Development of cytoplasmic male sterile lines in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) and their evaluation across multiple environments.
ABSTRACT: A breeding program was initiated in 2009 to develop temperature stable CMS lines in chilli. 'CCA 4261' was used as a CMS donor. From the 11 testcross progeny screened, maintainer plants were identified from 'SL 461', 'SL 462' and 'SD 463'. After 6 backcrosses to the maintainer plants, 17 CMS lines in diverse genetic backgrounds were established. The CMS lines were evaluated for stability of sterility over four environments during 2014-15 and 2015-16. The environments E1 and E3 represented the low temperature regime, and E2 and E4 the high temperature regime. The mean square values due to the genotypes and the environments were significant at p = 0.01 for pollen sterility (%), pollen release score, fruit setting (%) and number of seed fruit-1. The G × E interaction effects were significant for pollen sterility (%), fruit setting and number of seed fruit-1 and non-significant for pollen release score. Ten lines namely 'CMS4611A', 'CMS4614A', 'CMS4622A', 'CMS4624A', 'CMS4626A', 'CMS46213A', 'CMS463D2A', 'CMS463D13A', 'CMS463D14A' and 'CMS463L5A' were completely male sterile across the environments. Under open pollination conditions, the fruit and the seed setting ability of these lines was normal. The CMS transferred into the diverse genetic backgrounds would broaden the CMS germplasm resources in chilli.
Project description:Though cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in peppers is associated with the orf507 gene, definitive and direct evidence that it directly causes male sterility is still lacking. In this study, differences in histochemical localization of anther cytochrome c oxidase between the pepper CMS line and maintainer line were observed mainly in the tapetal cells and tapetal membrane. Inducible and specific expression of the orf507 gene in the pepper maintainer line found that transformants were morphologically similar to untransformed and transformed control plants, but had shrunken anthers that showed little dehiscence and fewer pollen grains with lower germination rate and higher naturally damaged rate. These characters were different from those of CMS line which does not produce any pollen grains. Meanwhile a pollination test using transformants as the male parent set few fruit and there were few seeds in the limited number of fruits. At the tetrad stage, ablation of the tapetal cell induced by premature programmed cell death (PCD) occurred in the transformants and the microspores were distorted and degraded at the mononuclear stage. Stable transmission of induced semi-male sterility was confirmed by a test cross. In addition, expression of orf507 in the maintainer lines seemed to inhibit expression of atp6-2 to a certain extent, and lead to the increase of the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and the ATP hydrolysis of the mitochondrial F1Fo-ATP synthase. These results introduce the premature PCD caused by orf507 gene in tapetal cells and semi-male sterility, but not complete male sterility.
Project description:The interaction between plant mitochondria and the nucleus markedly influences stress responses and morphological features, including growth and development. An important example of this interaction is cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which results in plants producing non-functional pollen. In current research work, we compared the phenotypic differences in floral buds of different Brassica napus CMS (Polima, Ogura, Nsa) lines with their corresponding maintainer lines. By comparing anther developmental stages between CMS and maintainer lines, we identified that in the Nsa CMS line abnormality occurred at the tetrad stage of pollen development. Phytohormone assays demonstrated that IAA content decreased in sterile lines as compared to maintainer lines, while the total hormone content was increased two-fold in the S? stage compared with the S? stage. ABA content was higher in the S? stage and exhibited a two-fold decreasing trend in S? stage. Sterile lines however, had increased ABA content at both stages compared with the corresponding maintainer lines. Through transcriptome sequencing, we compared differentially expressed unigenes in sterile and maintainer lines at both (S? and S?) developmental stages. We also explored the co-expressed genes of the three sterile lines in the two stages and classified these genes by gene function. By analyzing transcriptome data and validating by RT-PCR, it was shown that some transcription factors (TFs) and hormone-related genes were weakly or not expressed in the sterile lines. This research work provides preliminary identification of the pollen abortion stage in Nsa CMS line. Our focus on genes specifically expressed in sterile lines may be useful to understand the regulation of CMS.
Project description:Male sterility (induced or natural) is a potential tool for commercial hybrid seed production in different crops. Despite numerous endeavors to understand the physiological, hereditary, and molecular cascade of events governing CMS in cotton, the exact biological process controlling sterility and fertility reconstruction remains obscure. During current study, RNA-Seq using Ion Torrent S5 platform is carried out to identify 'molecular portraits' in floral buds among the Cytoplasmic Genic Male Sterility (CGMS) line, its near-isogenic maintainer, and restorer lines. A total of 300, 438 and 455 genes were differentially expressed in CGMS, Maintainer, and Restorer lines respectively. The functional analysis using AgriGo revealed suppression in the pathways involved in biogenesis and metabolism of secondary metabolites which play an important role in pollen and anther maturation. Enrichment analysis showed dearth related to pollen and anther's development in sterile line, including anomalous expression of genes and transcription factors that have a role in the development of the reproductive organ, abnormal cytoskeleton formation, defects in cell wall formation. The current study found aberrant expression of DYT1, AMS and cytochrome P450 genes involved in tapetum formation, pollen development, pollen exine and anther cuticle formation associated to male sterility as well as fertility restoration of CGMS. In the current study, more numbers of DEGs were found on Chromosome D05 and A05 as compared to other chromosomes. Expression pattern analysis of fourteen randomly selected genes using qRT-PCR showed high concurrence with gene expression profile of RNA-Seq analysis accompanied by a strong correlation of 0.82. The present study provides an important support for future studies in identifying interaction between cyto-nuclear molecular portraits, to accelerate functional genomics and molecular breeding related to cytoplasmic male sterility studies in cotton.
