Abscisic acid-independent stomatal CO2 signal transduction pathway and convergence of CO2 and ABA signaling downstream of OST1 kinase.
ABSTRACT: Stomatal pore apertures are narrowing globally due to the continuing rise in atmospheric [CO2]. CO2 elevation and the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) both induce rapid stomatal closure. However, the underlying signal transduction mechanisms for CO2/ABA interaction remain unclear. Two models have been considered: (i) CO2 elevation enhances ABA concentrations and/or early ABA signaling in guard cells to induce stomatal closure and (ii) CO2 signaling merges with ABA at OST1/SnRK2.6 protein kinase activation. Here we use genetics, ABA-reporter imaging, stomatal conductance, patch clamp, and biochemical analyses to investigate these models. The strong ABA biosynthesis mutants nced3/nced5 and aba2-1 remain responsive to CO2 elevation. Rapid CO2-triggered stomatal closure in PYR/RCAR ABA receptor quadruple and hextuple mutants is not disrupted but delayed. Time-resolved ABA concentration monitoring in guard cells using a FRET-based ABA-reporter, ABAleon2.15, and ABA reporter gene assays suggest that CO2 elevation does not trigger [ABA] increases in guard cells, in contrast to control ABA exposures. Moreover, CO2 activates guard cell S-type anion channels in nced3/nced5 and ABA receptor hextuple mutants. Unexpectedly, in-gel protein kinase assays show that unlike ABA, elevated CO2 does not activate OST1/SnRK2 kinases in guard cells. The present study points to a model in which rapid CO2 signal transduction leading to stomatal closure occurs via an ABA-independent pathway downstream of OST1/SnRK2.6. Basal ABA signaling and OST1/SnRK2 activity are required to facilitate the stomatal response to elevated CO2 These findings provide insights into the interaction between CO2/ABA signal transduction in light of the continuing rise in atmospheric [CO2].
Project description:Magnesium-chelatase H subunit [CHLH/putative abscisic acid (ABA) receptor ABAR] positively regulates guard cell signalling in response to ABA, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. A member of the sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2 family, SnRK2.6/open stomata 1 (OST1)/SRK2E, which plays a critical role in ABA signalling in Arabidopsis guard cells, interacts with ABAR/CHLH. Neither mutation nor over-expression of the ABAR gene affects significantly ABA-insensitive phenotypes of stomatal movement in the OST1 knockout mutant allele srk2e. However, OST1 over-expression suppresses ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the ABAR mutant allele cch in stomatal movement. These genetic data support that OST1 functions downstream of ABAR in ABA signalling in guard cells. Consistent with this, ABAR protein is phosphorylated, but independently of the OST1 protein kinase. Two ABAR mutant alleles, cch and rtl1, show ABA insensitivity in ABA-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, as well as in ABA-activated phosphorylation of a K(+) inward channel KAT1 in guard cells, which is consistent with that observed in the pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 quadruple mutant of the well-characterized ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCAR family acting upstream of OST1. These findings suggest that ABAR shares, at least in part, downstream signalling components with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors for ABA in guard cells; though cch and rtl1 show strong ABA-insensitive phenotypes in both ABA-induced stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening, while the pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 quadruple mutant shows strong ABA insensitivity only in ABA-induced stomatal closure. These data establish a link between ABAR/CHLH and SnRK2.6/OST1 in guard cell signalling in response to ABA.
Project description:The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in plant development and adaptation to environmental stress. ABA induces the production of nitric oxide (NO) in guard cells, but how NO regulates ABA signaling is not understood. Here, we show that NO negatively regulates ABA signaling in guard cells by inhibiting open stomata 1 (OST1)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2.6 (SnRK2.6) through S-nitrosylation. We found that SnRK2.6 is S-nitrosylated at cysteine 137, a residue adjacent to the kinase catalytic site. Dysfunction in the S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase (GSNOR) gene in the gsnor1-3 mutant causes NO overaccumulation in guard cells, constitutive S-nitrosylation of SnRK2.6, and impairment of ABA-induced stomatal closure. Introduction of the Cys137 to Ser mutated SnRK2.6 into the gsnor1-3/ost1-3 double-mutant partially suppressed the effect of gsnor1-3 on ABA-induced stomatal closure. A cysteine residue corresponding to Cys137 of SnRK2.6 is present in several yeast and human protein kinases and can be S-nitrosylated, suggesting that the S-nitrosylation may be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for protein kinase regulation.
