ACTL6A expression promotes invasion, metastasis and epithelial mesenchymal transition of colon cancer.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with advanced stage colon cancer. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in invasion and metastasis. Actin-like 6A (ACTL6A) is vital for embryogenesis and differentiation and is also critical for metastasis and EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma, as observed in our previous study. In the present study, we further explored the role of ACTL6A in colon cancer metastasis. METHODS:ACTL6A expression levels were analyzed in normal colon, colon adenoma and colon cancer specimens using public databases and tissue samples. ACTL6A expression and its association with clinicopathologic features of colon cancer patients were also analyzed. ACTL6A-overexpression and ACTL6A-knockdown colon cancer cells were used to perform cytological experiments to explore the potential biological function of ACTL6A in metastasis and EMT in colon cancer. RESULTS:The data from both the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and Oncomine databases showed that ACTL6A expression levels in colon adenoma and cancer were higher than those in normal colon samples. The ACTL6A expression level in fresh colon cancer specimens was also higher than that in the corresponding adjacent normal colon specimens. Patients with high ACTL6A expression directly correlated with advanced pT status, distant metastasis, poor differentiation and microvascular/perineural invasion. ACTL6A overexpression promoted migration and invasion of colon cancer cells, whereas ACTL6A knockdown exhibited the opposite effect in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrated that ACTL6A promoted EMT in colon cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that ACTL6A exhibits pro-tumor function and acts as an EMT activator in colon cancer. ACTL6A may serve as a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide because of metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is widely considered to be crucial to the invasion-metastasis cascade during cancer progression. Actin-like 6A (ACTL6A) is initially verified important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In this study, we find that ACTL6A plays an essential role in metastasis and EMT of HCC. ACTL6A expression is up-regulated in HCC cells and tissues. A high level of ACTL6A in HCCs is correlated with aggressive clinicopathological features and is an independent poor prognostic factor for overall and disease-free survival of HCC patients. Ectopic expression of ACTL6A markedly promotes HCC cells migration, invasion, as well as EMT in vitro and promotes tumor growth and metastasis in the mouse xenograft model. Opposite results are observed when ACTL6A is knocked down. Mechanistically, ACTL6A promotes metastasis and EMT through activating Notch signaling. ACTL6A knockdown has the equal blockage effect as the Notch signaling inhibitor, N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butylester, in HCC cells. Further studies indicate that ACTL6A might manipulate SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) expression and then activate Notch1 signaling.ACTL6A promotes metastasis and EMT by SOX2/Notch1 signaling, indicating a prognostic biomarker candidate and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.
Project description:Enhanced glycolysis has been identified as a hallmark of cancer. As a novel oncogene, ACTL6A is aberrantly amplified in several types of human cancers and has been shown to regulate tumor growth and progression. However, the roles of ACTL6A in the development of ovarian cancer and the regulation of cancer glucose metabolism are mostly unknown. Here we show that ACTL6A is overexpressed in ovarian cancers compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues, and that ACTL6A overexpression correlates with poor prognosis. Silencing of ACTL6A in vitro inhibits proliferation, clonal growth, and migration, and decreases glucose utilization, lactate production, and pyruvate levels of ovarian cancer cells. We found a positive correlation between ACTL6A and PGK1 expression in ovarian cancer tissues. Enforced ACTL6A expression increased PGK1 expression, whereas knockdown of ACTL6A had the opposite effect. Altered ACTL6A expression inhibits the tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells in vivo by downregulating PGK1. In addition, the expression of ACTL6A is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation via PI3K/AKT pathway. Importantly, ACTL6A regulates FSH-enhanced glycolysis in ovarian cancer. Taken together, our findings highlight the critical role of ACTL6A in ovarian cancer development and identify its contribution to glucose metabolism of cancer cells.
Project description:Ethnopharmacology relevance: Jiedu Sangen Decoction (JSD), an empirical prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), has been reported to inhibit invasion and metastasis of colon cancer in our previous study. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of JSD-triggered inhibition of invasion and metastasis in colon cancer. Methods: In vitro, AKT1 knockdown (si-AKT1) or overexpression (oe-AKT1) cells were successfully constructed both in SW480 and SW620 cell lines. Si-AKT1 and oe-AKT1 cells were then treated with or without JSD. Cell invasion, metastasis potential and expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT)-related and AKT1/GSK-3? proteins were then observed by wound healing, transwell, and western blot assays. In vivo, liver metastasis model mice were developed by inoculating SW480 cells. After JSD diet intervention, living fluorescence imaging and weight measurements were carried out to investigate JSD induced inhibition effects on liver metastasis of colon cancer. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assays were performed to observe tissue features and detect protein expression. Results: Invasion and metastasis potential, as well as EMT of colon cancer, can be markedly inhibited by JSD treatment or AKT1 knockdown, while enhanced by AKT1 overexpression. JSD-induced inhibition effects were significantly weakened when AKT1 was knocked down, while clearly enhanced when AKT1 was overexpressed. Additionally, JSD could lead to an increase in expression of E-cadherin, and a decrease in expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, p-AKT1, AKT1, p- GSK-3?, Snail, Slug, and Twist in colon cancer cells. Conclusion: JSD reverses EMT and inhibits invasion and metastasis of colon cancer through the AKT/GSK-3? signaling pathway.
