Anatomical subsite can modify the association between meat and meat compounds and risk of colorectal adenocarcinoma: Findings from three large US cohorts.
ABSTRACT: Distal and proximal colon tumors have distinct incidence trends and embryonic origins; whether these sub-sites have distinct susceptibilities to known risk factors is unclear. We used pooled data from 407,270 participants in three US-based studies, with overall median follow-up of 13.8 years. We used adjusted Cox models to analyze the association between dietary intakes (from diet history questionnaire) of total, processed and unprocessed red meat; total white meat, poultry and fish and meat-related compounds: heme iron, nitrate, nitrite, the heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and incidence of colorectal cancer subsites. The risk of colorectal cancer (n = 6,640) increased by 35% for each 50 g/1,000 kcal higher daily intake of total red meat, with a significant right-to-left trend from proximal colon (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.09-1.39) to distal colon (HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.13-1.55) and rectum (HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.28-1.79). Only unprocessed red meat showed a significant right-to-left trend. Each 50 g/1,000 kcal increase in white meat intake was associated with a 26% reduction in total colorectal cancer risk (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.68-0.80), with a significant inverse right-to-left trend. The highest quintile of heme iron was associated with increased cancer risk only in the distal colon (HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02-1.42) and rectum (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.07-1.52). The highest quintile of HCAs, and nitrate/nitrite were associated with increased risk of total colorectal cancer, but these associations did not vary across anatomical subsites. In summary, right and left subsites of the colon may have distinct susceptibilities to meat and possibly other dietary risk factors, suggesting that the causes of colorectal cancer may vary across anatomical subsites.
Project description:Although the association between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) is well established, the association across subsites of the colon and rectum remains uncertain, as does time of consumption in relation to cancer development. As these relationships are key for understanding the pathogenesis of CRC, they were examined in two large cohorts with repeated dietary measures over time, the Nurses' Health Study (n = 87,108 women, 1980-2010) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 47,389 men, 1986-2010). Cox proportional hazards regression models generated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), which were pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. In combined cohorts, there were 2,731 CRC cases (1,151 proximal colon, 816 distal colon, and 589 rectum). In pooled analyses, processed red meat was positively associated with CRC risk (per 1 serving/day increase: HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32; P for trend 0.03) and particularly with distal colon cancer (per 1 serving/day increase; HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09-1.69; P for trend 0.006). Recent consumption of processed meat (within the past 4 years) was not associated with distal cancer. Unprocessed red meat was inversely associated with risk of distal colon cancer and a weak non-significant positive association between unprocessed red meat and proximal cancer was observed (per 1 serving/day increase: distal HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68-0.82; P for trend <0.001; proximal HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.92-1.40; P for trend 0.22). Thus, in these two large cohorts of US health professionals, processed meat intake was positively associated with risk of CRC, particularly distal cancer, with little evidence that higher intake of unprocessed red meat substantially increased risk of CRC. Future studies, particularly those with sufficient sample size to assess associations by subsites across the colon are needed to confirm these findings and elucidate potentially distinct mechanisms underlying the relationship between processed meat and subtypes of unprocessed red meat with CRC.
