Owl monkey CCR5 reveals synergism between CD4 and CCR5 in HIV-1 entry.
ABSTRACT: Studying HIV-1 replication in the presence of functionally related proteins from different species has helped define host determinants of HIV-1 infection. Humans and owl monkeys, but not macaques, encode a CD4 receptor that permits entry of transmissible HIV-1 variants due to a single residue difference. However, little is known about whether divergent CCR5 receptor proteins act as determinants of host-range. Here we show that both owl monkey (Aotus vociferans) CD4 and CCR5 receptors are functional for the entry of transmitted HIV-1 when paired with human versions of the other receptor. By contrast, the owl monkey CD4/CCR5 pair is generally a suboptimal receptor combination, although there is virus-specific variation in infection with owl monkey receptors. Introduction of the human residues 15Y and 16T within a sulfation motif into owl monkey CCR5 resulted in a gain of function. These findings suggest there is cross-talk between CD4 and CCR5 involving the sulfation motif.
Project description:Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1.Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals from captive owl monkey populations harbor CD4 alleles that are compatible with a broad collection of HIV-1 isolates, including those isolated from early in infection in highly affected populations and representing diverse subtypes.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not replicate in primary cells of New World primates. To better understand this restriction, we expressed owl monkey (Aotus nancymaae) CD4 and CXCR4 in the owl monkey kidney cell line, OMK. An HIV-1 variant modified to evade the owl monkey restriction factor TRIM-cyp replicated efficiently in these cells but could not replicate in primary A. nancymaae CD4-positive T cells. To understand this difference, we examined APOBEC3G and tetherin orthologs from OMK cells and primary A. nancymaae cells. We observed that OMK cells expressed substantially lower levels of APOBEC3G than did A. nancymaae cells. A. nancymaae, but not marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), APOBEC3G was partially downregulated by HIV-1 vif and reduced but did not abolish HIV-1 replication when stably expressed in OMK cells. The functional difference between A. nancymaae and marmoset APOBEC3Gs mapped to residue 128, previously shown to distinguish African green monkey from human APOBEC3G. We also characterized tetherin orthologs from OMK and A. nancymaae cells. The A. nancymaae tetherin ortholog, but not OMK tetherin, prevented HIV-1 release. Alteration of threonine 181 of OMK tetherin rescued its function and its efficient N glycosylation. All alleles of Aotus lemurinus griseimembra examined, but none of A. nancymaae or Aotus vociferans, encoded this nonfunctional tetherin ortholog. Our data indicate that HIV-1 replication in owl monkeys is not restricted at entry but can be limited by APOBEC3G and tetherin. Further, A. lemurinus griseimembra does not restrict HIV-1 replication via tetherin, a property likely useful for the study of tetherin-restricted viruses.
Project description:CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the receptor for several inflammatory chemokines and is a coreceptor for HIV-1. Posttranslational sulfation of tyrosines in the N-terminal regions of chemokine receptors has been shown to be important in the binding affinity for chemokine ligands. In addition, sulfation of CCR5 is crucial for mediating interactions with HIV-1 envelope protein gp120. The major sulfation pathway for peptides derived from the N-terminal domains of CCR5 and CCR8 and variations of the peptides were determined by in vitro enzymatic sulfation by tyrosylprotein sulfotranferase-2 (TPST-2), subsequent separation of products by RP-HPLC, and mass spectrometry analysis. It was found that the patterns of sulfation and the rates of sulfation for CCR5 and CCR8 depend on the number of amino acids N-terminal of Tyr-3. Results herein address previous seemingly contradictory studies and delineate the temporal sulfation of N-terminal chemokine receptor peptides.