Project description:Distant metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Although the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family is a crucial inhibitor of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human cancer, the role of miR-200 members in the pathogenesis of metastatic CRC has not been investigated.Fifty-four pairs of primary CRC and corresponding matched liver metastasis tissue specimens were analysed for expression and methylation status of the miR-200 family members. Functional analysis of miR-200c overexpression was investigated in CRC cell lines, and cells were analysed for proliferation, invasion and migration. Expression of several miR-200c target genes (ZEB1, ETS1 and FLT1) and EMT markers (E-cadherin and vimentin) in CRC cell lines and tissue specimens was validated.Liver metastasis tissues showed higher expression of miR-200c (primary CRC = 1.31 vs. liver metastasis = 1.59; p = 0.0014) and miR-141 (primary CRC = 0.14 vs. liver metastasis = 0.17; p = 0.0234) than did primary CRCs, which was significantly associated with hypomethylation of the promoter region of these miRNAs (primary CRC = 61.2% vs. liver metastasis = 46.7%; p < 0.0001). The invasive front in primary CRC tissues revealed low miR-200c expression by in situ hybridization analysis. Transfection of miR-200c precursors resulted in enhanced cell proliferation but reduced invasion and migration behaviours in CRC cell lines. Overexpression of miR-200c in CRC cell lines caused reduced expression of putative gene targets, and resulted in increased E-cadherin and reduced vimentin expression. The associations between miR-200c, target genes and EMT markers were validated in primary CRCs and matching liver metastasis tissues.miR-200c plays an important role in mediating EMT and metastatic behaviour in the colon. Its expression is epigenetically regulated, and miR-200c may serve as a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for patients with CRC.
Project description:Somatic progenitors suppress differentiation to maintain tissue self-renewal. While epigenetic regulators of DNA and histone modifications can support such repression, a role for nuclear actin-like proteins is unclear. In epidermis, ACTL6a/BAF53A was found enriched in progenitors and down-regulated during differentiation. Conditional ACTL6a deletion abolished epidermal self-renewal and induced terminal differentiation, whereas ectopically expressed ACTL6a suppressed differentiation. Among known activators of epidermal differentiation, KLF4 was found to control 227 genes also regulated by ACTL6a. ACTL6a loss upregulated KLF4 and its target genes, effects that were blocked by KLF4 depletion. Among multiple ACTL6a-interacting epigenetic regulators, the SWI/SNF complex was required for KLF4 activation and differentiation. In progenitors, ACTL6a loss led to enhanced SWI/SNF binding to the promoters of KLF4 and other differentiation genes. ACTL6a thus maintains the undifferentiated progenitor state, in part by suppressing SWI/SNF complex-enabled induction of KLF4. Gene expression analysis: To identify the gene set controlled by ACTL6a in human keratinocyte. Total RNA was isolated in biologic duplicate from cells with ACTL6a loss as compared to controls, and hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133 2.0 Plus arrays.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in various cancers, including colon cancer. Liver metastasis is the main cause of colon cancer-related death. However, the roles of lncRNAs in colon cancer liver metastasis are still largely unclear. In this study, we identified a novel lncRNA B3GALT5-AS1, which is reduced in colon cancer tissues and further reduced in colon cancer liver metastasis tissues. Reduced expression of B3GALT5-AS1 is associated with liver metastasis and poor outcome of colon cancer patients. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays revealed that B3GALT5-AS1 inhibited proliferation but promoted migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. Further investigation revealed that B3GALT5-AS1 directly bound to the promoter of miRNA-203, repressed miR-203 expression, upregulated miR-203 targets ZEB2 and SNAI2, and induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In vivo study revealed that B3GALT5-AS1 suppressed colon cancer liver metastasis via its binding on miR-203 promoter and the repression of miR-203. miR-203 is increased and epithelial phenotype is preferred in colon cancer liver metastasis tissues. Collectively, our data revealed the suppressive roles of B3GALT5-AS1/miR-203/EMT regulation axis in colon cancer liver metastasis. Our data suggested that the activating B3GALT5-AS1/miR-203/EMT axis may be potential therapeutic strategy for colon cancer liver metastasis.