Project description:Stomatal movements are crucial for the control of plant water status and protection against pathogens. Assays on epidermal peels revealed that, similar to abscisic acid (ABA), pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 requires the AtPIP2;1 aquaporin to induce stomatal closure. Flg22 also induced an increase in osmotic water permeability (Pf) of guard cell protoplasts through activation of AtPIP2;1. The use of HyPer, a genetic probe for intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), revealed that both ABA and flg22 triggered an accumulation of H2O2 in wild-type but not pip2;1 guard cells. Pretreatment of guard cells with flg22 or ABA facilitated the influx of exogenous H2O2 Brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) and open stomata 1 (OST1)/Snf1-related protein kinase 2.6 (SnRK2.6) were both necessary to flg22-induced Pf and both phosphorylated AtPIP2;1 on Ser121 in vitro. Accumulation of H2O2 and stomatal closure as induced by flg22 was restored in pip2;1 guard cells by a phosphomimetic form (Ser121Asp) but not by a phosphodeficient form (Ser121Ala) of AtPIP2;1. We propose a mechanism whereby phosphorylation of AtPIP2;1 Ser121 by BAK1 and/or OST1 is triggered in response to flg22 to activate its water and H2O2 transport activities. This work establishes a signaling role of plasma membrane aquaporins in guard cells and potentially in other cellular context involving H2O2 signaling.
Project description:Sucrose-non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase-2s (SnRK2s) are critical for plant abiotic stress responses, including abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we develop a genetically encoded reporter for SnRK2 kinase activity. This sensor, named SNACS, shows an increase in the ratio of yellow to cyan fluorescence emission by OST1/SnRK2.6-mediated phosphorylation of a defined serine residue in SNACS. ABA rapidly increases FRET efficiency in N. benthamiana leaf cells and Arabidopsis guard cells. Interestingly, protein kinase inhibition decreases FRET efficiency in guard cells, providing direct experimental evidence that basal SnRK2 activity prevails in guard cells. Moreover, in contrast to ABA, the stomatal closing stimuli, elevated CO2 and MeJA, did not increase SNACS FRET ratios. These findings and gas exchange analyses of quintuple/sextuple ABA receptor mutants show that stomatal CO2 signaling requires basal ABA and SnRK2 signaling, but not SnRK2 activation. A recent model that CO2 signaling is mediated by PYL4/PYL5 ABA-receptors could not be supported here in two independent labs. We report a potent approach for real-time live-cell investigations of stress signaling.
Project description:Due to its ability to be rapidly generated and propagated over long distances, H2O2 is an important second messenger for biotic and abiotic stress signaling in plants. In response to low water potential and high salt concentrations sensed in the roots of plants, the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) activates NADPH oxidase to generate H2O2, which is propagated in guard cells in leaves to induce stomatal closure and prevent water loss from transpiration. Using a reconstituted system, we demonstrate that H2O2 reversibly prevents the protein phosphatase HAB1, a key component of the core ABA-signaling pathway, from inhibiting its main target in guard cells, SnRK2.6/OST1 kinase. We have identified HAB1 C186 and C274 as H2O2-sensitive thiols and demonstrate that their oxidation inhibits both HAB1 catalytic activity and its ability to physically associate with SnRK2.6 by formation of intermolecular dimers.
Project description:Stomata, small pores on the surfaces of leaves formed by a pair of guard cells, adapt rapidly to changes in the environment by adjusting the aperture width. As a long-term response, the number of stomata is regulated during stomatal development. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates both processes. In ABA mediated guard cell signaling the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) has a central role, as stomatal closure in the ost1 mutant is impaired in response to ABA and to different environmental stimuli. We aimed to dissect the contribution of different ABA-related regulatory mechanisms in determining stomatal conductance, a combination of stomatal density and aperture width, and crossed the ost1 mutant with mutants that either decreased (aba3) or increased (cyp707a1/a3) the concentration of ABA in plants. The double mutant ost1 aba3 had higher stomatal conductance than either parent due to a combination of increased stomatal aperture width and higher stomatal density. In the triple mutant ost1 cyp707a1/a3, stomatal conductance was significantly lower compared to ost1-3 due to lower stomatal density. Further characterization of the single, double and triple mutants showed that responses to treatments that lead to stomatal closure were impaired in ost1 as well as ost1 aba3 and ost1 cyp707a1/a3 mutants, supporting a critical role for OST1 in stomatal aperture regulation. On the basis of our results, we suggest that two signaling pathways regulate water flux from leaves, that is, stomatal conductance: an ABA-dependent pathway that determines stomatal density independent of OST1; and an OST1-dependent pathway that regulates rapid changes in stomatal aperture.
