Distribution of Clinical Rotations Among Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in the United States.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:There are over 200 emergency medicine (EM) residency programs in the United States. While there are basic criteria defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), there can be significant variation between programs with regard to rotation distribution. Therefore, it would be valuable to have a benchmark for programs to understand their rotation mix in the context of the national landscape. This study aimed to provide a breakdown of the length and percentage of EM residency programs with each clinical rotation in the United States. This study also sought to examine trends and changes in EM residency programs since 1986. Methods:A list of all current EM residency programs was obtained using the ACGME website. All program websites were reviewed, and data were independently dual extracted by two investigators with discrepancies resolved by consensus with a third investigator. Programs without curricular data available online were queried via e-mail for the data. Programs were separated into 3- versus 4-year lengths. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated for each rotation. Results:A total of 200 of 202 programs (99%) had data available. Of these programs, 84.5% had a dedicated pediatric EM rotation with mean length of 9.7 weeks among 3-year programs and 12.1 weeks among 4-year programs. A total of 88% had a dedicated ultrasound rotation, 60% had a dedicated toxicology rotation, 73.5% had a dedicated emergency medical services rotation, 74% had a dedicated orthopedics rotation, 60% had a dedicated administration rotation, 29% had a dedicated research rotation, and 95% had dedicated elective time. Discussion:This study provides summative data regarding the rotation distribution among EM programs in the United States. Compared with prior data, there is less time dedicated to internal medicine rotations and increased pediatric, trauma, ultrasound, toxicology, and critical care experiences. These data will inform current and new EM residency programs when determining rotation selection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME) requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM) residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-training programs are faced with numerous barriers. Many residency programs report having been cited by the ACGME residency review committee in IM for lack of scholarly activity by residents. METHODS: We would like to share our experience at Lincoln Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College Cornell University New York, in designing and implementing a successful structured research curriculum based on ACGME competencies taught during a dedicated "research rotation". RESULTS: Since the inception of the research rotation in 2004, participation of our residents among scholarly activities has substantially increased. Our residents increasingly believe and appreciate that research is an integral component of residency training and essential for practice of medicine. CONCLUSION: Internal medicine residents' outlook in research can be significantly improved using a research curriculum offered through a structured and dedicated research rotation. This is exemplified by the improvement noted in resident satisfaction, their participation in scholarly activities and resident research outcomes since the inception of the research rotation in our internal medicine training program.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Professionalism is a vital component of quality patient care. While competency in professionalism is Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-mandated, the methods used to evaluate professionalism are not standardized, calling into question the validity of reported measurements. We aimed to determine the type and frequency of methods used by United States (US) -based emergency medicine (EM) residencies to assess accountability (Acc) and professional values (PV), as well as how often graduating residents achieve competency in these areas. METHODS:We created a cross-sectional survey exploring assessment and perceived competency in Acc and PV, and then modified the survey for content and clarity through feedback from emergency physicians not involved in the study. The final survey was sent to the clinical competency committee (CCC) chair or program director (PD) of the 185 US-based ACGME-accredited EM residencies. We summarized results using descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact testing. RESULTS:A total of 121 programs (65.4%) completed the survey. The most frequently used methods of assessment were faculty shift evaluation (89.7%), CCC opinion (86.8%), and faculty summative evaluation (76.4%). Overall, 37% and 42% of residency programs stated that nearly all (greater than 95%) of their graduating residents achieve mastery of Acc and PV non-technical skills, respectively. Only 11.2% of respondents felt their programs were very effective at determining mastery of non-technical skills. CONCLUSION:EM residency programs relied heavily on faculty shift evaluations and summative opinions to determine resident competency in professionalism, with feedback from peers, administrators, and other staff less frequently incorporated. Few residency programs felt their current methods of evaluating professionalism were very effective.
Project description:PURPOSE:The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires all residency programs to provide increasing autonomy as residents progress through training, known as graded responsibility. However, there is little guidance on how to implement graded responsibility in practice and a paucity of literature on how it is currently implemented in emergency medicine (EM). We sought to determine how emergency medicine (EM) residency programs apply graded responsibility across a variety of activities and to identify which considerations are important in affording additional responsibilities to trainees. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study of EM residency programs using a 23-question survey that was distributed by email to 162 ACGME-accredited EM program directors. Seven different domains of practice were queried. RESULTS:We received 91 responses (56.2% response rate) to the survey. Among all domains of practice except for managing critically ill medical patients, the use of graded responsibility exceeded 50% of surveyed programs. When graded responsibility was applied, post-graduate year (PGY) level was ranked an "extremely important" or "very important" consideration between 80.9% and 100.0% of the time. CONCLUSION:The majority of EM residency programs are implementing graded responsibility within most domains of practice. When decisions are made surrounding graded responsibility, programs still rely heavily on the time-based model of PGY level to determine advancement.
