Comparison of short-term effects of mobilization with movement and Kinesiotaping on pain, function and balance in patellofemoral pain.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of Mobilization with movement (MWM) and Kinesiotaping (KT) on patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) respect to pain, function and balance. METHODS:Thirty-five female patients diagnosed with unilateral PFP were assigned into 2 groups. The first group (n = 18) received two techniques of MWM intervention (Straight Leg-Raise with Traction and Tibial Gliding) while KT was applied to the other group (n = 17). Both groups received 4 sessions of treatment twice a week for a period of 2 weeks with a 6-week-home exercise program. Pain severity, knee range of motion, hamstring flexibility, and physical performance (10-step stair climbing test, timed up and go test), Kujala Patellofemoral Pain Scoring and Y-Balance test were assessed. These outcomes were evaluated before the treatment, 45 min after the initial treatment, at the end of the 4-session-treatment during 2-week period and 6 weeks later in both groups. RESULTS:Both treatment groups had statistically significant improvements on pain, function and balance (p < 0.05). Pain at rest (p = 0.008) and the hamstring muscle flexibility (p = 0.027) were demonstrated significant improvements in favor of MWM group. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrated similar results for both treatment techniques in terms of pain, function and balance. The MWM technique with exercise had a short-term favorable effect on pain at rest and hamstring muscle flexibility than the KT technique with exercise in patients with PFP. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level I, therapeutic study.
Project description:Physical activity levels seem to play a role in patellofemoral pain (PFP); however, few studies have been conducted to confirm this hypothesis.To determine the reported pain levels of women with and without PFP who maintain different levels of physical activity; to determine the capability of these levels to predict pain; and to test the capability of two stair-negotiation protocols, with and without external load, to equalize pain between groups.Four groups were divided based on the women's physical activity levels: moderate activity PFP group (28), moderate activity control group (23), intense activity PFP group (22), and intense activity control group (22). All participants were asked to perform 15 repetitions of stair negotiation with and without external load on a seven-step staircase on two separate days. Pain levels were reported using a visual analog scale at five distinct moments: previous month, before stair negotiation, after stair negotiation, before patellofemoral joint (PFJ) loading protocol, and after PFJ loading protocol.The intense activity PFP group showed higher levels of pain than the moderate activity PFP group (F(8,158)=11.714, p=0.000, η2=0.30). The PFJ loading protocol was able to equalize and exacerbate pain in the PFP groups.Intense physical activity seems to have a higher association with knee pain than moderate physical activity. A PFJ loading protocol may be an alternative to equalize pain in women with PFP during clinical assessments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The origin of patellofemoral pain (PFP) may be associated with the inability of the patellofemoral joint cartilage to absorb and distribute patellofemoral joint forces. HYPOTHESIS:When compared with a pain-free control group, young active women with PFP will demonstrate differences in their baseline patellar cartilage thickness and transverse (T2) relaxation time, as well as a less adaptive response to an acute bout of joint loading. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:Ten women between the ages of 23 to 37 years with PFP and 10 sex-, age-, and activity-matched pain-free controls participated. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the patellofemoral joint was performed at baseline and after participants performed 50 deep knee bends. Differences in baseline cartilage thickness and T2 relaxation time, as well as the postexercise change in patellar cartilage thickness and T2 relaxation time, were compared between groups. RESULTS:Individuals with PFP demonstrated reductions in baseline cartilage thickness of 14.0% and 14.1% for the lateral patellar facet and total patellar cartilage, respectively. Similarly, individuals with PFP exhibited significantly lower postexercise cartilage thickness change for the lateral patellar facet (2.1% vs 8.9%) and the total patellar cartilage (4.4% vs 10.0%) when compared with the control group. No group differences in baseline or postexercise change in T2 relaxation time were found. CONCLUSION:The findings suggest that a baseline reduction in patellar cartilage thickness and a reduced deformational behavior of patellar cartilage following an acute bout of loading are associated with presence of PFP symptoms.
