Ultrasound-Guided versus Thoracoscopic Pleural Biopsy for Diagnosing Tuberculous Pleurisy Following Inconclusive Thoracentesis: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Traditional diagnostic methods for tuberculosis (TB) cannot be reliably applied to tuberculous pleurisy. Therefore, this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity and safety of ultrasound-guided cutting-needle pleural biopsy versus thoracoscopic pleural biopsy in patients suspected of tuberculous pleurisy following inconclusive thoracentesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 196 adult patients with acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-negative exudative pleural effusions clinically suspected of tuberculous pleurisy were recruited. Enrollees were randomized into 2 cohorts: ultrasound-guided cutting-needle pleural biopsy (n=96) or thoracoscopic pleural biopsy (n=96). The overall diagnostic yields, diagnostic sensitivities for tuberculous pleurisy, and post-procedural complications for both cohorts were statistically compared. RESULTS Ultrasound-guided pleural biopsy displayed an overall diagnostic yield of 83%, while thorascopic pleural biopsy displayed a similar overall diagnostic yield of 86% (?²=1.88, df=1, p=0.17). There were 127 patients conclusively diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy, resulting in a tuberculous pleurisy prevalence of 65% in this patient population (66% in the ultrasound cohort vs. 63% in the thoracoscopy cohort; p>0.05). Ultrasound-guided pleural biopsy displayed a sensitivity of 82% in detecting tuberculous pleurisy, while thorascopic pleural biopsy displayed a similar sensitivity of 90% (?²=1.05, df=1, p=0.30). The sensitivities of these 2 modalities did not significantly differ based on the degree of pleural thickening (p>0.05). Post-procedural complications were minor. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound-guided and thoracoscopic pleural biopsy both display strong (>80%) but statistically similar overall diagnostic yields for diagnosing pleural effusions following inconclusive thoracentesis. Both modalities also display strong (>80%) but statistically similar sensitivities in detecting tuberculous pleurisy.
Project description:Patients with tuberculous pleurisy often remain undiagnosed even after blind thoracentesis and closed pleural biopsy (PB). In this study, we assessed the value of computed tomography (CT)-guided core needle biopsy of pleural lesion and evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/staining for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in suspicious tuberculous pleurisy undiagnosed in blind thoracentesis.Patients with exudative pleural effusion (PE) without specific etiology after blind thoracentesis and closed PB were enrolled in this study. PB specimens were obtained through CT-guided core needle biopsy of pleural lesion, then underwent PCR, AFB, histopathological examination, and some routine tests. Diagnostic values were evaluated through sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy.A total of 261 participants (TB group: 241, non-TB group: 20) were recruited. In this cohort, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 56.0%, 95.0%, and 59.0%, respectively for PCR, whereas 57.3%, 95.0%, and 60.2%, respectively for AFB. Their parallel test achieved an improved sensitivity (76.8%) and accuracy (77.8%), with a slight decrease in specificity (90.0%). In histopathological examination, granuloma was the most common finding in TB group (88.4%, 213/241), but also observed in non-TB group (10.0%, 2/20). In addition, pleural lymphocyte percentage in TB group was significantly higher than that of non-TB group (92% vs 61%, respectively; P?=?.003). However, no significant differences were found for other biomarkers.CT-guided core needle PB is essential for patients with exudative PE but undiagnosed after blind thoracentesis. Combining with PCR and AFB, it strongly improves the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy.
Project description:Exudative pleural effusions, such as malignant and tuberculous pleural effusions, are associated with notable morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, a significant number of these effusions will remain undiagnosed despite thoracentesis. Traditionally, closed pleural biopsies have been the next best diagnostic step, but the diagnostic yield of blind closed pleural biopsies for malignant pleural effusions is insufficient. When image-guided targeted biopsies are not possible, both pleuroscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery are reasonable options for obtaining pleural biopsies, but the decision to select one procedure over the other continues to raise much debate. Pleuroscopy (aka. medical thoracoscopy, local anaesthetic thoracoscopy) is a relatively common procedure performed by interventional pulmonologists in the bronchoscopy suite with local anesthesia, often as an outpatient procedure, on spontaneously breathing patients. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, on the other hand, is performed by thoracic surgeons in the operating room, on mechanically ventilated patients under general anesthesia, though admittedly considerable overlap exists in practice. Both pleuroscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery have reported diagnostic yields of over 90%, although pleuroscopy more often leads to the unsatisfactory diagnosis of 'non-specific' pleuritis. These cases of 'non-specific' pleuritis need to be followed up for at least one year, as 10-15% of them will eventually lead to the diagnosis of cancer, typically malignant pleural mesothelioma. Both procedures have their pros and cons, and it is therefore of paramount importance that all cases be discussed as part of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis within a "pleural team" that should ideally include interventional pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons.