Project description:Background:Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a complex phenomenon of plant sterility that can produce non-functional pollen. It is caused by mutation, rearrangement or recombination in the mitochondrial genome. So far, the systematic structural characteristics of the changes in the mitochondrial genome from the maintainer lines to the CMS lines have not been reported in tobacco. Results:The mitochondrial genomes of the flower buds from both CMS lines and maintainer lines of two Nicotiana tabacum cultivars (YY85, sYY85, ZY90, and sZY90) were sequenced using the PacBio and Illumina Hiseq technology, and several findings were produced by comparative analysis based on the de novo sequencing. (1) The genomes of the CMS lines were larger, and the different areas were mostly non-coding regions. (2) A large number of rearrangement regions were detected in the CMS lines, with many translocation regions. (3) Thirteen gene clusters were shared by the four mitochondrial genomes, among which two of the gene clusters, nad2-sdh3 and nad6-rps4, were far from each other in the CMS lines. (4) Thirty-three protein-coding genes were conserved in four mitochondrial genomes. However, nad3 was detected one additional copy in the maintainer lines, and sequence differences were revealed in the four candidate genes (atp6, cox2, nad2, and sdh3). Importantly, the evolutionary tree based on the four genes could be used to distinguish the CMS lines and the maintainer lines well for the sequenced mitochondrial genomes of the tobacco. (5) Sixteen CMS-specific open reading frames (ORFs) were found, three of which (orf91, orf115b, and orf100) were previously reported. (6) The differences in intensity of the protein-protein (PPI) interaction in ATP6 were further verified using the yeast two-hybrid analysis. Conclusion:Although the majority of the sequences, genes and gene clusters were shared by the mitochondrial genomes of the maintainer and the CMS lines in tobacco, extensive structural variations identified with comprehensive analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes, including rearrangement, gene order, the mitochondrial genome expansion and shrinkage events, might be related to CMS. Additionally, the candidate protein-coding genes and CMS-specific ORFs were closely associated with the CMS mechanism. Verification experiments of one of the candidate genes were performed, and the validity of our research results was supported.
Project description:Although C-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-C) is one of the most attractive tools for maize hybrid seed production, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains unclear. In order to identify the CMS-C sterility associated genes and/or pathways, the comparison of the transcriptomes between the CMS-C line C48-2 and its isonuclear-alloplasmic maintainer line N48-2 at pollen mother cell stage (PS), an early development stage of microspore, and mononuclear stage (MS), an abortive stage of microspore, were analyzed. 2,069 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two stages were detected and thought to be essential for the spikelet development of N48-2. 453 of the 2,069 DEGs were differentially expressed at MS stage between the two lines and thought to be participated in the process or the causes of microspore abortion. Among the 453 DEGs, 385 (84.99%) genes were down-regulated and only 68 (15.01%) genes were up-regulated in C48-2 at MS stage. The dramatic decreased expression of the four DEGs encoding MYB transcription factors and the DEGs involved in "polyamine metabolic process", "Cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis", "Fatty acid elongation", "Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" and "Proline metabolism" might play an important role in the sterility of C48-2. This study will point out some directions for detailed molecular analysis and better understanding of sterility of CMS-C in maize.
Project description:Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) contributes considerably to hybrid seed production in Brassica crops. To detect the key protein species and pathways involved in Ogura-CMS, we analysed the proteome of the cabbage Ogura-CMS line CMS01-20 and its corresponding maintainer line F01-20 using the isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) approach. In total, 162 differential abundance protein species (DAPs) were identified between the two lines, of which 92 were down-accumulated and 70 were up-accumulated in CMS01-20. For energy metabolism in the mitochondrion, eight DAPs involved in oxidative phosphorylation were down-accumulated in CMS01-20, whereas in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, five DAPs were up-accumulated, which may compensate for the decreased respiration capacity and may be associated with the elevated O2 consumption rate in Ogura-CMS plants. Other key protein species and pathways involved in pollen wall assembly and programmed cell death (PCD) were also identified as being male-sterility related. Transcriptome profiling revealed 3247 differentially expressed genes between the CMS line and the fertile line. In a conjoint analysis of the proteome and transcriptome data, 30 and 9 protein species/genes showed the same and opposite accumulation patterns, respectively. Nine noteworthy genes involved in sporopollenin synthesis, callose wall degeneration, and oxidative phosphorylation were presumably associated with the processes leading to male sterility, and their expression levels were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. This study will improve our understanding of the protein species involved in pollen development and the molecular mechanisms underlying Ogura-CMS.