Project description:Tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation is a common post-translational modification that is implicated in a variety of important biological processes, including the fusion and entry of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). A number of sulfated Tyr (sTyr) residues on the N-terminus of the CCR5 chemokine receptor are involved in a crucial binding interaction with the gp120 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Despite the established importance of these sTyr residues, the exact structural and functional role of this post-translational modification in HIV-1 infection is not fully understood. Detailed biological studies are hindered in part by the difficulty in accessing homogeneous sulfopeptides and sulfoproteins through biological expression and established synthetic techniques. Herein we describe an efficient approach to the synthesis of sulfopeptides bearing discrete sulfation patterns through the divergent, site-selective incorporation of sTyr residues on solid support. By employing three orthogonally protected Tyr building blocks and a solid-phase sulfation protocol, we demonstrate the synthesis of a library of target N-terminal CCR5(2-22) sulfoforms bearing discrete and differential sulfation at Tyr10, Tyr14, and Tyr15, from a single resin-bound intermediate. We demonstrate the importance of distinct sites of Tyr sulfation in binding gp120 through a competitive binding assay between the synthetic CCR5 sulfopeptides and an anti-gp120 monoclonal antibody. These studies revealed a critical role of sulfation at Tyr14 for binding and a possible additional role for sulfation at Tyr10. N-terminal CCR5 variants bearing a sTyr residue at position 14 were also found to complement viral entry into cells expressing an N-terminally truncated CCR5 receptor.
Project description:CCR5 is the major co-receptor for HIV and polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene as well as promoter region that alter cell surface expression have been associated with disease progression. We determined the relationship between CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CD4 decline and other immunopathological features like immune activation and CD4+ T cell apoptosis in HIV patients. CCR5 promoter haplotype HHC was significantly associated with higher CD4 counts in patients. The relative promoter activity (RPA) of each haplotype was determined in vitro and combined promoter activity based on both alleles (CRPA) was assigned to each patients. Interestingly, CCR5 CRPA correlated inversely with CD4 counts and CD4:CD8 ratio specifically in viremic patients. In normal individuals, the CRPA correlated with the number of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood suggesting an effect on CCR5 expression. In a subset of high viremic patients harboring R5 tropic HIV, there was a strong correlation between CCR5 CRPA and both CD4 counts and CD4 T cell apoptosis. Our study demonstrates that, CCR5 promoter polymorphisms correlate with CD4 T cell loss possibly by regulating CD4 T cell apoptosis in HIV patients. Furthermore, assigning CRPAs to each patient is a new method of translating genotype to phenotype.
Project description:CCR5 and CXCR4, the respective cell surface coreceptors of R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains, both form heterodimers with CD4, the principal HIV-1 receptor. Using several resonance energy transfer techniques, we determined that CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 formed heterotrimers, and that CCR5 coexpression altered the conformation of both CXCR4/CXCR4 homodimers and CD4/CXCR4 heterodimers. As a result, binding of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120IIIB to the CD4/CXCR4/CCR5 heterooligomer was negligible, and the gp120-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for HIV-1 entry were prevented. CCR5 reduced HIV-1 envelope-induced CD4/CXCR4-mediated cell-cell fusion. In nucleofected Jurkat CD4 cells and primary human CD4(+) T cells, CCR5 expression led to a reduction in X4 HIV-1 infectivity. These findings can help to understand why X4 HIV-1 strains infection affect T-cell types differently during AIDS development and indicate that receptor oligomerization might be a target for previously unidentified therapeutic approaches for AIDS intervention.
Project description:Interaction of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120/CD4 complex involves its amino-terminal domain (Nt-CCR5) and requires sulfation of two to four tyrosine residues in Nt-CCR5. The conformation of a 27-residue Nt-CCR5 peptide, sulfated at Y10 and Y14, was studied both in its free form and in a ternary complex with deglycosylated gp120 and a CD4-mimic peptide. NMR experiments revealed a helical conformation at the center of Nt-CCR5(1-27), which is induced upon gp120 binding, as well as a helical propensity for the free peptide. A well-defined structure for the bound peptide was determined for residues 7-23, increasing by 2-fold the length of Nt-CCR5's known structure. Two-dimensional saturation transfer experiments and measurement of relaxation times highlighted Nt-CCR5 residues Y3, V5, P8-T16, E18, I23 and possibly D2 as the main binding determinant. A calculated docking model for Nt-CCR5(1-27) suggests that residues 2-22 of Nt-CCR5 interact with the bases of V3 and C4, while the C-terminal segment of Nt-CCR5(1-27) points toward the target cell membrane, reflecting an Nt-CCR5 orientation that differs by 180° from that of a previous model. A gp120 site that could accommodate (CCR5)Y3 in a sulfated form has been identified. The present model attributes a structural basis for binding interactions to all gp120 residues previously implicated in Nt-CCR5 binding. Moreover, the strong interaction of sulfated (CCR5)Tyr14 with (gp120)Arg440 revealed by the model and the previously found correlation between E322 and R440 mutations shed light on the role of these residues in HIV-1 phenotype conversion, furthering our understanding of CCR5 recognition by HIV-1.
