Advantages of Molecular Weight Identification during Native MS Screening.
ABSTRACT: Native mass spectrometry detection of ligand-protein complexes allowed rapid detection of natural product binders of apo and calcium-bound S100A4 (a member of the metal binding protein S100 family), T cell/transmembrane, immunoglobulin (Ig), and mucin protein 3, and T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif) domains precursor protein from extracts and fractions. Based on molecular weight common hits were detected binding to all four proteins. Seven common hits were identified as apigenin 6-C-?-D-glucoside 8-C-?-L-arabinoside, sweroside, 4',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone-6-C-rutinoside, loganin acid, 6-C-glucosylnaringenin, biochanin A 7-O-rutinoside and quercetin 3-O-rutinoside. Mass guided isolation and NMR identification of hits confirmed the mass accuracy of the ligand in the ligand-protein MS complexes. Thus, molecular weight ID from ligand-protein complexes by electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry allowed rapid dereplication. Native mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry is a tool for dereplication and metabolomics analysis.
Project description:Native protein mass spectrometry (MS), the measurement of proteins and protein complexes from non-denaturing solutions, with electrospray ionization (ESI) has utility in the biological sciences. Protein complexes exceeding 1?MDa have been measured by MS and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and the data yields information not only regarding size, but structural details can be revealed also. ESI-IMS allows the relative stability of protein-ligand binding to be measured. Top-down MS, the direct dissociation of the intact gas phase biomolecule, can generate sequence and identity information for monomeric (denatured) proteins, and topology information for noncovalent protein complexes. For protein complexes with small molecule ligands, i.e., drugs, cofactors, metals, etc., top-down MS with electron capture dissociation can be used to elucidate the site(s) of ligand binding. Increasing protein ESI charging, e.g., supercharging, enhances the efficiency for dissociation of protein complexes.
Project description:Native ambient mass spectrometry has the potential for simultaneous analysis of native protein structure and spatial distribution within thin tissue sections. Notwithstanding sensitivity, this information can, in principle, be obtained for any protein present with no requirement for a priori knowledge of protein identity. To date, native ambient mass spectrometry has primarily made use of the liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) sampling technique. Here, we address a fundamental question: Are the protein structures observed following native liquid extraction surface analysis representative of the protein structures within the substrate, or does the extraction process facilitate refolding (or unfolding)? Specifically, our aim was to determine whether protein-ligand complexes observed following LESA are indicative of complexes present in the substrate, or an artifact of the sampling process. The systems investigated were myoglobin and its noncovalently bound heme cofactor, and the Zn-binding protein carbonic anhydrase and its binding with ethoxzolamide. Charge state distributions, drift time profiles, and collision cross sections were determined by liquid extraction surface analysis ion mobility mass spectrometry of native and denatured proteins and compared with those obtained by direct infusion electrospray. The results show that it was not possible to refold denatured proteins with concomitant ligand binding (neither heme, zinc, nor ethoxzolamide) simply by use of native-like LESA solvents. That is, protein-ligand complexes were only observed by LESA MS when present in the substrate.
Project description:Electrospray mass spectrometry is applied to determine apparent binding energies and quasi equilibrium dissociation constants of immune complex dissociation reactions in the gas phase. Myoglobin, a natural protein-ligand complex, has been used to develop the procedure which starts from determining mean charge states and normalized and averaged ion intensities. The apparent dissociation constant KD m0g#= 3.60 × 10-12 for the gas phase heme dissociation process was calculated from the mass spectrometry data and by subsequent extrapolation to room temperature to mimic collision conditions for neutral and resting myoglobin. Similarly, for RNAse S dissociation at room temperature a KD m0g#= 4.03 × 10-12 was determined. The protocol was tested with two immune complexes consisting of epitope peptides and monoclonal antibodies. For the epitope peptide dissociation reaction of the FLAG peptide from the antiFLAG antibody complex an apparent gas phase dissociation constant KD m0g#= 4.04 × 10-12 was calculated. Likewise, an apparent KD m0g#= 4.58 × 10-12 was calculated for the troponin I epitope peptide-antiTroponin I antibody immune complex dissociation. Electrospray mass spectrometry is a rapid method, which requires small sample amounts for either identification of protein-bound ligands or for determination of the apparent gas phase protein-ligand complex binding strengths.
Project description:Deoxyoligonucleotide binding to bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) was investigated using electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS). Deoxyoligonucleotides included CCCCC (dC 5) and CCACC (dC 2AC 2). This work was an attempt to develop a biochemistry lab experience that would introduce undergraduates to the use of mass spectrometry for the analysis of protein-ligand interactions. Titration experiments were performed using a fixed RNase A concentration and variable deoxyoligonucleotide concentrations. Samples at equilibrium were infused directly into the mass spectrometer under native conditions. For each deoxyoligonucleotide, mass spectra showed one-to-one binding stoichiometry, with marked increases in the total ion abundance of ligand-bound RNase A complexes as a function of concentration, but the accurate determination of dC 5 and dC 2AC 2 dissociation constants was problematic.