Project description:Red meat and processed meat have been suggested to increase risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially colon cancer. However, it remains unclear whether these associations differ according to meat subtypes or colon subsites. The present study addressed this issue by undertaking a pooled analysis of large population-based cohort studies in Japan: 5 studies comprising 232 403 participants (5694 CRC cases) for analysis based on frequency of meat intake, and 2 studies comprising 123 635 participants (3550 CRC cases) for analysis based on intake quantity. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using the random effect model. Comparing the highest vs lowest quartile, beef intake was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.44) and distal colon cancer (DCC) risk in men (pooled HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61). Frequent intake of pork was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.87) for "3 times/wk or more" vs "less than 1 time/wk". Frequent intake of processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00; P trend = .04) for "almost every day" vs "less than 1 time/wk". No association was observed for chicken consumption. The present findings support that intake of beef, pork (women only), and processed red meat (women only) might be associated with a higher risk of colon (distal colon) cancer in Japanese.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Right-sided colorectal cancer (CRC) has worse survival than does left-sided CRC. The objective of this study was to further assess the impact of right-side location on survival and the role of the extent of lymphadenectomy.<h4>Methods</h4>All CRCs diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy, were included. Data for stage, grade, histology, screening history, and number of removed lymph nodes (LN) were collected. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR), with relative 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), of right vs. left colon and of removing < 12, 12-21 or > 21 lymph nodes by cancer site.<h4>Results</h4>During the study period, 29,358 patients were registered (8828 right colon, 18,852 left colon, 1678 transverse). Patients with right cancer were more often older, females, with advanced stage and high grade, and higher number of removed LNs. Five-year survival was lower in the right than in the left colon (55.2% vs 59.7%). In multivariable analysis, right colon showed a lower survival when adjusting for age, sex, and screening status (HR 1.12, 95%CI 1.04-1.21). Stratification by number of lymph nodes removed (12-21 or > 21) was associated with better survival in right colon (HR 0.54, 95%CI 0.40-0.72 and HR 0.40, 95%CI 0.30-0.55, respectively) compared to left colon (HR 0.89, 95%CI 0.76-1.06 and HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.69-1.01, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study confirms that right CRC has worse survival; the association is not due to screening status. An adequate removal of lymph nodes is associated with better survival, although the direction of the association in terms of causal links is not clear.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in cooked meats may play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development.<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to prospectively examine the association between estimated intakes of HCAs and meat-derived mutagenicity (MDM) in two cohorts of health professionals, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS).<h4>Methods</h4>In 29,615 men and 65,875 women, intake of the HCAs 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-j)quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and MDM was estimated using a 1996 cooking questionnaire, the 1994 food frequency questionnaire, and an online database. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to adjust for potential confounders. Estimates for both cohorts were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Between 1996 and 2010, 418 male and 790 female CRC cases were identified. Meat mutagen intake was not statistically significantly associated with risk of CRC [highest vs. lowest quintile, pooled HR (95% CI) for MeIQx: 1.12 (0.93, 1.34), p for trend 0.23; PhIP: 1.10 (0.90, 1.33), p for trend 0.35; MDM: 1.03 (0.86, 1.24), p for trend 0.75] or subtypes of CRC defined by tumor location (proximal or distal colon, or rectum). When analyzed by source of meat, PhIP from red but not from white meat was nonsignificantly positively associated with CRC and significantly positively associated with proximal cancers [HR (95% CI) per standard deviation increase of log-transformed intake: PhIP red meat: CRC: 1.06 (0.99, 1.12), proximal: 1.11 (1.02, 1.21); PhIP white meat: CRC: 0.99 (0.94, 1.04), proximal: 1.00 (0.93, 1.09)].<h4>Conclusions</h4>Estimated intakes of meat mutagens were not significantly associated with CRC risk over 14 years of follow-up in the NHS and HPFS cohorts. Results for PhIP from red but not from white meat warrant further investigation.<h4>Citation</h4>Le NT, Michels FA, Song M, Zhang X, Bernstein AM, Giovannucci EL, Fuchs CS, Ogino S, Chan AT, Sinha R, Willett WC, Wu K. 2016. A prospective analysis of meat mutagens and colorectal cancer in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1529-1536;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP238.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests that Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) is associated with the development and progression of colorectal cancer. We aimed to delineate the clinical implications of Fn in metastatic colon cancer. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using DNA samples from synchronous metastatic colon cancer patients with either formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival primary site tumor samples or fresh colon tissues. Progression-free survival (PFS)1 and PFS2 were defined as PFS of first- and second-line palliative settings. qPCR for Fn was successfully performed using 112 samples (FFPE, n = 61; fresh tissue, n = 51). Forty-one and 68 patients had right-sided and left-sided colon cancer, respectively. Patients with Fn enriched right-sided colon cancers had shorter PFS1 (9.7 vs. 11.2 months) than the other subgroups (HR 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-11.99; P = 0.04). Fn positive right-sided colon was also associated with shorter PFS2 (3.7 vs. 6.7 months; HR 2.34, 95% CI 0.69-7.91; P = 0.04). In the univariate analysis, PFS1 was affected by differentiation and Fn positive right-sided colon cancer. The multivariate analysis showed that differentiation (HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.40-5.14, P = 0.01) and Fn positive right-sided colon (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.88, P = 0.02) were associated with PFS1. Fn enrichment in right sided colon was not associated with overall survival (OS). Fn enrichment has significantly worse prognosis in terms of PFS1 and PFS2 in patients with right-sided metastatic colon cancers.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC subsites.<h4>Design</h4>Prospective nationwide cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>The database of the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG).<h4>Participants</h4>23 487 CC patients.<h4>Outcome measures</h4>Overall survival (Kaplan-Meier plots) and mortality (HR from Cox proportional hazards regression analysis) according to CC localisation. For adjustment and stratification, we used age, sex, ASA score (the American Society of Anaesthesiologists score), tumour location and stage, number of lymph nodes harvested at operation, number of lymph nodes with metastases and presence of distant metastases.<h4>Results</h4>Patients with RCC had a higher median age at diagnosis (74.3 years) than patients with LCC (71.8 years; p<0.0001). Overall, the proportion of patients who were women increased the closer the tumour site was to the small intestine. Although RCC patients had higher ASA scores than LCC patients (p<0.0001), the highest ASA scores were observed in patients with cancer in the transverse and descending colon and at both colon flexures. While RCCs overall were more advanced than LCCs (p<0.0001), the most advanced CCs were those of the descending colon, splenic flexure and caecum. RCC mortality was higher than LCC mortality only during the first 2 years (women: HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.20; men: HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.35), and relative to mortality from sigmoid CC, the highest mortality was observed from splenic flexure cancer (HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.00).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present data challenge the simple categorisation of CC into RCC and LCC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Colorectal cancer has a natural history of several decades; therefore, the diet consumed decades before diagnosis may aid in understanding this malignancy.<h4>Objective</h4>The objective was to investigate diet during adolescence and 10 y before baseline (ages 40-61 y) in relation to colorectal cancer.<h4>Design</h4>Participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 292,797) completed a 124-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) about diet in the past 12 mo and two 37-item FFQs about diet at ages 12-13 y and 10 y previously. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariate HRs and 95% CIs for colon (n = 2794) and rectal (n = 979) cancers within quintiles of exposures.<h4>Results</h4>Colon cancer risk was lower in the highest than in the lowest quintile of vitamin A (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.92) and vegetable (HR: 0.81, 0.70, 0.92) intakes during adolescence. Those in the highest intake category 10 y previously for calcium (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.94), vitamin A (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.92), vitamin C (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.95), fruit (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), and milk (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.90) had a lower risk of colon cancer, but a higher risk was observed for total fat (HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30), red meat (HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.53), and processed meat (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.45). For rectal cancer, milk was inversely associated (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.96) with risk.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Adolescent and midlife diet may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Project description:Expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 has been demonstrated to confer a prognostic value in colorectal cancer (CRC), but no studies have investigated whether this association differs according to tumour location. In this study, immunohistochemical expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was analysed in tissue microarrays with primary tumours from 557 incident CRC cases from a prospective population-based cohort. