Podocyte-Specific Loss of Kruppel-Like Factor 6 Increases Mitochondrial Injury in Diabetic Kidney Disease.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial injury is uniformly observed in several murine models as well as in individuals with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Although emerging evidence has highlighted the role of key transcriptional regulators in mitochondrial biogenesis, little is known about the regulation of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase assembly in the podocyte under diabetic conditions. We recently reported a critical role of the zinc finger Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) in maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing apoptosis in a proteinuric murine model. In this study, we report that podocyte-specific knockdown of Klf6 increased the susceptibility to streptozotocin-induced DKD in the resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain. We observed that the loss of KLF6 in podocytes reduced the expression of synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 with resultant increased mitochondrial injury, leading to activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway under diabetic conditions. Conversely, mitochondrial injury and apoptosis were significantly attenuated with overexpression of KLF6 in cultured human podocytes under hyperglycemic conditions. Finally, we observed a significant reduction in glomerular and podocyte-specific expression of KLF6 in human kidney biopsies with progression of DKD. Collectively, these data suggest that podocyte-specific KLF6 is critical to preventing mitochondrial injury and apoptosis under diabetic conditions.
Project description:Excessive mitochondrial fission plays a key role in podocyte injury in diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important in the development and progression of DKD. However, lncRNA regulation of mitochondrial fission in podocytes is poorly understood. Here, we studied lncRNA maternally expressed gene 3 (Meg3) in mitochondrial fission in vivo and in vitro using human podocytes and Meg3 podocyte-specific knockdown mice. Expression of lncRNA Meg3 in STZ-induced diabetic mice was higher, and correlated with the number of podocytes. Excessive mitochondrial fission of podocytes and renal histopathological and physiological parameters were improved in podocyte-specific Meg3 knockdown diabetic mice. Elongated mitochondria with attenuated podocyte damage, as well as mitochondrial translocation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), were decreased in Meg3 knockout podocytes. By contrast, increased fragmented mitochondria, podocyte injury, and Drp1 expression and phosphorylation were observed in lncRNA Meg3-overexpressing podocytes. Treatment with Mdivi1 significantly blunted more fragmented mitochondria and reduced podocyte injury in lncRNA Meg3-overexpressing podocytes. Finally, fragmented mitochondria and Drp1 mitochondrial translocation induced by high glucose were reduced following treatment with Mdivi1. Our data show that expression of Meg3 in podocytes in both human cells and diabetic mice was higher, which regulates mitochondrial fission and contributes to podocyte injury through increased Drp1 and its translocation to mitochondria.
Project description:Elevated levels of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and disturbed mitochondrial dynamics play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, the mechanisms by which FFA leads to mitochondrial damage in glomerular podocytes of DKD and the effects of Berberine (BBR) on podocytes are not fully understood. Methods: Using the db/db diabetic mice model and cultured mouse podocytes, we investigated the molecular mechanism of FFA-induced disturbance of mitochondrial dynamics in podocytes and testified the effects of BBR on regulating mitochondrial dysfunction, podocyte apoptosis and glomerulopathy in the progression of DKD. Results: Intragastric administration of BBR for 8 weeks in db/db mice significantly reversed glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, podocyte damage, basement membrane thickening, mesangial expansion and glomerulosclerosis. BBR strongly inhibited podocyte apoptosis, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, BBR could stabilize mitochondrial morphology in podocytes via abolishing palmitic acid (PA)-induced activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated for the first time that BBR may have a previously unrecognized role in protecting glomerulus and podocytes via positively regulating Drp1-mediated mitochondrial dynamics. It might serve as a novel therapeutic drug for the treatment of DKD.
Project description:Maintenance of mitochondrial structure and function is critical for preventing podocyte apoptosis and eventual glomerulosclerosis in the kidney; however, the transcription factors that regulate mitochondrial function in podocyte injury remain to be identified. Here, we identified Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6), a zinc finger domain transcription factor, as an essential regulator of mitochondrial function in podocyte apoptosis. We observed that podocyte-specific deletion of Klf6 increased the susceptibility of a resistant mouse strain to adriamycin-induced (ADR-induced) focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). KLF6 expression was induced early in response to ADR in mice and cultured human podocytes, and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways in these podocytes. Promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that putative KLF6 transcriptional binding sites are present in the promoter of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase assembly gene (SCO2), which is critical for preventing cytochrome c release and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Additionally, KLF6 expression was reduced in podocytes from HIV-1 transgenic mice as well as in renal biopsies from patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and FSGS. Together, these findings indicate that KLF6-dependent regulation of the cytochrome c oxidase assembly gene is critical for maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing podocyte apoptosis.