Project description:Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is used to analyze metal species in a variety of samples. Here, we describe an application for identifying metal species by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) with the release of free metals from the corresponding metal-ligand complexes. The MS/MS data were used to elucidate the possible fragmentation pathways of different metal-deoxymugineic acid (-DMA) and metal-nicotianamine (-NA) complexes and select the product ions with highest abundance that may be useful for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring. This method can be used for identifying different metal-ligand complexes, especially for metal species whose mass spectra peaks are clustered close together. Different metal-DMA/NA complexes were simultaneously identified under different physiological pH conditions with this method. We further demonstrated the application of the technique for different plant samples and with different MS instruments.
Project description:The non-covalent interactions between small drug molecules and disease-related proteins (ligand-target interactions) mediate various pharmacological processes in the treatment of different diseases. The development of the analytical methods to assess those interactions, including binding sites, binding energies, stoichiometry and association-dissociation constants, could assist in clarifying the mechanisms of action, precise treatment of targeted diseases as well as the targeted drug discovery. For the last decades, mass spectrometry (MS) has been recognized as a powerful tool to study the non-covalent interactions of the ligand-target complexes with the characteristics of high sensitivity, high-resolution, and high-throughput. Soft ionization mass spectrometry, especially the electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), could achieve the complete transformation of the target analytes into the gas phase, and subsequent detection of the small drug molecules and disease-related protein complexes, and has exerted great advantages for studying the drug ligands-protein targets interactions, even in case of identifying active components as drug ligands from crude extracts of medicinal plants. Despite of other analytical techniques for this purpose, such as the NMR and X-ray crystallography, this review highlights the principles, research hotspots and recent applications of the soft ionization mass spectrometry and its hyphenated techniques, including hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CX-MS), and ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry (IMS-MS), in the study of the non-covalent interactions between small drug molecules and disease-related proteins.
Project description:Mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility with electrospray ionization (ESI) have the capability to measure and detect large noncovalent protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes. Using an ion mobility method of gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (GEMMA), protein particles representing a range of sizes can be separated by their electrophoretic mobility in air. Highly charged particles produced from a protein complex solution using electrospray can be manipulated to produce singly charged ions, which can be separated and quantified by their electrophoretic mobility. Results from ESI-GEMMA analysis from our laboratory and others were compared with other experimental and theoretically determined parameters, such as molecular mass and cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray crystal structure dimensions. There is a strong correlation between the electrophoretic mobility diameter determined from GEMMA analysis and the molecular mass for protein complexes up to 12 MDa, including the 93 kDa enolase dimer, the 480 kDa ferritin 24-mer complex, the 4.6 MDa cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), and the 9 MDa MVP-vault assembly. ESI-GEMMA is used to differentiate a number of similarly sized vault complexes that are composed of different N-terminal protein tags on the MVP subunit. The average effective density of the proteins and protein complexes studied was 0.6 g/cm(3). Moreover, there is evidence that proteins and protein complexes collapse or become more compact in the gas phase in the absence of water.
Project description:We have previously shown that liquid sample desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is able to measure large proteins and noncovalently bound protein complexes (to 150 kDa) (Ferguson et al., Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 6468-6473). In this study, we further investigate the application of liquid sample DESI-MS to probe protein-ligand interactions. Liquid sample DESI allows the direct formation of intact protein-ligand complex ions by spraying ligands toward separate protein sample solutions. This type of "reactive" DESI methodology can provide rapid information on binding stiochiometry, selectivity, and kinetics, as demonstrated by the binding of ribonuclease A (RNaseA, 13.7 kDa) with cytidine nucleotide ligands and the binding of lysozyme (14.3 kDa) with acetyl chitose ligands. A higher throughput method for ligand screening by liquid sample DESI was demonstrated, in which different ligands were sequentially injected as a segmented flow for DESI ionization. Furthermore, supercharging to enhance analyte charge can be integrated with liquid sample DESI-MS, without interfering with the formation of protein-ligand complexes.
Project description:Mass spectrometry (MS) applications for intact protein complexes typically require electrospray (ES) ionization and have not been achieved via direct desorption from surfaces. Desorption ES ionization (DESI) MS has however transformed the study of tissue surfaces through release and characterisation of small molecules. Motivated by the desire to screen for ligand binding to intact protein complexes we report the development of a native DESI platform. By establishing conditions that preserve non-covalent interactions we exploit the surface to capture a rapid turnover enzyme-substrate complex and to optimise detergents for membrane protein study. We demonstrate binding of lipids and drugs to membrane proteins deposited on surfaces and selectivity from a mix of related agonists for specific binding to a GPCR. Overall therefore we introduce this native DESI platform with the potential for high-throughput ligand screening of some of the most challenging drug targets including GPCRs.
Project description:A complex of a binucleating macrocyclic ligand comprising a [Cu(II)(?-OH)Na](2+) core reacts with CuI in THF/CH3CN to yield a novel species with a deprotonated 2-hydroxytetrahydrofuran (THF-2-ol) bridging between Cu(II) and Na(I) ions. The complexes were characterized by X-ray crystallography, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (18)O-labeling studies support incorporation of the O atom from ?-OH into the coordinated THF-2-ol ligand.