Project description:The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) were invited to contribute to the 2016 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME) Second Resident Duty Hours in the Learning and Working Environment Congress. We describe the joint process used by ACEP and CORD to capture the opinions of emergency medicine (EM) educators on the ACGME clinical and educational work hour standards, formulate recommendations, and inform subsequent congressional testimony.In 2016 our joint working group of experts in EM medical education conducted a consensus-based, mixed-methods process using survey data from medical education stakeholders in EM and expert iterative discussions to create organizational position statements and recommendations for revisions of work hour standards. A 19-item survey was administered to a convenience sample of 199 EM residency training programs using a national EM educational listserv.A total of 157 educational leaders responded to the survey; 92 of 157 could be linked to specific programs, yielding a targeted response rate of 46.2% (92/199) of programs. Respondents commented on the impact of clinical and educational work-hour standards on patient safety, programmatic and personnel costs, resident caseload, and educational experience. Using survey results, comments, and iterative discussions, organizational recommendations were crafted and submitted to the ACGME.EM educators believe that ACGME clinical and educational work hour standards negatively impact the learning environment and are not optimal for promoting patient safety or the development of resident professional citizenship.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in global health among medical trainees. Medical schools and residencies are responding to this trend by offering global health opportunities within their programs. Among United States (US) graduating pediatric residents, 40% choose to subspecialize after residency training. There is limited data, however, regarding global health opportunities within traditional post-residency, subspecialty fellowship training programs. The objectives of this study were to explore the availability and type of global health opportunities within Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited pediatric subspecialty fellowship training programs, as noted by their online report, and to document change in these opportunities over time. METHODS: The authors performed a systematic online review of ACGME-accredited fellowship training programs within a convenience sample of six US pediatric subspecialties. Utilizing two data sources, the American Medical Association-Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database Access (AMA-FREIDA) and individual program websites, all programs were coded for global health opportunities and opportunity types were stratified into predefined categories. Comparisons were made between 2008 and 2011 using Fisher exact test. All analyses were conducted using SAS Software v. 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). RESULTS: Of the 355 and 360 programs reviewed in 2008 and 2011 respectively, there was an increase in total number of programs listing global health opportunities on AMA-FREIDA (16% to 23%, p=0.02) and on individual program websites (8% to 16%, p=0.004). Nearly all subspecialties had an increased percentage of programs offering global health opportunities on both data sources; although only critical care experienced a significant increase (p=0.04, AMA-FREIDA). The types of opportunities differed across all subspecialties. CONCLUSIONS: Global health opportunities among ACGME-accredited pediatric subspecialty fellowship programs are limited, but increasing as noted by their online report. The availability and types of these opportunities differ by pediatric subspecialty.
Project description:PURPOSE:The prevalence and nature of clinical pharmacy services in academic emergency departments (EDs) were studied. METHODS:A Web-based survey instrument consisting of questions regarding clinical pharmacy services available in the ED was developed based on a review of the current literature and expert consensus. The revised instrument was sent to a representative of all emergency medicine (EM) residency programs listed in the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine residency catalog in June 2006. The survey included questions addressing characteristics of the institution and the availability and nature of various pharmacy services in the ED. EM physicians were deliberately targeted so that the results would represent the ED staff's perceptions of their use of pharmacy services. Only respondents' primary residency hospital sites were considered. Data were compiled and analyzed using descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS:Of the 135 EM residency programs surveyed, 99 responses (73%) were received. Eight percent of institutions reported that a dedicated pharmacist was available in the ED 24 hours a day, 22% reported partial coverage in the ED, and 70% reported no coverage. Six percent reported the presence of a satellite pharmacy located in the ED that was staffed by a pharmacist. The most common clinical pharmacy services reported in EDs with pharmacy coverage were modification of inventory according to formulary status, provision of drug or toxicology information, and adverse-drug-event reporting. CONCLUSION:A minority of respondents from academic EDs reported that clinical services are provided by a pharmacist working in the ED.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Limited information is available regarding the current state of neurocritical care education for neurology residents. The goal of our survey was to assess the need and current state of neurocritical care training for neurology residents. METHODS: A survey instrument was developed and, with the support of the American Academy of Neurology, distributed to residency program directors of 132 accredited neurology programs in the United States in 2011. RESULTS: A response rate of 74% (98 of 132) was achieved. A dedicated neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) existed in 64%. Fifty-six percent of residency programs offer a dedicated rotation in the neuro-ICU, lasting 4 weeks on average. Where available, the neuro-ICU rotation was required in the vast majority (91%) of programs. Neurology residents' exposure to the fundamental principles of neurocritical care was obtained through a variety of mechanisms. Of program directors, 37% indicated that residents would be interested in performing away rotations in a neuro-ICU. From 2005 to 2010, the number of programs sending at least one resident into a neuro-ICU fellowship increased from 14% to 35%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the expansion of neurocritical care, large proportions of US neurology residents have limited exposure to a neuro-ICU and neurointensivists. Formal training in the principles of neurocritical care may be highly variable. The results of this survey suggest a charge to address the variability of resident education and to develop standardized curricula in neurocritical care for neurology residents.