Project description:AbstractMitochondria play important roles in the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The SS peptide is a tetrapeptide that is located and accumulated in the inner mitochondrial membrane; it reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevents mitochondrial dysfunction. Podocytes are key cellular components in DKD progression. However, whether the SS peptide can exert renal protection through podocytes and the mechanism involved are unknown. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms of the SS peptide on podocyte injury in vivo and in vitro. Compared with the control group, the glomerular podocyte number and expression of WT1 were significantly reduced and TUNEL-positive podocytes were significantly increased in renal tissues in the diabetic rat. These effects were further exacerbated by hypochlorite-modified albumin (HOCl-alb) challenge but prevented by SS-31. In vitro, SS-31 blocked apoptosis in podocyte cell line induced by HOCl-alb. SS-31 prevented oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis signalling by HOCl-alb in vivo and in vitro, as evidenced by the release of cytochrome c (cyt c), binding of apoptosis activated factor-1 (Apaf-1) and caspase-9, and activation of caspases. These data suggest that SS-31 may prevent podocyte apoptosis, exerting renal protection in diabetes mellitus, probably through an apoptosis-related signalling pathway involving oxidative stress and culminating in mitochondria.
Project description:Fibroblasts from patients with Tangier disease carrying ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) loss-of-function mutations are characterized by cardiolipin accumulation, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid. Suppression of ABCA1 expression occurs in glomeruli from patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and in human podocytes exposed to DKD sera collected prior to the development of DKD. We demonstrated that siRNA ABCA1 knockdown in podocytes led to reduced oxygen consumption capabilities associated with alterations in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and with cardiolipin accumulation. Podocyte-specific deletion of Abca1 (Abca1fl/fl) rendered mice susceptible to DKD, and pharmacological induction of ABCA1 improved established DKD. This was not mediated by free cholesterol, as genetic deletion of sterol-o-acyltransferase-1 (SOAT1) in Abca1fl/fl mice was sufficient to cause free cholesterol accumulation but did not cause glomerular injury. Instead, cardiolipin mediates ABCA1-dependent susceptibility to podocyte injury, as inhibition of cardiolipin peroxidation with elamipretide improved DKD in vivo and prevented ABCA1-dependent podocyte injury in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, we describe a pathway definitively linking ABCA1 deficiency to cardiolipin-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. We demonstrated that this pathway is relevant to DKD and that ABCA1 inducers or inhibitors of cardiolipin peroxidation may each represent therapeutic strategies for the treatment of established DKD.
Project description:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the single most common cause of albuminuria and end-stage kidney disease in the United States. We found increased expression of Wnt/?-catenin (Ctnnb1) pathway transcripts and proteins in glomeruli and podocytes of patients and mouse models of DKD. Mice with podocyte-specific expression of stabilized Ctnnb1 exhibited basement membrane abnormalities, albuminuria, and increased susceptibility to glomerular injury. Mice with podocyte-specific deletion of Ctnnb1 or podocyte-specific expression of the canonical Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk1) also showed increased susceptibility to DKD. Podocytes with stabilized Ctnnb1 were less motile and less adhesive to different matrices. Deletion of Ctnnb1 in cultured podocytes increased the expression of podocyte differentiation markers and enhanced cell motility; however, these cells were more susceptible to apoptosis. These results indicate that Wnt/Ctnnb1 signaling in podocytes plays a critical role in integrating cell adhesion, motility, cell death, and differentiation. Balanced Ctnnb1 expression is critical for glomerular filtration barrier maintenance.