Project description:Conventional Abrams biopsy shows low sensitivity in suspected malignant pleural disease. There are limited data on the improvement in sensitivity by adding in image guidance. This retrospective study compares the diagnostic sensitivity of Abrams biopsy using ultrasound guidance with CT-guided Tru-Cut biopsy in suspected malignant pleural disease.Data were collected from 2006 to 2012 of patients who underwent image-guided biopsies for suspected non-tuberculous pleural disease. Data were collected on the result of the initial biopsy and final patient diagnosis as of June 2015.Sixty-three patients underwent image-guided Abrams biopsy and 29 underwent CT-guided Tru-Cut biopsies. The sensitivity of Abrams was 71.43 % compared to 75 % in the CT-guided Tru-Cut group. Specificity was 100 % in both groups.Image-guided Abrams biopsies demonstrate comparable diagnostic sensitivity in malignant pleural disease to CT-guided Tru-Cut biopsy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pleurisy is traditionally indicated by extreme lymphocytosis in pleural fluid and low yield of effusion culture. However, there is considerable inconsistency among previous study results. In addition, these data should be updated due to early effusion studies and advances in culture methods. METHODS: From January 2004 to June 2009, patients with tuberculous pleurisy were retrospectively identified from the mycobacteriology laboratories and the pathology and tuberculosis registration databases of two hospitals in Taiwan where tuberculosis is endemic. Pleural fluid characteristics and yields of mycobacterial cultures using liquid media were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 382 patients with tuberculous pleurisy were identified. The median lymphocyte percentage of total cells in pleural fluids was 84% (IQR 64-95%) and 17% of cases had a lymphocyte percentage of <50%. The lymphocyte percentage was negatively associated with the probability of a positive effusion culture (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99). The diagnostic yields were 63% for effusion culture, 48% for sputum culture, 79% for the combination of effusion and sputum cultures, and 74% for histological examination of pleural biopsy specimens. CONCLUSION: The degree of lymphocyte predominance in tuberculous pleurisy was lower than was previously thought. The lymphocyte percentage in pleural fluid was negatively associated with the probability of a positive effusion culture. With the implementation of a liquid culture method, the sensitivity of effusion culture was much higher than has been previously reported, and the combination of effusion and sputum cultures provided a good diagnostic yield.
Project description:Background:Anhydrous ethanol, for its part, has been successfully used to treat renal cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma and ovarian chocolate cyst et al. However, in spite of the high frequency of tuberculous purulent pleural effusion, we found that only a few very early studies that attempted to assess the use of intrapleural anhydrous ethanol in tuberculous effusions with signs of empyema. We report a patient who was injected anhydrous ethanol into pleural cavity to treat chronic tuberculous empyema. Case presentation:A 23-year old male was admitted in the hospital because of chronic tuberculous empyema. Ultra-sonography guided thoracentesis and thoracic close drainages were done, but had no effect. However, the patient refused Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) and traditional thoracotomy. Therefore, we injected anhydrous ethanol into the pleural cavity after getting the patient's consent. Pyothorax was quickly controlled and the patient finally recovered fully. Conclusion:Surgical operation is the main treatment of chronic tuberculous empyema, which has a high cost and large injury, and many patients do not accept this treatment. In this study, intrapleural injection of anhydrous ethanol could achieve the purpose of eliminating the pus cavity, which is particularly suitable for patients who cannot tolerate surgery or are unwilling to undergo surgical treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tuberculous pleurisy (TBP) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, rapid diagnostic methods with high accuracy for tuberculous pleurisy are urgently needed. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF, LAMP and SAT-TB assay with pleural fluids from culture-positive TBP patients. METHODS:We prospectively enrolled 300 patients with exudative pleural effusions used as the samples for Xpert MTB/RIF, LAMP and SAT-TB assay. Of these, 265 including 223 patients diagnosed with TBP and 42 non-TBP patients used as controls were analyzed. RESULTS:The sensitivities of Xpert MTB/RIF (27.4%), LAMP (26.5%) and SAT-TB assay (32.3%) were significantly higher than that of pleural effusion smear (14.3%, X2?=?20.65, P?<? 0.001), whereas they were much lower than expected for the analysis of pleural effusion samples. Both SAT-TB assay and Xpert MTB/RIF demonstrated high specificities (100%) and PPVs (100%), but the NPVs of all of the tests were?<?22%. The area under ROC curve of pleural effusion smear, LAMP, Xpert MTB/RIF and SAT-TB assays was 0.524 (95% CI 0.431-0.617), 0.632 (95% CI 0.553-0.71), 0.637 (95% CI 0.56-0.714) and 0.673 (95% CI 0.6-0.745). SAT-TB assays had the highest AUC. CONCLUSION:Nucleic acid amplification tests are not the first choice in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. In this type of test, SAT-TB is recommended because of its low cost, relatively more accurate compared with the other two tests. This prospective study was approved by The Ethics Committee of the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (approval number: K19-148). TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ChiCTR1900026234 (Retrospectively registered). The registration date is September 28, 2019.