Project description:Emergency medicine (EM) residency interviews are an important, yet costly process for programs and applicants. The total economic burden of the EM interviewing process is previously unstudied. Graduate medical education funding and student finances are both fragile shifting sources, which appear to fund most of these economic expenditures.The total economic impact of the EM interview season is unknown. This study sought to calculate total dollars spent by EM residency programs and senior medical students (M4) during interview season. Potential solutions for reducing this burden will be outlined.Institutional review board-approved, piloted e-mail surveys were sent to accredited (Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education [ACGME] and American Osteopathic Association [AOA]) EM program directors (PDs) and M4 student members of EMRA. PDs were queried after the 2014-2015 interview season. PDs questions included demographics, estimated faculty, and resident and administrative time used, along with dollars spent during the 2014-2015 interview season. M4 questions included demographics and dollars spent during the 2015-2016 season. Results were reported using descriptive statistics. Financial data for EM programs were calculated with academic EM faculty, resident, and administrative assistant salaries along with reported hours used during the interview season.A total of 82 of 223 EM PDs completed the survey, reporting an mean annual cost of $210,649.04 per program to review, screen, and interview applicants based on time spent by faculty, resident, and administrative assistants. A total of 84.6% of EM program costs were due to faculty hours. A total of 180 of 1,425 EM-bound M4 students completed the survey, reporting a mean annual estimate of US$5,065.44 per student to apply and interview. Seventy-two percent of estimated costs were due to airfare and lodging. Loans and credit cards were the top two methods of payments of these interview costs by students. Extrapolating the cost of EM personnel with hours spent, the economic burden of an interview season for EM programs is approximately US$46,974,735.92. M4 students spent US$19,724,823.40 for application fees and interview-related expenses.Emergency medicine residency programs and applicants appear to spend over US$66 million per cycle on the interview process. EM residency programs may save resources by reducing faculty hours associated with the interview process and leveraging administrative and resident resources. Creation of regional or national fixed interview locations may also be appropriate. Applicants may reduce travel costs by participating in video interviews, reducing program applications, and attending regionalized interview days. A full conversation among all specialties and organized medicine needs to take place to reform the systems in place to reduce the economic burden on students and residency programs.
Project description:Background:Many hospitals have or will be opening an observation unit (OU), the majority managed by the emergency department (ED). Graduating emergency medicine (EM) residents will be expected to have the knowledge and skills necessary to appropriately identify and manage patients in this setting. Our objective is to examine the current state of observation medicine (OM) education and prevalence in EM training. Methods:In a follow-up to the 2019 Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) OM Interest Group meeting, we convened an expert panel of OM physicians who are members of both the SAEM OM Interest Group and the American College of Emergency Physicians Section of OM. The panel of six emergency physicians representing geographic diversity was formed. A structured literature review was performed yielding 16 educational publications and sources pertaining to OM education and training across all specialties. Report on the Existing Literature:Only a small number of EM residencies have a required or elective OM rotation in an OU. An OM rotation in a protocol-driven ED OU gives residents experience managing patients in this setting and improves skills integral to EM and part of the EM milestones and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies: reassessment, disposition decision making, risk stratification, team management, and practicing cost-appropriate care. Even without a formal rotation, multiple OM educational resources can be incorporated into EM resident education and didactics. Education research opportunity exists. Conclusions:This panel believes that OM is an important component of EM that should be incorporated into EM residency as the knowledge and skills learned such as risk stratification, disposition decision making, and team management augment those needed for the practice of EM. There is a distinct opportunity for EM educators to better equip their trainees for a career in EM by including OM education and experience in EM residency training.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Neurovascular and neurocritical care emergencies constitute a leading cause of morbidity/mortality. There has been great evolution in this field, including but not limited to extended time-window therapeutic interventions for acute ischemic stroke. The intent of this article is to evaluate the goals and future direction of clinical rotations in neurovascular and neurocritical care for emergency medicine (EM) residents.<h4>Methods</h4>A panel of 13 board-certified emergency physicians from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) neurologic emergencies interest group (IG) convened in response to a call for publications-three with fellowship training/board certification in stroke and/or neurocritical care; five with advanced research degrees; three who have been authors on national practice guidelines; and six who have held clinical duties within neurology, neurosurgery, or neurocritical care. A mixed-methods analysis was performed including a review of the literature, a survey of Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) residency leaders/faculty and SAEM neuro-IG members, and a consensus review by this panel of select neurology rotations provided by IG faculty.<h4>Results</h4>Thirteen articles for residency neurovascular education were identified: three studies on curriculum, three studies evaluating knowledge, and seven studies evaluating knowledge after an educational intervention. Intervention outcomes included the ability to recognize and manage acute strokes, manage intracerebral hemorrhage, calculate National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and interpret images. In the survey sent to CORD residency leaders and neuro-IG faculty, response was obtained from 48 programs. A total of 52.1% indicated having a required rotation (6.2% general neurology, 2% stroke service, 18.8% neurologic intensive care unit, 2% neurosurgery, 22.9% on a combination of services). The majority of programs with required rotations have a combination rotation (residents rotate through multiple services) and evaluations were positive.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Variability exists in the availability of neurovascular/neurocritical care rotations for EM trainees. Dedicated clinical time in neurologic education was beneficial to participants. Given recent advancements in the field, augmentation of EM residency training in this area merits strong consideration.