Project description:CONTEXT:Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a chronic condition that presents with lower extremity muscle weakness, decreased flexibility, subjective functional limitations, pain, and decreased physical activity. Patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation (PENS) has been shown to affect muscle activation and pain after a single treatment, but its use has not been studied in a rehabilitation trial. OBJECTIVE:To determine the effects of a 4-week impairment-based rehabilitation program using PENS on subjective function, pain, strength, range of motion, and physical activity in individuals with PFP. DESIGN:Randomized controlled trial. SETTING:Laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:A total of 21 patients with PFP (5 males, 16 females; age = 23.4 ± 7.6 years, height = 168.0 ± 7.5 cm, mass = 69.0 ± 19.5 kg). INTERVENTION(S):Participants completed a 4-week supervised rehabilitation program in conjunction with random assignment to receive PENS or sham treatments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Subjective function, pain, strength, range of motion, and physical activity levels were assessed prerehabilitation and postrehabilitation. Subjective function and pain were also assessed at 6 and 12 months postrehabilitation. Repeated-measures analyses of variance and Tukey post hoc testing were conducted with ? ? .05. We calculated Cohen d effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS:Both groups had statistically and clinically meaningful differences in subjective function, pain, strength, range of motion, and activity level after 4 weeks of impairment-based rehabilitation. Improved subjective function was observed in both groups at 6 and 12 months after the interventions. The PENS group had improvements in current pain for all 3 postrehabilitation times compared with baseline measures. CONCLUSIONS:An impairment-based intervention effectively improved subjective function, pain, strength, range of motion, and physical activity levels in individuals with PFP. Participants who received PENS in addition to the rehabilitation program had improved current pain at 6 and 12 months postrehabilitation compared with baseline scores. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02441712.
Project description:Patellofemoral pain is one of the most frequent knee conditions among adolescents with a prevalence of 7 %. Evidence-based treatment consists of patient education combined with hip and quadriceps strengthening. Recent evidence suggests that a large proportion of adolescents does not follow their exercise prescription, performing too few repetitions or too fast below the prescribed time under tension. Live feedback, such as a metronome or exercise games, has previously shown promising results in improving the quality of exercises. The aim of this study is to investigate if live feedback from a sensor (BandCizer™) and an iPad will improve the ability of adolescents with PFP to perform exercises as prescribed.This study is a randomized, controlled, participant-blinded, superiority trial with a 2-group parallel design. Forty 15 to 19 year old adolescents with patellofemoral pain will be randomized to receive either live visual and auditory feedback on time under tension or no feedback on time under tension during a 6-week intervention period. Adolescents will be instructed to perform three elastic band exercises. Feedback will be provided by BandCizer™ and an iPad. The adolescents perform the exercises twice a week unsupervised and once a week during a supervised group training session. The primary outcome will be the mean deviation of the prescribed time under tension per repetition in seconds during the course of the intervention.Low compliance is a major problem among adolescents with patellofemoral pain. Providing the adolescents with real time feedback on time under tension from a sensor and an iPad could potentially help the adolescents perform the exercises as prescribed. This may increase the total exercise dosage they receive during treatment which may help improve patient outcomes.Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02674841 ) on February 4(th) 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rotator cuff related pain (RCRP) is one of the most common sources of musculoskeletal shoulder pain affecting the general population. Conservative treatment, in the form of exercise, is considered the first line approach, nonetheless, improvements seem to be modest. One therapeutic modality that might be an adjunct to the treatment of this condition is mobilisation with movement (MWM). MWM is a pain-free manual procedure that targets restricted and painful movements, commonly seen in patients with RCRP. The purpose of clinical trial is to determine whether MWM with exercise has benefits over sham MWM with exercise in RCRP. METHODS:A randomised, sham-controlled trial of 70 adults complaining of RCRP will compare the effects of MWM combined with exercise over sham MWM with exercise. Participants will be allocated to one of two groups: exercise and MWM (EG) or exercise and sham MWM (CG). Two weekly individual treatment sessions will be conducted over five weeks. All assessments will be performed by a blinded assessor. Primary outcome measures will be the shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) and the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), assessed at baseline, discharge and one-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures will be active range of motion, self-efficacy and the global rating of change scale. The analyses will be conducted considering a statistically significant p-value ?0.05. Normality will be assessed with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and homogeneity with the Levene's test. For the primary outcome measures (SPADI and NPRS) and self-efficacy, a 2?×?3 ANOVA with treatment group (EG versus CG) and time (baseline, end of the treatment and follow-up) factors will be performed. Separate 2?