Project description:Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that results in the production of dysfunctional pollen. Based on reliable reference gene-normalized real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data, examining gene expression profile can provide valuable information on the molecular mechanism of kenaf CMS. However, studies have not been conducted regarding selection of reference genes for normalizing RT-qPCR data in the CMS and maintainer lines of kenaf crop. Therefore, we studied 10 candidate reference genes (ACT3, ELF1A, G6PD, PEPKR1, TUB, TUA, CYP, GAPDH, H3, and 18S) to assess their expression stability at three stages of pollen development in CMS line 722A and maintainer line 722B of kenaf. Five computational statistical approaches (GeNorm, NormFinder, ?Ct, BestKeeper, and RefFinder) were used to evaluate the expression stability levels of these genes. According to RefFinder and GeNorm, the combination of TUB, CYP, and PEPKR1 was identified as an internal control for the accurate normalization across all sample set, which was further confirmed by validating the expression of HcPDIL5-2a. Furthermore, the combination of TUB, CYP, and PEPKR1 was used to differentiate the expression pattern of five mitochondria F1F0-ATPase subunit genes (atp1, atp4, atp6, atp8, and atp9) by RT-qPCR during pollen development in CMS line 722A and maintainer line 722B. We found that atp1, atp6, and atp9 exhibited significantly different expression patterns during pollen development in line 722A compared with line 722B. This is the first systematic study of reference genes selection for CMS and will provide useful information for future research on the gene expressions and molecular mechanisms underlying CMS in kenaf.
Project description:The hybrid pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) breeding technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is currently unique among legumes and displays major potential for yield increase. CMS is defined as a condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen grains. The novel chimeric open reading frames (ORFs) produced as a results of mitochondrial genome rearrangements are considered to be the main cause of CMS. To identify these CMS-related ORFs in pigeonpea, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of three C. cajan lines (the male-sterile line ICPA 2039, the maintainer line ICPB 2039, and the hybrid line ICPH 2433) and of the wild relative (Cajanus cajanifolius ICPW 29). A single, circular-mapping molecule of length 545.7 kb was assembled and annotated for the ICPA 2039 line. Sequence annotation predicted 51 genes, including 34 protein-coding and 17 RNA genes. Comparison of the mitochondrial genomes from different Cajanus genotypes identified 31 ORFs, which differ between lines within which CMS is present or absent. Among these chimeric ORFs, 13 were identified by comparison of the related male-sterile and maintainer lines. These ORFs display features that are known to trigger CMS in other plant species and to represent the most promising candidates for CMS-related mitochondrial rearrangements in pigeonpea.
Project description:Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) conferred by the cytoplasm from Gossypium harknessii (D2) is an important system for hybrid seed production in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum). The male sterility of CMS-D2 (i.e., A line) can be restored to fertility by a restorer (i.e., R line) carrying the restorer gene Rf1 transferred from the D2 nuclear genome. However, the molecular mechanisms of CMS-D2 and its restoration are poorly understood.In this study, a genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in flower buds among the isogenic fertile R line and sterile A line derived from a backcross population (BC8F1) and the recurrent parent, i.e., the maintainer (B line). A total of 1464 DEGs were identified among the three isogenic lines, and the Rf1-carrying Chr_D05 and its homeologous Chr_A05 had more DEGs than other chromosomes. The results of GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed differences in circadian rhythm between the fertile and sterile lines. Eleven DEGs were selected for validation using qRT-PCR, confirming the accuracy of the RNA-seq results.Through genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis, the differential expression profiles of CMS-D2 and its maintainer and restorer lines in Upland cotton were identified. Our results provide an important foundation for further studies into the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between the restorer gene Rf1 and the CMS-D2 cytoplasm.
Project description:Abnormal reactive oxygen species (ROS) may mediate cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). To observe the effect of ROS on soybean CMS, metabolite content and antioxidant enzyme activity in the flower buds between soybean N8855-derived CMS line and its maintainer were compared. Of the 612 metabolites identified, a total of 74 metabolites were significantly differentiated in flower buds between CMS line and its maintainer. The differential metabolites involved 32 differential flavonoids, 13 differential phenolamides, and 1 differential oxidized glutathione (GSSG) belonging to a non-enzymatic ROS scavenging system. We observed lower levels of flavonoids and antioxidant enzyme activities in flower buds of the CMS line than in its maintainer. Our results suggest that deficiencies of enzymatic and non-enzymatic ROS scavenging systems in soybean CMS line cannot eliminate ROS in anthers effectively, excessive accumulation of ROS triggered programmed cell death and ultimately resulted in pollen abortion of soybean CMS line.