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, TNM stage, differentiation grade and vascular invasion, were applied to determine the impact of biomarker expression on 5-year overall survival (OS), in the entire cohort and in subgroup analysis of right colon, left colon, and rectum. High PD-L1 expression on tumour-infiltrating immune cells was an independent factor of a prolonged OS in the entire cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] CI 0.35 - 0.68), and in tumours of the right colon (HR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.25 - 0.74) and the left colon (HR = 0.28; 95% CI 0.13 - 0.61), but not in rectal cancer. Tumour-specific PD-L1-expression was not prognostic, neither in the full cohort nor according to tumour location. High immune cell-specific PD-1 expression was associated with a prolonged OS in the entire cohort and in tumours of the right colon, but not in the left colon or rectum, and only in univariable analysis. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that immune cell-specific PD-L1 and PD-1 expression is prognostic in a site-dependent manner, whereas tumour-specific PD-L1-expression is not prognostic in CRC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) may differ depending on the location of the tumor and the age of onset of the disease. Previous studies also suggested that the molecular basis of CRC varies with tumor location, which could affect the clinical management of patients. Therefore, we performed survival analysis looking at different age groups and mismatch repair status (MMR) of CRC patients according to primary tumor location in an attempt to identify subgroups of CRC that might help in the prognosis of disease. METHODS:A group of 2233 patients operated on to remove their CRC tumors were analyzed (521 with right colon cancer, 740 with left colon cancer and 972 with rectal cancer). The expression of four MMR genes was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), independent of clinical criteria. From the data collected, a predictive model for overall survival (OS) could be constructed for some associations of tumor location and age of onset using Kaplan-Meier, logistic and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS:When tumor location was considered as the lone factor, we found no statistical difference in overall survival (OS) between right cancer (68%), left cancer (67%) or rectal cancer tumor locations (71%) (HR: 1.17, 95%CI (confidence interval): 0.97-1.43, P = 0.057). When age of onset was considered, middle age (40-59 years) and older (60-85 years) patients were found to have higher OS than younger onset cancer (20-39 years) patients (69% vs 71% vs 59%, HR: 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-1.25, P = 0.008). When both age of onset and tumor location were considered in combination as disease factors, we found that the subgroup of patients with left colon cancer from middle age (69%) and older (67%) aged patients had higher OS than younger (54%) patients (HR: 0.89, 95%CI: 0.68-1.16, P = 0.048). However in patients with right colon cancers, we found no statistical difference is OS between younger, middle age or older grouped patients (60% vs 71% vs 67%, HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.61-1.16, P = 0.194). With regard to rectal located cancers, we found that younger (62%) and middle age (68) patients had lower OS than older (77%) patients (HR:1.46, 95%CI: 1.13-1.88, P = 0.004). The rates of deficient MMR (dMMR) was 10.4%. We found no statistical difference in OS stratified by tumor locations. However, right colon cancer patients with dMMR (86%) had higher OS than those with proficient MMR (pMMR) (63%) (HR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.82-4.97, P<0.001). Left colon cancer patients with dMMR (76%) also had higher OS than those with pMMR (66%) (HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 0.95-2.92, P = 0.01). Oppositely, rectal cancer patients with dMMR (60%) had lower OS than those pMMR (68%) (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.51-1.17, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate that primary tumor location can be an important factor when considered along with age of onset for the prognosis of CRC. Primary tumor location is also an important factor to evaluate the predictive effect of MMR status for the prognosis of CRC.
Project description:We expanded and updated our colon cancer risk model to evaluate colorectal cancer (CRC) and whether subsite-specific risk models are warranted. Using data from 1980-2010 for 90,286 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study, we performed competing-risks regression and tests for subsite heterogeneity (proximal colon: n = 821; distal colon: n = 521; rectum: n = 376). Risk factors for CRC were consistent with those in our colon cancer model. Processed meat consumption was associated with a higher risk of distal (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45; P = 0.02) but not proximal (HR = 0.95; P = 0.72) colon cancer. Smoking was associated with both colon (HR = 1.21) and rectal (HR = 1.27) cancer and was more strongly associated with proximal (HR = 1.31) than with distal (HR = 1.04) colon cancer (P = 0.029). We observed a significant trend of cancer risk for smoking in subsites from the cecum (HR = 1.41) to the proximal colon (excluding the cecum; HR = 1.27) to the distal colon (HR = 1.04; P for trend = 0.040). The C statistics for colorectal (C = 0.607), colon (C = 0.603), and rectal (C = 0.639) cancer were similar, although C was slightly higher for rectal cancer. Despite evidence for site-specific differences for several risk factors, overall our findings support the application of risk prediction models for colon cancer to CRC.