×?2 ANOVA will be used for range of motion (baseline and end of the treatment). Global rating scale of change analysis will be conducted using descriptive statistics. Intention-to-treat analysis will be adopted. DISCUSSION:As there is a paucity of longitudinal studies investigating the use of MWM in patients with RCRP, this study will help to better understand its role together with a structured exercise programme. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials Registry number NCT04175184 . November, 2019.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate the experience of living with patellofemoral pain (PFP). DESIGN:Qualitative study design using semistructured interviews and analysed thematically using the guidelines set out by Braun and Clarke. SETTING:A National Health Service physiotherapy clinic within a large UK teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS:A convenience sample of 10 participants, aged between 18 and 40 years, with a diagnosis of PFP and on a physiotherapy waiting list, prior to starting physiotherapy. RESULTS:Participants offered rich and detailed accounts of the impact and lived experience of PFP, including loss of physical and functional ability; loss of self-identity; pain-related confusion and difficulty making sense of their pain; pain-related fear, including fear-avoidance and 'damage' beliefs; inappropriate coping strategies and fear of the future. The five major themes that emerged from the data were: (1) impact on self; (2) uncertainty, confusion and sense making; (3) exercise and activity beliefs; (4) behavioural coping strategies and (5) expectations of the future. CONCLUSIONS:These findings offer an insight into the lived experience of individuals with PFP. Previous literature has focused on pain and biomechanics, rather than the individual experience, attached meanings and any wider context within a sociocultural perspective. Our findings suggest that future research is warranted into biopsychosocial targeted interventions aimed at the beliefs and pain-related fear for people with PFP. The current consensus that best-evidence treatments consisting of hip and knee strengthening may not be adequate to address the fears and beliefs identified in the current study. Further qualitative research may be warranted on the impact and interpretation of medical terminology commonly used with this patient group, for example, 'weakness' and 'patellar mal-tracking' and its impact and interpretation by patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN35272486; Pre-results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patellofemoral malalignment has been observed among people with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and may be associated with the presence of imaging features of osteoarthritis, symptoms, and function. PURPOSE:To determine whether patellofemoral joint alignment and bony shape are associated with (1) cartilage, bone, and soft tissue morphological abnormalities defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (2) reported symptoms and function among people with PFP. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:Participants (mean ± SD age, 30.2 ± 9.5 years; range, 14-50 years; 78 females, 58.6%) completed questionnaires regarding demographics, pain, symptoms, and function and underwent a 3-T MRI scan of their more symptomatic eligible knee. Structural MRI abnormalities were scored with the MOAKS (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Osteoarthritis Knee Score), and MRI alignment and shape were measured with standardized methods. Associations among MOAKS features, PFP symptoms, and alignment and shape measures were evaluated with regression analyses (? = .05). RESULTS:Minor cartilage defects were present in 22 (16.5%) participants, patellar osteophytes in 83 (62.4%), anterior femur osteophytes in 29 (21.8%), Hoffa synovitis in 81 (60.9%), and prefemoral fat pad synovitis in 49 (36.8%). A larger Insall-Salvati ratio was significantly associated with the presence of patellar osteophytes (odds ratio [OR], 51.82; 95% CI, 4.20-640.01), Hoffa synovitis (OR, 60.37; 95% CI, 4.66-782.61), and prefemoral fat pad synovitis (OR, 43.31; 95% CI, 4.28-438.72) in the patellofemoral joint. A larger patellar tilt angle was significantly associated with the presence of minor cartilage defects (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.20), the presence of patellar osteophytes (OR 1.12; 95%CI 1.02-1.22), and prefemoral fat pad synovitis (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20) in the patellofemoral joint. Finally, a larger bisect offset was significantly associated with the presence of minor cartilage defects (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.11) and patellar osteophytes (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14) in the patellofemoral joint. The majority of patellofemoral alignment measures were not associated with symptoms or function. CONCLUSION:For people with PFP, the presence of morphological abnormalities defined on MRI appears to be related to particular patellofemoral alignment measures, including higher Insall-Salvati ratio (indicating patella alta), larger patellar tilt angle (indicating greater lateral tilt), and larger bisect offset (indicating greater lateral displacement). Hardly any associations were found with symptoms or function. So there might be a distinct subgroup of PFP that is more prone to developing patellofemoral osteoarthritis later in life, as particular alignment measures seem to be associated with the presence of patellar osteophytes. Prospective studies are required to investigate the longitudinal relationship between alignment or bony shape and morphological abnormalities defined on MRI in this patient population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>One of the rationales behind using strength training in the treatment of adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is that reduced strength of the lower extremity is a risk factor for PFP and a common deficit. This rationale is based on research conducted on adolescents >15 years of age but has never been investigated among young adolescents with PFP.