Project description:Elevated expression of S100P has been detected in several tumor types and suggested to be responsible for tumor metastasis and invasion, but the upstream regulatory mechanisms promoting S100P overexpression are largely unknown. Here, we report that SOX9 was predicted and verified as a transcription factor of S100P. SOX9 and S100P were both overexpressed in colon cancer. SOX9 bound to and activated the S100P promoter. Knockdown of SOX9 expression down-regulated S100P expression, resulting in reduced invasiveness and metastasis of colon cancer cells by inhibiting the activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)/ERK signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further, decreased expression of SOX9 dramatically inhibited the tumor growth and peritoneal metastasis in nude mice. More importantly, S100P was found to be critical for SOX9-mediated metastasis and invasion in colon cancer. Knockdown of S100P in SOX9-overexpressing colon cancer cells dramatically suppressed metastasis and invasion both in vitro and in mice. We also detected SOX9 and S100P expression in a tissue microarray with 90 colon cancer cases to provide their clinical relevance. There was a strong correlation between SOX9 and S100P expression in colon carcinomas. In conclusion, our results suggest that SOX9 promotes tumor metastasis and invasion through regulation of S100P expression.
Project description:Somatic progenitors suppress differentiation to maintain tissue self-renewal. The mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates nucleosome packaging to control differentiation in embryonic and adult stem cells. Catalytic Brg1 and Brm subunits are required for these processes; however, the roles of SWI/SNF regulatory subunits are not fully understood. Here, we show that ACTL6a/BAF53A modulates the SWI/SNF complex to suppress differentiation in epidermis. Conditional loss of ACTL6a resulted in terminal differentiation, cell-cycle exit, and hypoplasia, whereas ectopic expression of ACTL6a promoted the progenitor state. A significant portion of genes regulated by ACTL6a were found to also be targets of KLF4, a known activator of epidermal differentiation. Mechanistically, we show that ACTL6a prevents SWI/SNF complex binding to promoters of KLF4 and other differentiation genes and that SWI/SNF catalytic subunits are required for full induction of KLF4 targets. Thus, ACTL6a controls the epidermal progenitor state by sequestering SWI/SNF to prevent activation of differentiation programs.
Project description:Previous studies have uncovered several transcription factors that determine biological alterations in tumor cells to execute the invasion-metastasis cascade, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We sought to investigate the role of miR-21 in colorectal cancer regulation. For this purpose, miR-21 expression was quantified in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines and clinical specimens. High expression was found in cell lines with EMT properties and in the vast majority of human tumor specimens. We demonstrate in a cell-specific manner the occupancy of MIR-21 gene promoter by AP-1 and ETS1 transcription factors and, for the first time, the pattern of histone posttranslational modifications necessary for miR-21 overexpression. We also show that Integrin-?4 (ITG?4), exclusively expressed in polarized epithelial cells, is a novel miR-21 target gene and plays a role in the regulation of EMT, since it is remarkably de-repressed after transient miR-21 silencing and downregulated after miR-21 overexpression. miR-21-dependent change of ITG?4 expression significantly affects cell migration properties of colon cancer cells. Finally, in a subgroup of tumor specimens, ROC curve analysis performed on quantitative PCR data sets for miR-21, ITG?4, and PDCD4 shows that the combination of high miR-21 with low ITG?4 and PDCD4 expression is able to predict presence of metastasis. In conclusion, miR-21 is a key player in oncogenic EMT, its overexpression is controlled by the cooperation of genetic and epigenetic alterations, and its levels, along with ITG?4 and PDCD4 expression, could be exploited as a prognostic tool for CRC metastasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PRR14 (Proline rich protein 14) was firstly identified for its ability to specify and localize heterochromatin during cell cycle progression. Aberrant expression of PRR14 is associated with the tumorigenesis and progression of lung cancer. However, its involvement in colon cancer remains unknown. Herein, we report the role of PRR14 in colon cancer. METHODS:Colon cancer tissue microarray was used to analyze and compare the expression of PRR14 among some clinicopathological characteristics of colon cancer. HCT116 and RKO cells were transfected with siRNA to downregulate PRR14 expression. The roles of PRR14 in proliferation, migration and invasion of the cell lines were determined using cell counting kit-8, colony formation assay, wound healing assay and transwell assays respectively. The expression of PRR14 was measured using immunofluorescence, qRT- PCR and western blot. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were determined by western blot. RESULTS:PRR14 was highly expressed in colon cancer tissues, and the expression level was correlated with tumor size, distant metastasis and Tumor Node Metastasis stages. Functional study revealed that downregulation of PRR14 inhibited colon cancer cells growth, migration and invasion. Furthermore, knockdown of PRR14 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, cell cycle-associated proteins expression and p-AKT level. CONCLUSION:PRR14 may promote the progression and metastasis of colon cancer, and may be a novel prognostic and therapeutic marker for the disease.