Project description:High levels of circulating TNF and its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, predict the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), but their contribution to organ damage in DKD remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the function of local and systemic TNF in podocyte injury. We cultured human podocytes with sera collected from DKD patients, who displayed elevated TNF levels, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) patients, whose TNF levels resembled those of healthy patients. Exogenous TNF administration or local TNF expression was equally sufficient to cause free cholesterol-dependent apoptosis in podocytes by acting through a dual mechanism that required a reduction in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated (ABCA1-mediated) cholesterol efflux and reduced cholesterol esterification by sterol-O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1). TNF-induced albuminuria was aggravated in mice with podocyte-specific ABCA1 deficiency and was partially prevented by cholesterol depletion with cyclodextrin. TNF-stimulated free cholesterol-dependent apoptosis in podocytes was mediated by nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1). ABCA1 overexpression or cholesterol depletion was sufficient to reduce albuminuria in mice with podocyte-specific NFATc1 activation. Our data implicate an NFATc1/ABCA1-dependent mechanism in which local TNF is sufficient to cause free cholesterol-dependent podocyte injury irrespective of TNF, TNFR1, or TNFR2 serum levels.
Project description:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and therapeutic strategies for delaying its progression are limited. Loss of podocytes by apoptosis characterizes the early stages of DKD. To identify novel therapeutic options, we investigated the effects of Xuesaitong (XST), consisting of total saponins from Panax notoginseng, on podocyte apoptosis in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. XST (5?mg/kg·d) or Losartan (10?mg/kg·d) was given to diabetic rats for 12 weeks. Albuminuria, renal function markers, and renal histopathology morphological changes were examined. Podocyte apoptosis was determined by triple immunofluorescence labelling including a TUNEL assay, WT1, and DAPI. Renal expression of Nox4, miRNA-214, PTEN, PDK1, phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, and mTORC1 was detected. In diabetic rats, severe hyperglycaemia and albuminuria developed, and apoptotic podocytes were markedly increased in diabetic kidneys. However, XST attenuated albuminuria, mesangial expansion, podocyte apoptosis, and morphological changes of podocytes in diabetic rats. Decreased expression of PTEN, as well as increased expression of Nox4, miRNA-214, PDK1, phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, and mTORC1, was detected. These abnormalities were partially restored by XST treatment. Thus, XST ameliorated podocyte apoptosis partly through modulating the PTEN-PDK1-Akt-mTOR pathway. These novel findings might point the way to a natural therapeutic strategy for treating DKD.
Project description:Hypertrophy is a prominent feature of damaged podocytes in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). mTORC1 hyperactivation leads to podocyte hypertrophy, but the detailed mechanism of how mTORC1 activation occurs under pathological conditions is not completely known. Moreover, reduced nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation has been observed in podocytes under pathological conditions, but the molecular mechanism linking nephrin phosphorylation and pathology is unclear so far. In this study, we observed a significant increase in C1-Ten level in diabetic kidney and in high glucose-induced damaged podocytes. C1-Ten acts as a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) at the nephrin-PI3K binding site and renders PI3K for IRS-1, thereby activating mTORC1. Furthermore, C1-Ten causes podocyte hypertrophy and proteinuria by increasing mTORC1 activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate the relationship between nephrin dephosphorylation and the mTORC1 pathway, mediated by C1-Ten PTPase activity. We suggest that C1-Ten contributes to the pathogenesis of DKD by inducing podocyte hypertrophy under high glucose conditions.
Project description:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a serious and common complication of diabetes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as crucial vectors in cell-to-cell communication during the development of DKD. EVs may mediate intercellular communication between podocytes and proximal tubules. In this study, EVs were isolated from podocyte culture supernatants under high glucose (HG), normal glucose (NG), and iso-osmolality conditions, and then co-cultured with proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). MicroRNAs (miRNA) sequencing was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs of podocyte EVs and bioinformatics analysis was performed to explore their potential functions. The results showed that EVs secreted from HG-treated podocytes induced apoptosis of PTECs. Moreover, five differentially expressed miRNAs in response to HG condition were identified. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these five miRNAs are likely involved in biological processes and pathways related to the pathogenesis of DKD. Overall, these findings demonstrate the pro-apoptotic effects of EVs from HG-treated podocytes on PTECs and provide new insights into the pathologic mechanisms underlying DKD.