<h4>Objectives</h4>To compare isometric muscle strength of the lower extremity among adolescents with PFP compared to age- and gender-matched pain-free adolescents.<h4>Methods</h4>In 2011 a population-based cohort (APA2011-cohort) consisting of 768 adolescents aged 12-15 years from 8 local schools was formed. In September 2012, all adolescents who reported knee pain in September 2011 were offered a clinical examination if they still had knee pain. From these, 20 adolescents (16 females) were diagnosed with PFP. Pain-free adolescents from the APA2011-cohort (n?=?20) were recruited on random basis as age- and gender-matched pairs. Primary outcome was isometric knee extension strength normalized to body weight (%BW) and blinded towards subject information. Secondary outcomes included knee flexion, hip abduction/adduction and hip internal/external rotation strength. Demographic data included Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and symptom duration.<h4>Results</h4>Adolescents with PFP reported long symptom duration and significantly worse KOOS scores compared to pain-free adolescents. There were no significant differences in isometric knee extension strength (?0.3% BW, p?=?0.97), isometric knee flexion strength (?0.4% BW, p?=?0.84) or different measures of hip strength (?0.4 to 1.1% BW, p>0.35).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Young symptomatic adolescents with PFP between 12 and 16 years of age did not have decreased isometric muscle strength of the knee and hip. These results question the rationale of targeting strength deficits in the treatment of adolescents with PFP. However, strength training may still be an effective treatment for those individuals with PFP suffering from strength deficits.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patellofemoral pain (PFP) patients show increased prevalence of patellar malalignment. Structural and alignment abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) may play a role in development of PFP and patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). OBJECTIVES:Evaluating associations of patellofemoral alignment and femoral geometry with bony and cartilaginous abnormalities in PFP patients and healthy control subjects. METHODS:Data from a case-control study were used (64 PFP subjects, 70 control subjects, 57% female, age 23.2 (6.4)). Alignment and femoral geometry measures in the PFJ were determined using MRI. Structural abnormalities in the PFJ associated with OA (bone marrow lesions, osteophytes, minor cartilage defects and Hoffa-synovitis), quantified cartilage composition (T1? relaxation times) in the PFJ and perfusion within the patellar bone were examined using different MRI techniques. Associations were analyzed using regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS:Lateral patellar tilt was negatively associated with presence of osteophytes on both patella (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.98), anterior femur (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99) and minor cartilage defects on patella (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99). Patella alta was positively associated with the presence of bone marrow lesions in the patella and minor cartilage defects (OR 48.33; 95% CI 4.27 to 547.30 and OR 17.51; 95% CI 1.17 to 262.57, respectively). Patella alta and medial patellar translation were positively associated with T1? relaxation times within trochlear cartilage (? 5.2; 95% CI 0.77 to 9.58, and 0.36; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.64, respectively). None of the alignment and geometry measures were associated with bone perfusion. CONCLUSION:Our study implies that associations between patellofemoral alignment and geometry and structural joint abnormalities linked to OA are already present in both PFP patients and healthy control subjects.
Project description:Patellofemoral pain (PFP) can cause significant pain leading to limitations in societal participation and physical activity. An international expert group has highlighted the need for a classification system to allow targeted intervention for patients with PFP; we have developed a work programme systematically investigating this. We have proposed six potential subgroups: hip abductor weakness, quadriceps weakness, patellar hypermobility, patellar hypomobility, pronated foot posture and lower limb biarticular muscle tightness. We could not uncover any evidence of the relative frequency with which patients with PFP fell into these subgroups or whether these subgroups were mutually exclusive. The aim of this study is to provide information on the clinical utility of our classification system.150 participants will be recruited over 18 months in four National Health Services (NHS) physiotherapy departments in England.adults 18-40 years with PFP for longer than 3 months, PFP in at least two predesignated functional activities and PFP elicited by clinical examination.prior or forthcoming lower limb surgery; comorbid illness or health condition; and lower limb training or pregnancy. We will record medical history, demographic details, pain, quality of life, psychomotor movement awareness and knee temperature. We will assess hip abductor and quadriceps weakness, patellar hypermobility and hypomobility, foot posture and lower limb biarticular muscle tightness. The primary analytic approach will be descriptive. We shall present numbers and percentages of participants who meet the criteria for membership of (1) each of the subgroups, (2) none of the subgroups and (3) multiple subgroups. Exact (binomial) 95% CIs for these percentages will also be presented.This study has been approved by National Research Ethics Service (NRES) Committee North West-Greater Manchester North (11/NW/0814) and University of Central Lancashire (UCLan) Built, Sport, Health (BuSH) Ethics Committee (BuSH 025). An abstract has been accepted for the third International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat, Vancouver, September 2013.