Project description:Pleural fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components that results in destruction of the normal pleural tissue architecture. It can result from diverse inflammatory conditions, especially tuberculous pleurisy. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) play a pivotal role in pleural fibrosis. Calpain is a family of calcium-dependent endopeptidases, which plays an important role in ECM remodeling. However, the role of calpain in pleural fibrosis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) induced calpain activation in PMCs and that inhibition of calpain prevented TPE-induced collagen-I synthesis and cell proliferation of PMCs. Moreover, our data revealed that the levels of angiotensin (ANG)-converting enzyme (ACE) were significantly higher in pleural fluid of patients with TPE than those with malignant pleural effusion, and ACE-ANG II in TPE resulted in activation of calpain and subsequent triggering of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway in PMCs. Finally, calpain activation in PMCs and collagen depositions were confirmed in pleural biopsy specimens from patients with tuberculous pleurisy. Together, these studies demonstrated that calpain is activated by renin-angiotensin system in pleural fibrosis and mediates TPE-induced collagen-I synthesis and proliferation of PMCs via the PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway. Calpain in PMCs might be a novel target for intervention in tuberculous pleural fibrosis.
Project description:Establishing the etiology of exudative pleural effusions in the setting of an unrevealing pleural fluid analysis often requires biopsies from the parietal pleura. While closed pleural biopsy (CPB) has been a popular minimally-invasive approach, it has a poor diagnostic yield, barring a diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. Medical thoracoscopy (MT) is a minimally-invasive ambulatory procedure performed under local anesthesia or moderate sedation which allows for direct visualization of biopsy targets as well as simultaneous therapeutic interventions, including chemical pleurodesis and indwelling tunneled pleural catheter (ITPC) placement. The excellent yield and favorable safety profile of MT has led to it replacing CPB for many indications, particularly in the management of suspected malignant pleural effusions. As experience with MT amongst interventional pulmonologists has grown, there is an increased appreciation for its important role alongside percutaneous and surgical approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of pleural disease.
Project description:Background: The diagnostic value of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count for tuberculous pleurisy (TBP) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count and its combination with adenosine deaminase (ADA) in TBP patients. Methods: We initially analyzed 296 patients with unknown pleural effusion from the Department of Respiratory Medicine at Provincial People's Hospital during January 2014 to February 2018. Ultimately, 100 tuberculous pleurisy (TBP) patients and 105 non-tuberculous pleurisy (non-TBP) patients with pleural effusion were investigated in the current study. Meanwhile, pleural effusion mononuclear cells count and ADA test were performed to evaluate the diagnostic value for TBP. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count only and its combination with ADA for TBP diagnosis were investigated. Results: (i) The best cut-off value of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count for TBP diagnosis was 969.6 × 106/L, with the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 76, 57, and 66%, respectively. (ii) Combination of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count and ADA test suggested diagnostic value for TBP. Specifically, serial test showed the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 65, 90, 78%, respectively, whereas parallel test revealed the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 92, 45, 68%, respectively. The sensitivity of parallel test (92%) was significantly higher than pleural effusion mononuclear cells count alone (76%) (X2 = 23.19, p < 0.001). (iii) The area under the ROC of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count and it combined with ADA were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.59-0.72) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.78-0.89), respectively, with statistically significant difference (Z = 3.46, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This retrospective case-control study demonstrated that pleural effusion mononuclear cells count is relatively useful for TBP diagnosis. Furthermore, the pleural effusion mononuclear cells count in combination with ADA can further improve the diagnostic accuracy of TBP.
Project description:Tuberculous pleurisy is one of the most common types of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, but its diagnosis remains difficult. In this study, we report for the first time on the detection of cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA in pleural effusion and an evaluation of a newly developed molecular assay for the detection of cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA. A total of 78 patients with pleural effusion, 60 patients with tuberculous pleurisy, and 18 patients with alternative diseases were included in this study. Mycobacterial culture, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, the adenosine deaminase assay, the T-SPOT.TB assay, and the cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA assay were performed on all the pleural effusion samples. The cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA assay and adenosine deaminase assay showed significantly higher sensitivities of 75.0% and 68.3%, respectively, than mycobacterial culture and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, which had sensitivities of 26.7% and 20.0%, respectively (<i>P</i> < 0.01). All four of these tests showed good specificities: 88.9% for the adenosine deaminase assay and 100% for the remaining three assays. The T-SPOT.TB assay with pleural effusion showed the highest sensitivity of 95.0% but the lowest specificity of 38.9%. The cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA assay detected as few as 1.25 copies of IS<i>6110</i> per ml of pleural effusion and showed good accordance of the results between repeated tests (<i>r</i> = 0.978, <i>P</i> = 2.84 × 10<sup>-10</sup>). These data suggest that the cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA assay is a rapid and accurate molecular test which provides direct evidence of <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> etiology.