Project description:Respiration in leaves and the continued elevation in the atmospheric CO2 concentration cause CO2 -mediated reduction in stomatal pore apertures. Several mutants have been isolated for which stomatal responses to both abscisic acid (ABA) and CO2 are simultaneously defective. However, there are only few mutations that impair the stomatal response to elevated CO2 , but not to ABA. Such mutants are invaluable in unraveling the molecular mechanisms of early CO2 signal transduction in guard cells. Recently, mutations in the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, MPK12, have been shown to partially impair CO2 -induced stomatal closure. Here, we show that mpk12 plants, in which MPK4 is stably silenced specifically in guard cells (mpk12 mpk4GC homozygous double-mutants), completely lack CO2 -induced stomatal responses and have impaired activation of guard cell S-type anion channels in response to elevated CO2 /bicarbonate. However, ABA-induced stomatal closure, S-type anion channel activation and ABA-induced marker gene expression remain intact in the mpk12 mpk4GC double-mutants. These findings suggest that MPK12 and MPK4 act very early in CO2 signaling, upstream of, or parallel to the convergence of CO2 and ABA signal transduction. The activities of MPK4 and MPK12 protein kinases were not directly modulated by CO2 /bicarbonate in vitro, suggesting that they are not direct CO2 /bicarbonate sensors. Further data indicate that MPK4 and MPK12 have distinguishable roles in Arabidopsis and that the previously suggested role of RHC1 in stomatal CO2 signaling is minor, whereas MPK4 and MPK12 act as key components of early stomatal CO2 signal transduction.
Project description:Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2.6 (SnRK2.6), also known as Open Stomata 1 (OST1) in Arabidopsis thaliana, plays a pivotal role in abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure. Four SnRK2.6 paralogs were identified in the Brassica napus genome in our previous work. Here we studied one of the paralogs, BnSnRK2.6-2C, which was transcriptionally induced by ABA in guard cells. Recombinant BnSnRK2.6-2C exhibited autophosphorylation activity and its phosphorylation sites were mapped. The autophosphorylation activity was inhibited by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and by oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the inhibition was reversed by reductants. Using monobromobimane (mBBr) labeling, we demonstrated a dose-dependent modification of BnSnRK2.6-2C by GSNO. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis revealed previously uncharacterized thiol-based modifications including glutathionylation and sulfonic acid formation. Of the six cysteine residues in BnSnRK2.6-2C, C159 was found to have different types of thiol modifications, suggesting its high redox sensitivity and versatility. In addition, mBBr labeling on tyrosine residues was identified. Collectively, these data provide detailed biochemical characterization of redox-induced modifications and changes of the BnSnRK2.6-2C activity.
Project description:In response to drought stress the phytohormone ABA (abscisic acid) induces stomatal closure and, therein, activates guard cell anion channels in a calcium-dependent as well as-independent manner. Two key components of the ABA signaling pathway are the protein kinase OST1 (open stomata 1) and the protein phosphatase ABI1 (ABA insensitive 1). The recently identified guard cell anion channel SLAC1 appeared to be the key ion channel in this signaling pathway but remained electrically silent when expressed heterologously. Using split YFP assays, we identified OST1 as an interaction partner of SLAC1 and ABI1. Upon coexpression of SLAC1 with OST1 in Xenopus oocytes, SLAC1-related anion currents appeared similar to those observed in guard cells. Integration of ABI1 into the SLAC1/OST1 complex, however, prevented SLAC1 activation. Our studies demonstrate that SLAC1 represents the slow, deactivating, weak voltage-dependent anion channel of guard cells controlled by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.
Project description:During drought, abscisic acid (ABA) induces closure of stomata via a signaling pathway that involves the calcium (Ca2+ )-independent protein kinase OST1, as well as Ca2+ -dependent protein kinases. However, the interconnection between OST1 and Ca2+ signaling in ABA-induced stomatal closure has not been fully resolved. ABA-induced Ca2+ signals were monitored in intact Arabidopsis leaves, which express the ratiometric Ca2+ reporter R-GECO1-mTurquoise and the Ca2+ -dependent activation of S-type anion channels was recorded with intracellular double-barreled microelectrodes. ABA triggered Ca2+ signals that occurred during the initiation period, as well as in the acceleration phase of stomatal closure. However, a subset of stomata closed in the absence of Ca2+ signals. On average, stomata closed faster if Ca2+ signals were elicited during the ABA response. Loss of OST1 prevented ABA-induced stomatal closure and repressed Ca2+ signals, whereas elevation of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration caused a rapid activation of SLAC1 and SLAH3 anion channels. Our data show that the majority of Ca2+ signals are evoked during the acceleration phase of stomatal closure, which is initiated by OST1. These Ca2+ signals are likely to activate Ca2+ -dependent protein kinases, which enhance the activity of S-type anion channels and boost stomatal closure.