely, Ag+, Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Cr3+, Yb3+, La3+, Gd3+, Ce3+, and Bi3+, did not interfere with the detection of Fe3+ ions.
Project description:This work reports on fully integrated "sample-in-signal-out" microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (?PADs) relying on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) switches for analyte recognition and colorimetric signal generation. The devices use BRET-based antibody sensing proteins integrated into vertically assembled layers of functionalized paper, and their design enables sample volume-independent and fully reagent-free operation, including on-device blood plasma separation. User operation is limited to the application of a single drop (20-30??L) of sample (serum, whole blood) and the acquisition of a photograph 20?min after sample introduction, with no requirement for precise pipetting, liquid handling, or analytical equipment except for a camera. Simultaneous detection of three different antibodies (anti-HIV1, anti-HA, and anti-DEN1) in whole blood was achieved. Given its simplicity, this type of device is ideally suited for user-friendly point-of-care testing in low-resource environments.
Project description:High concentration of dissolved phosphate ions is the main responsible factor for eutrophication of natural water bodies. Therefore, detection of phosphate ions is essential for evaluating water eutrophication. There is a need at large-scale production of real-time monitoring technology to detect phosphorus accurately. In this study, facile enzymeless phosphate ion detection is reported using a nozzle-jet-printed silver/reduced graphene oxide (Ag/rGO) composite-based field-effect transistor sensor on flexible and disposable polymer substrates. The sensor exhibits promising results in low concentration as well as real-time phosphate ion detection. The sensor shows excellent performance with a wide linear range of 0.005-6.00 mM, high sensitivity of 62.2 ?A/cm2/mM, and low detection limit of 0.2 ?M. This facile combined technology readily facilitates the phosphate ion detection with high performance, long-term stability, excellent reproducibility, and good selectivity in the presence of other interfering anions. The sensor fabrication method and phosphate detection technique yield low-cost, user-friendly sensing devices with less analyte consumption, which are easy to fabricate on polymer substrates on a large scale. Besides, the sensor has the capability to sense phosphate ions in real water samples, which makes it applicable in environmental monitoring.
Project description:The current research presents a very simple method for the colorimetric detection of imidacloprid using a graphene quantum dot/Au (III) chemosensor. The results demonstrated that there is an interaction between Au3+ ions and the imidazole group of the pesticide toward reduction of Au3+ to Au0 in the presence of graphene quantum dots. This phenomenon changes the color of gold nanoparticles from yellow to grey or red, and causes a shift in the peak of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as gold nanoparticles are formed or aggregated based on the concentration of imidacloprid. Imidacloprid was determined by the developed sensor in a linear area of 0.01-1 ppm with a detection limit of 0.007 ppm. Therefore, a simple, quick, and sustainable sensor has been developed for the determination of the investigated analyte. Moreover, the sensor was applied to determine imidacloprid in the real cucumber samples fairly successful.