Project description:The association of CD4, a glycoprotein involved in T-cell development and antigen recognition, and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), a chemotactic G protein-coupled receptor, which regulates trafficking and effector functions of immune cells, forms the main receptor for HIV. We observed that the majority of CCR5 is maintained within the intracellular compartments of primary T lymphocytes and in a monocytic cell line, contrasting with its relatively low density at the cell surface. The CCR5-CD4 association, which occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum, enhanced CCR5 export to the plasma membrane in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas inhibition of endogenous CD4 with small interfering RNAs decreased cell-surface expression of endogenous CCR5. This effect was specific for CCR5, as CD4 did not affect cellular distribution of CXCR4, the other HIV coreceptor. These results reveal a previously unappreciated role of CD4, which contributes to regulating CCR5 export to the plasma membrane.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a donor whose T cells did not express CCR5—a co-receptor for HIV—resulted in an apparent cure of an HIV-infected adult1. Herein, we have exploited this strategy by adoptive transfer of autologous CCR5 gene disrupted CD4+ T cells (SB-728-T) in 9 HIV+ participants. A single infusion of SB-728-T, a minimally invasive intervention, led to sustained increases in CD4+ T cell counts through 3.5 years (33-44 months) compared to baseline (median increase of +193 cells/µl, P = 0.02). The degree of long-term immune reconstitution was associated with expansion of a polyclonal stem cell-like CCR5-depleted CD4+ T cell population. SB-728-T therapy was also associated with expansion of polyfunctional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells (P = 0.03) and decline in size of the HIV reservoir (-0.23 to -3.6 log decrease). Collectively, these data suggest that generation and protection of CD4 memory cells will improve T cell homeostasis, enhance HIV-specific immunity, and accelerate the decline of the host HIV reservoir. Overall design: We studied nine HIV-infected adults on long-term cART who had a CD4+ T cell count between 200 and 500 cells/µL. Transcriptional analysis of CD4+ T cell memory subsets was performed at month 33-44 (at plateau) to determine if CD4 CD45RAintROint cells represented a memory subset distinct from CD45RA+RO- CD95+, TCM, and TEM subsets.
Project description:Since HIV requires CD4 and a co-receptor, most commonly C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), for cellular entry, targeting CCR5 expression is an attractive approach for therapy of HIV infection. Treatment of CD4(+) T cells with zinc-finger protein nucleases (ZFNs) specifically disrupting chemokine receptor CCR5 coding sequences induces resistance to HIV infection in vitro and in vivo. A chimeric Ad5/F35 adenoviral vector encoding CCR5-ZFNs permitted efficient delivery and transient expression following anti-CD3/anti-CD28 costimulation of T lymphocytes. We present data showing CD3/CD28 costimulation substantially improved transduction efficiency over reported methods for Ad5/F35 transduction of T lymphocytes. Modifications to the laboratory scale process, incorporating clinically compatible reagents and methods, resulted in a robust ex vivo manufacturing process capable of generating >10(10) CCR5 gene-edited CD4+ T cells from healthy and HIV+ donors. CD4+ T-cell phenotype, cytokine production, and repertoire were comparable between ZFN-modified and control cells. Following consultation with regulatory authorities, we conducted in vivo toxicity studies that showed no detectable ZFN-specific toxicity or T-cell transformation. Based on these findings, we initiated a clinical trial testing the safety and feasibility of CCR5 gene-edited CD4+ T-cell transfer in study subjects with HIV-1 infection.